Alzheimer’s disease is a neurological disorder that affects an individual’s memory, motor functions, behaviour, and thought process. It has been observed that the hippocampus is the first region that gets affected by Alzheimer’s. Hence, a study of the hippocampus region can identify genes responsible for the occurrence of the early stage of the disease. Most often, t-test and correlation are used to identify significant genes at the initial level. As the genes are differentially expressed, their classification power is generally high. These genes might appear significant, but their degree of specificity towards the disease might be low, leading to misleading interpretations. Similarly, there may be many false correlations between the genes that can affect the identification of relevant genes. This paper introduces a new framework to reduce the false correlations and find the potential biomarkers for the disease. The framework concerned uses the t-test, correlation, Gene Ontology (GO) categories, and machine learning techniques to find potential genes. The proposed framework detects Alzheimer-related genes and achieves more than 95% classification accuracy in every dataset considered. Some of the identified genes which are directly involved in Alzheimer are APP, GRIN2B, and APLP2. The proposed framework also identifies genes like ZNF621, RTF1, DCH1, and ERBB4, which may play an important role in Alzheimer’s. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) is also carried out to determine the major GO categories: down-regulated and up-regulated.
The present study investigates the impact of macroeconomic factors on food price inflation in India utilizing the monthly time series during January 2006–March 2019. The long-run relationship is confirmed among the variables using the ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration. The coefficients of long-run estimates show that per capita income, money supply, global food prices, and agricultural wages are positively and significantly impacted food price inflation in both the short and long-run. While food grain availability has a negative and significant impact on food price inflation in both the short-run and long run. Further, the short-run estimates revealed that real exchange rate positively impacts food price inflation. However, the coefficient is insignificant in the short-run. The Granger causality estimates show that a short-run bidirectional causality is confirmed among per capita income, the exchange rate, per capita net availability of food grain and food price inflation. Further, there is evidence of unidirectional causality running from global food prices to food price inflation. However, there is no causal relationship running from money supply and agricultural wages to food price inflation in the short-run.
Compared to conventional compression ignition (CI) engines, the analysis on the advanced low-temperature combustion technologies like reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engines produces better thermal efficiency with a simultaneous reduction in smoke and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. Instead of petroleum-based fuels, biofuels obtained from jatropha oil are anticipated to be employed in the current research. The purpose of this study is to examine the RCCI engine characteristics using Jatropha oil as the high reactivity and 1-pentanol as low reactivity fuel. To analyze the influence of operating parameters (i.e., fuel injection pressure (FIP) (400, 500, and 600 bar), an experiment was performed on a water-cooled single-cylinder engine (modified) for medium load and full load operations at a constant speed of 2000 rpm. The biodiesel (B20) obtained from jatropha oil is inducted into the chamber directly which is produced by transesterification. During the initial suction stroke, 1-pentanol (10%, 20%, and 30% energy share) is injected into the port. Tests were conducted at varying proportions to calculate the optimum proportion of biodiesel and 1-pentanol. The findings were analyzed and mapped under the same working conditions as diesel fuel, and a 2.5% gain (maximum) in thermal efficiency is observed while utilizing a 1-pentanol-biodiesel blend in contrast to diesel. Smoke opacity (7.82%) and NOx (3.42%) emissions were also lowered while employing the 1-pentanol-biodiesel blend. The ideal combination for minimizing emissions is the BD70P30 (70% biodiesel + 30% 1-pentanol) blend at maximum load with a FIP of 600 bar. According to this study, standard fossil fuel can be efficiently substituted with a 1-pentanol-biodiesel fuel combination in an RCCI engine.
Compared to conventional CI engines, the analysis on the advanced low-temperature combustion technologies like RCCI engines produces better thermal efficiency with a simultaneous reduction in smoke and oxides of nitrogen emissions. The purpose of this study is to examine the reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine characteristics using diesel as the high reactivity and 1-pentanol as low reactivity fuel. To analyse the influence of operating parameters (i.e., fuel injection pressure (FIP) (500, 750, and 1000 bar), an experiment was performed on a water-cooled single-cylinder engine (modified) for brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of 2 and 4 bar at a constant speed of 2000 rpm. During the initial suction stroke, 1-pentanol (10%, 20%, and 30% energy share) is injected into the port. Tests were conducted at varying proportions (energy share) to calculate the optimum proportion of diesel and 1-pentanol. The findings were analyzed and mapped under the same working conditions as diesel fuel, and a 2.5% gain (max) in thermal efficiency is observed while utilizing a 1-pentanol blend in contrast to diesel. Smoke opacity (7.82%) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) (3.42%) emissions were also lowered while employing the 1-pentanol/diesel blend. The ideal combination for minimizing emissions is the D70A30 blend at BMEP of 4 bar with a FIP of 1000 bar. According to this study, standard fossil fuel can be efficiently substituted with a 1-pentanol/diesel fuel combination in an RCCI engine.
Traditional recommendation algorithms can be used to develop techniques that can help people choose desirable items of interest. However, in many real-world applications, it is important to quantify each recommendation’s (un)certainty, in addition to a set of recommendations. The conformal recommender system uses the experience of a user to output a set of recommendations, each associated with a precise confidence value. A significance level ɛ provides a bound ɛ on the probability of making a wrong recommendation. The conformal framework uses a key concept called nonconformity measure that measures the strangeness of an item concerning other items. One of the significant design challenges of any conformal recommendation framework is the integration of nonconformity measures with the recommendation algorithm. This paper introduces an inductive variant of a conformal recommender system. We propose and analyze different nonconformity measures in the inductive setting. In addition, we provide theoretical proofs on the error bound and time complexity. Extensive empirical analysis on seven benchmark datasets reveals that the inductive variant substantially improves the performance in computation time while preserving the accuracy.
Incidence of cancer in the epididymis is very rare. It is proposed that proteins specific to this organ may contribute to this unique property. We previously demonstrated that siRNA–mediated knockdown of SPAG11A mRNA resulted in increased proliferation of epididymal epithelial cells, whereas overexpression of this gene caused reduced proliferation in immortalized cell lines. In this study, we evaluated the oncogenesis-related anatomical and transcriptome changes in the epididymis of SPAG11A–immunized rats challenged with a low dose of diethyl nitrosamine (DEN). DEN treatment or SPAG11A immunization alone did not cause any histopathological changes in the epididymis. Interestingly, indications of oncogenesis were observed in SPAG11A–immunized + DEN–treated rats. Using high throughput sequencing, we observed that 3549 transcripts that were differentially expressed in the caput epididymis of DEN only–treated rats displayed similar differential expression in the caput epididymis of SPAG11A–immunized rats, indicating that the microenvironment that contributes to oncogenesis sets in when SPAG11A protein is ablated. Differential expression of genes that are involved in 10 major cancer related pathways was also analyzed. Majority of the genes related to these pathways that were differentially expressed in the caput epididymis of DEN only–treated rats also showed similar pattern in the caput epididymis of SPAG11A–immunized rats. For the first time, results of our study demonstrate that ablation of SPAG11A by active immunization renders the epididymis susceptible to oncogenesis and that this protein may be one of the factors that contributes to the rarity of epididymal cancer.
Link to download the full paper: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1ezw83HXllFTU1(free for 50 days) This work investigated the microwave absorbing characteristics of Co-Y doped BaSr Hexaferrites prepared by the ceramic method. X-ray analysis confirmed M-phase at low doping level compositions x = 0.0, 0.2 and traces of spinel phase for x > 0.2, and micrographs depicted the increase in grain size with dopants. The electromagnetic parameters were measured by a vector network analyzer at 8.2–12.4 GHz frequency band. Doping reduced the geometrical thickness of composition and increased the bandwidth/microwave absorption. The obtained results depicted that x = 0.2 composition has reflection loss (RL) of −28.72 dB at 11.64 GHz and 1.5 mm thickness and −10 dB absorption bandwidth of 3.11 GHz at 1.6 mm. x = 0.8 revealed a bandwidth to thickness ratio of 3.6 at 10.55 GHz. The role of the secondary phase and morphology in absorption enhancement has been discussed. The obtained results have the potential of compositions for designing a lightweight and wide bandwidth electromagnetic noise suppressor/absorber.
A pink-coloured, salt- and alkali-tolerant planctomycetal strain (JC658T) with oval to pear-shaped, motile, aerobic, Gram-negative stained cells was isolated from a marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. Strain JC658T shares the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with Maioricimonas rarisocia Mal4T (< 89.2%) in the family Planctomycetaceae. The genomic analysis of the new strain indicates its biotechnological potential for the production of various industrially important enzymes, notably sulfatases and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), and also potential antimicrobial compounds. Several genes encoding restriction-modification (RM) and CRISPR-CAS systems are also present. NaCl is obligate for growth, of which strain JC658T can tolerate a concentration up to 6% (w/v). Optimum pH and temperature for growth are 8.0 (range 7.0–9.0) and 25 ºC (range 10–40 °C), respectively. The major respiratory quinone of strain JC658T is MK6. Major fatty acids are C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c, C18:0 and C16:0. Major polar lipids are phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl-dimethylethanolamine and phosphatidyl-monomethylethanolamine. The genomic size of strain JC658T is 7.36 Mb with a DNA G + C content of 54.6 mol%. Based on phylogenetic, genomic (ANI, AAI, POCP, dDDH), chemotaxonomic, physiological and biochemical characteristics, we conclude that strain JC658T belongs to a novel genus and constitutes a novel species within the family Planctomycetaceae, for which we propose the name Thalassoroseus pseudoceratinae gen. nov., sp. nov. The novel species is represented by the type strain JC658T (= KCTC 72881 T = NBRC 114371 T).
Skin cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that has a high mortality rate. Majorly, two types of skin cancer are the most common, which are melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Each year, approximately 55% of individuals die due to skin cancer. Early detection of skin cancer enhances the survival rate of individuals. There are various antioxidants like vitamins C, E, and A, zinc, and selenium present in various foods that can be helpful in preventing skin cancer. “Deep Learning” (DL) is an effective method to detect cancerous lesions. The study’s purpose is to comprehend the vital function performed by DL methods in supporting healthcare professionals in easier skin cancer detection using big data networks. The present research analyzes the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of “Convolutional Neural Network” (CNN) for DL in the early detection of skin cancer. A statistical analysis has been done with IBM SPSS software to understand how the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CNN change with the change in image number, augmentation number, epochs, and resolution of images. These factors have been considered independent variables, and accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity have been considered the dependent variables. After that, a linear regression analysis was carried out to obtain t and p values. The major scope of the study is to analyze the major role played by the DL models through the big data network in the medical industry. The researchers also found that when additional characteristics are present, image resolution does not have the potential to reduce image accuracy, specificity, or sensitivity. The scope of the study is more focused on using a DL-based big data network for supporting healthcare workers in detecting skin cancer at an early stage and the role of technology in supporting medical practitioners in rendering better treatment. Findings showed that the number of training images increases the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CNN architecture when various and effective augmentation techniques are used. Image resolution did not show any significant relationship with accuracy. The number of epochs positively affected the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity; however, more than 98% accuracy has been observed with epochs between 50 and 70.
Over the last decade, the Amazon region has been hit by some of the worst floods in history. The floods killed hundreds of people and damaged thousands of homes. However, in southeast Brazil, specifically in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, a highly significant decreasing rainfall trend has been discovered. The Sao Paulo State drought has had a significant impact on national electrical energy and agricultural productivity. In the last 100 years and 90 years, respectively, 2021 was a record flood in the Amazon region and a record drought in southeast Brazil. According to this study, recent floods in the Amazon and droughts in southeast Brazil, particularly extreme events in 2021, are strongly linked to the changing Hadley cell.
This paper aims to answer if there is a gender-based disparity in educational performances due to the children’s background characteristics. What are the factors that cause a gender gap and the extent to which these factors contribute to the gap in educational performance? The study attempts to approach these questions using the fourth round of Young Lives survey data for the older cohort. Based on the results of a simple linear regression model and gender-based means of the explanatory variables, we adopted the Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition technique. Regression results show gender, time to study, social background, mother’s education, expenditure on education and years of education significantly influence the children’s mathematics performance and ceteris paribus. The majority of the performance difference, using the Oaxaca–Blinder technique, was explained by the differences in the variation of the mean outcome of male and female children, applied to the impact of female children. The entirety of the coefficient effect is explained by the body mass index and years of schooling a child has received. JEL Codes: I21, I22, I24, I25, I26, I29
Brand passion is a consumer construct that has garnered a lot of attention in the recent past. The literature on brand passion is divided by two broad conceptualizations, which have resulted in nomological inconsistency. The present research tackles this conceptual disagreement by identifying and contrasting the two broad conceptualizations of brand passion. In this vein, the current study compares the impact of brand passion on consumer well-being, positive word of mouth, and social media following. The study also examines the role of “duration of use” as a moderator on the proposed relationships. A total of 336 responses were analyzed using structural equation modeling, and the findings indicate that interpersonal conceptualization is a better conceptualization. The study also elucidates implications and future research directions.
In higher plants, alternative oxidase (AOX) participates in a cyanide resistant and non-proton motive electron transport pathway of mitochondria, diverging from the ubiquinone pool. The physiological significance of AOX in biotic/abiotic stress tolerance is well-documented. However, its structural and biophysical properties are poorly understood as its crystal structure is not yet revealed in plants. Also, most of the AOX purification processes resulted in a low yield/inactive/unstable form of native AOX protein. The present study aims to characterize the purified rAtAOX1A protein and its interaction with inhibitors, such as salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and n-propyl gallate (n-PG), as well as pyruvate (activator), using biophysical/in silico studies. The rAtAOX1A expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells was functionally characterized by monitoring the respiratory and growth sensitivity of E. coli/pAtAOX1A and E. coli/pET28a to classical mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) inhibitors. The rAtAOX1A, which is purified through affinity chromatography and confirmed by western blotting and MALDI-TOF-TOF studies, showed an oxygen uptake activity of 3.86 µmol min−1 mg−1 protein, which is acceptable in non-thermogenic plants. Circular dichroism (CD) studies of purified rAtAOX1A revealed that >50% of the protein content was α-helical and retained its helical absorbance signal (ellipticity) at a wide range of temperature and pH conditions. Further, interaction with SHAM, n-PG, or pyruvate caused significant changes in its secondary structural elements while retaining its ellipticity. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies revealed that both SHAM and n-PG bind reversibly to rAtAOX1A, while docking studies revealed that they bind to the same hydrophobic groove (Met191, Val192, Met195, Leu196, Phe251, and Phe255), to which Duroquinone (DQ) bind in the AtAOX1A. In contrast, pyruvate binds to a pocket consisting of Cys II (Arg174, Tyr175, Gly176, Cys177, Val232, Ala233, Asn294, and Leu313). Further, the mutational docking studies suggest that (i) the Met195 and Phe255 of AtAOX1A are the potential candidates to bind the inhibitor. Hence, this binding pocket could be a ‘potential gateway’ for the oxidation-reduction process in AtAOX1A, and (ii) Arg174, Gly176, and Cys177 play an important role in binding to the organic acids like pyruvate.
Peninsular India hosts the initial rain-down of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) after which winds travel further east inwards into Asia. Stalagmite oxygen isotope composition from this region, such as those from Belum Cave, preserve the vital signals of the past ISM variability. These archives experience a single wet season with a single dominant moisture source annually. Here we present high-resolution δ ¹⁸ O, δ ¹³ C and trace element (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Mn/Ca) time series from a Belum Cave stalagmite spanning glacial MIS-6 (from ~ 183 to ~ 175 kyr) and interglacial substages MIS-5c-5a (~ 104 kyr to ~ 82 kyr). With most paleomonsoon reconstructions reporting coherent evolution of northern hemisphere summer insolation and ISM variability on orbital timescale, we focus on understanding the mechanisms behind millennial scale variability. Finding that the two are decoupled over millennial timescales, we address the role of the Southern Hemisphere processes in modulating monsoon strength as a part of the Hadley circulation. We identify several strong and weak episodes of ISM intensity during 104–82 kyr. Some of the weak episodes correspond to warming in the southern hemisphere associated with weak cross-equatorial winds. We show that during the MIS-5 substages, ISM strength gradually declined with millennial scale variability linked to Southern Hemisphere temperature changes which in turn modulate the strength of the Mascarene High.
Synuclein aggregation in neuronal cells is the primary underlying cause of synucleinopathies. Changes in gene expression patterns, structural modifications, and altered interactions with other cellular proteins often trigger aggregation of α-synuclein, which accumulates as oligomers or fibrils in Lewy bodies. Although fibrillar forms of α-synuclein are primarily considered pathological, recent studies have revealed that even the intermediate states of aggregates are neurotoxic, complicating the development of therapeutic interventions. Autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways play a significant role in maintaining the soluble levels of α-synuclein inside cells; however, the heterogeneous nature of the aggregates presents a significant bottleneck to its degradation by these cellular pathways. With studies focused on identifying the proteins that modulate synuclein aggregation and clearance, detailed mechanistic insights are emerging about the individual and synergistic effects of these degradation pathways in regulating soluble α-synuclein levels. In this article, we discuss the impact of α-synuclein aggregation on autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways and the therapeutic strategies that target various aspects of synuclein aggregation or degradation via these pathways. Additionally, we also highlight the natural and synthetic compounds that have shown promise in alleviating the cellular damage caused due to synuclein aggregation.
We experimentally demonstrate the integration of silicon-vacancy centers in nanodiamonds (SiV-NDs) with an optical nanofiber (ONF). We grow SiV-NDs on seed NDs dispersed on a quartz substrate using a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method. First, we search and characterize SiV-NDs on a quartz substrate using an inverted confocal microscope and an atomic force microscope (AFM). Subsequently, we pick up SiV-NDs from the quartz substrate and deposit them on the surface of a free-standing ONF using the AFM tip. The fluorescence emission spectrum, photon count rate, and intensity correlations for SiV-NDs are systematically measured.
The reactivity of o-propargyl alcohol benzaldehydes has been increased tremendously toward Brønsted acid-catalyzed intramolecular electrophile intercepted Meyer-Schuster (M-S) rearrangement under acetalization conditions using trimethyl orthoformate (TMOF). The in situ formed acetal transfers the methoxy group intramolecularly to generate the M-S intermediate in even less reactive substrates, and the formed oxocarbenium ion makes the carbonyl more electrophilic for an effective intramolecular trapping of the M-S intermediate to furnish the indanone derivatives.
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