University of Gujrat
  • Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan
Recent publications
This article aims to describe the simulation studies of the hepatitis B virus non-linear system using supervised neural networks procedures supported by Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation methodology. The proposed strategy has five distinct quantities: susceptible X(t), symptomatic infections Y(t), chronic infections W(t), recovered population R(t), and a population that has received vaccinations Z(t). The reference data set for all three distinct cases has been obtained utilizing the ND-Solver and Adams method in Mathematica software. The outcomes have been validated with performance plots for all cases. To check the accuracy and effectiveness of proposed methodology mean square error has are presented. State transition, and regression plots are illustrated to elaborated the testing, training, and validation methodology. Additionally, absolute errors for different components of hepatitis B virus model are demonstrated to depict the error occurring during distinct cases. Whereas the data assigned to training is 81%, and 9% for each testing and validation. The mean square error for all three cases is 10−12 this show the accuracy and correctness of proposed methodology.
  • Arslan Masood
    Arslan Masood
  • Tahir Iqbal
    Tahir Iqbal
  • Maria Ashraf
    Maria Ashraf
  • [...]
  • Ahmed M. Galal
    Ahmed M. Galal
The quest for fetching an excellent visible light driven photocatalyst is rapidly growing. In this research work, a simple, facile and cost-effective sol–gel method has been described to fabricate (1, 2, 3 and 4 At%) cadmium (Cd)-doped ZnO nanoparticles. Effect of various concentration of Cd on structural, optical and morphological properties of ZnO has been intensively investigated using characterization techniques such as SEM, XRD, EDX, PL, BET and UV–VIS. Photocatalytic activity of prepared nanomaterials has been evaluated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine-B (RhB) dye in the presence of visible light. Quite interestingly, the best degradation efficiency of 91% for MB and 89% for RhB was exhibited by 3% Cd-doped ZnO sample which attributes to the lowering of bandgap energy due to incorporation of dopant element. Increasing the doping concentration beyond this level has detrimental effects in dye degradation owing to the Burstein-Moss effect. Additionally, optimization of various parameters such as pH, dye concentration and catalyst loading were thoroughly investigated. RF module of COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3a has been used to corelate the theoretical results with experimental findings.
Achieving the sustainable development goals (SDG) agenda, proposed by the United Nations by 2030, has become the main concern around the globe. The continuing ecological crises and energy sustainability issues can only be dealt with using sustainable solutions such as green finance. Green finance has become a pioneer in economic green transformation resulting in the collective development of both the economy and the environment. Therefore, this study aims to examine the influence of green finance on the achievement of the five major sustainable development goals in the context of the economy of Pakistan. The renewable energy scheme proposed by the State Bank of Pakistan in 2016 serves as a basis for this study. We innovate our research by studying the impact of green finance on five SDGs simultaneously. The association between the variables is checked using random effect modeling. The findings reveal that green finance supports SDG 3, 12, and 13 while having little effect on SDG 1 and SDG 2. Moreover, green finance is a suitable reform for the sustainable development of the economy and the environment. The study has robust policy implications for Pakistan.
Recently, there has been considerable interest in a new family of transition metal carbides, carbonitrides, and nitrides referred to as MXenes (Ti3C2Tx) due to the variety of their elemental compositions and surface terminations that exhibit many fascinating physical and chemical properties. As a result of their easy formability, MXenes may be combined with other materials, such as polymers, oxides, and carbon nanotubes, which can be used to tune their properties for various applications. As is widely known, MXenes and MXene-based composites have gained considerable prominence as electrode materials in the energy storage field. In addition to their high conductivity, reducibility, and biocompatibility, they have also demonstrated outstanding potential for applications related to the environment, including electro/photocatalytic water splitting, photocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction, water purification, and sensors. This review discusses MXene-based composite used in anode materials, while the electrochemical performance of MXene-based anodes for Li-based batteries (LiBs) is discussed in addition to key findings, operating processes, and factors influencing electrochemical performance.
The perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation is used frequently to simulate ultra-short pulse lasers, nonlinear optics, optical communication systems, plasmas and other areas of mathematical physics and engineering. The main objective of this study is two fold. (1) to obtain the different kinds of soliton solutions of perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation with kerr law nonlinearity which are absent in the literature, (2) the implementation of improved F-expansion method for such studied model with Modulation Instability. As far as our best knowledge, this have never been studied before in this way. To endorse the physical compatibility of the results, the 2D, 3D, contour, and density plots have been delineated using appropriate parametric values. The evaluated results suggested that the technique employed in this research to recover inclusive and standard solutions is approachable, efficient, and speedier in computing and can be considered a handy tool in solving more complex phenomena that arise in engineering, mathematical physics and optical fiber.
Internal model principle based repetitive control is widely used in tracking sinusoidal periodic signals of known fixed frequency. The conventional repetitive control (CRC) offers a promising and accurate current control strategy to regulate the sinusoidal input currents at the grid side of shunt active power filters (SAPF) in the presence of fixed reference frequency of the system. However, in practical applications, the frequency of grid varies in limits (though very small) specified by the grid codes. This grid frequency variation causes degradation in the performance of the CRC controller & thus there is a need for a unified repetitive control algorithm to operate satisfactorily under fixed and variable frequency conditions. Lagrange interpolation based fractional order repetitive control provides frequency adaptive capability but it suffers from the online tuning and parameters updating issues. In this work, a Taylor Series expansion based advanced repetitive control (ARC) scheme for shunt active power filters is proposed, to deal with the issue of variable frequency arising in power systems due to a multitude of reasons such as the mismatch between source and load powers. The analysis and synthesis of the ARC system are also presented. The proposed ARC scheme offers optimal performance and thus maintains the grid currents sinusoidal with acceptable and very low total harmonic distortion (THD), in the presence of non-linear loads and variable frequency of the system. The proposed ARC has been applied to a three-phase SAPF. Simulation and experimental results are provided to demonstrate validity of the proposed ARC.
The current study deals with the reduced gravity and radiation effects on the magnetohydrodynamic natural convection past a solid sphere. The studied configuration is modeled using coupled and nonlinear partial differential equations. The obtained model is transformed to dimensinless form using suitable scaling variables. The finite difference method is adopted to solve the governing equation and determine the velocity and temperature profiles in addition to the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number. Furthermore, graphic and tabular presentations of the results are made. The verification of the numerical model is performed by comparing with results presented in the literature and a good concordance is encountered. The main objective of this investigation is to study the effect of the buoyancy force caused by the density variation on natural convective heat transfer past a solid sphere. The results show that the velocity increases with the reduced gravity parameter and solar radiation but decreases with Prandtl number and magnetic field parameter. It is also found that the temperature increases the with solar radiation and magnetic field but decreases with the reduced gravity parameter and Prandtl number
The current study highlights the occurrence, spatial distribution, and risk assessment of 16 endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) including their transformation products (TPs) in the wastewater and surface water of Lahore, Pakistan, using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The parent EDCs include bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), 4-n-octylphenol (4n-OP), and 4-n-nonylphenol (4n-NP). The TPs include two TPs each of BPA, TCC, and estrogens along with a TP of TCS. Most EDCs showed 100% detection frequency in the wastewater with highest median concentration of 1310 ng/L for E3. In the surface water, the highest median concentration was, however, observed for BPA (54.6 ng/L). Spatial variations in terms of sum of concentration due to all EDCs and their TPs were observed at different sampling points which suggest contamination due to industrial waste from nearby industrial estate. Risk evaluation in terms of risk quotient (RQ) and estradiol equivalent factor (EEQ) showed that most of EDCs and their TPs could pose high risk and estrogenicity to the surrounding environment. From the results of the current study, it is observed that the environment of Pakistan is deteriorating and is potential risk for endocrine disruption. It is, therefore, recommended to take stringent measures to make it sustainable for current as well as for future generations.
In present times modern electronic devices often come across thermal difficulties as an outcome of excessive heat production or reduction in surface area for heat exclusion. The current study is aimed to inspect the role of iron (III) oxide in heat transfer enhancement over the rotating disk in an axisymmetric flow. Water is utilized as base fluid conveying nano-particle over the revolving axisymmetric flow mechanism. Additionally, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is taken into consideration to design and compute the present problem. For our convenience, two-dimensional axisymmetric flow configurations are considered to illustrate the different flow profiles. For radial, axial, and tangential velocity profiles, the magnitude of the velocity, streamlines, and surface graphs are evaluated with the similarity solution in the computational fluid dynamics module. The solution of dimensionless equations and the outcomes of direct simulations in the CFD module show a comparable solution of the velocity profile. It is observed that with an increment in nanoparticle volumetric concentration the radial velocity decline where a tangential motion of flow enhances. Streamlines stretch around the circular surface with the passage of time. The high magnetization force 0≤m1≤6\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$0 \le {{\mathrm{m}}_{1}}\le 6$$\end{document} resist the free motion of the nanofluid around the rotating disk. Such research has never been done, to the best of the researchers’ knowledge. The outcomes of this numerical analysis could be used for the design, control, and optimization of numerous thermal engineering systems, as described above, due to the intricate physics of nanofluid under the influences of magnetic field and the inclusion of complex geometry. Ferrofluids are metallic nanoparticle colloidal solutions. These kinds of fluids do not exist in nature. Depending on their purpose, ferrofluids are produced using a variety of processes. One of the most essential characteristics of ferrofluids is that they operate in a zero-gravity environment. Ferrofluids have a wide range of uses in engineering and medicine. Ferrofluids have several uses, including heat control loudspeakers and frictionless sealing. In the sphere of medicine, however, ferrofluid is employed in the treatment of cancer via magneto hyperthermia.
Urban area expansion and the increase in the built-up area are major threats to agriculture, the natural environment, and ecology throughout the world. The population of the city of Larkana is rapidly increasing due to natural growth and uncontrolled migration from the surrounding areas, which have resulted in a haphazard increase in the built-up area over the fertile agricultural land and affected the city's thermal environment. This research aims to evaluate the impacts of urban area expansion on agricultural land and the thermal environment of the study area by assessing the change in land use/ land cover (LULC) from 1990 to 2020 and land surface temperature (LST). For this purpose, the Random Forest (RF) algorithm was applied, and LST was calculated in Google Earth Engine (GEE) using Landsat imageries for the years 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020. For the RF classifier algorithm, 3500 reference random points were generated for each year, which were then randomly divided into two datasets, i.e., a training sample consisting of 70% of the points and a validation dataset (30% of the points). After LULC classification, the results were validated for 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020, and the accuracy was 88.3%, 89%, 90.01%, and 90.8%, respectively. The study results showed that the built-up area increased from 12.31 to 43.83 km 2 while the barren land in the study region decreased from 56.51 km 2 to 11.62 km 2. The agricultural land was 66.66 km 2 in 1990, expanded to 101.38 km 2 , and then decreased to 79.49 km 2 in 2020. The results also revealed that most of the urban expansion in the last decade (2010-2020) took place on agricultural land. The urban thermal environment also showed a gradual increase in surface temperatur,e as recorded by the LST results. The LST results revealed that the maximum LST was 33.4°C in 1990, which increased to 36.1°C in 2020, and similarly, the minimum LST was 25.1°C, which also increased to 26.6°C in 2020. This study provides useful results for stakeholders to devise better policies and plans to control further haphazard urban expansion on fertile agricultural land in the study area. KEYWORDS urban expansion, land use land cover change, thermal environment, agriculture, Larkana
This article intends to examine academic library resources and research support services for English teachers at higher education institutions. A sample of 318 English teachers from the public sector universities has been selected through the proportionate random sampling technique. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted to collect data using an attitudinal scale. The study findings of multiple regression confirm the prediction of research support services. It is concluded that academic library resources have favorable effects on research support services for English teachers at the public sector universities of the Punjab province.
Cd-doped BiFeO3 powders, with varying doping concentrations of Cd (Bi(1−x)CdxFeO3, where x = 0–0.3), were prepared through a facile chemical co-precipitation method and calcinated at 550 °C in the air. The BiFeO3 has a rhombohedral crystal structure, which changes to an orthorhombic crystal structure with an increase in Cd doping. The presence of dopant has also altered the bandgap of material suppressing it from 2.95 eV to 2.51 eV, improving the visible light absorption. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) confirmed stronger ferromagnetic character for Bi0.7Cd0.3FeO3 with a coercivity of 250 Oe, and remnant magnetization was 0.15 emu/g, which is because of the misalignment of the two sublattices of perovskite structure after doping resulting in the imbalanced magnetic moment giving rise to net nonzero magnetic behavior. The particle size reduction is observed with an increase in the doping concentration of Cd.
The term “Internet of Things” (IoT) refers to an architecture in which digital objects have identification, sensing, connectivity, and processing capabilities that allow them to connect with other devices as well as perform tasks on the internet. There are many applications of IoT, among which Vehicle Delay-Tolerant Networks (VDTNs) are one of the best known. This new generation of vehicular networks can be applied in a variety of circumstances. For example, it can be employed to make data connections possible in densely crowded cities and as well as in remote and sparsely populated places with weak connectivity. These environments are characterized by frequent network partitioning, inconsistent connectivity, considerable propagation delays, high error rates, and short contact duration. Most of these behaviours are due to node selfishness. This task is crucial because selfish behaviour by nodes may make other nodes hesitant to cooperate. Selfish nodes have significant negative impacts on the effectiveness and efficiency of the network as a whole. To solve these issues, cooperative strategies that motivate nodes to share their resources must be considered. Important contributions to cooperation for vehicular networks are presented in this article, which investigates the effects of six different cooperative techniques on network performance and makes corresponding suggestions for their use in IoT-based VDTNs. Across all simulations, our results show that the studied strategies are all able to increase overall network performance by improving throughput and packet delivery probability, which in turn reduces average packet delivery time, energy consumption, overhead ratio, and the number of packets dropped.
By applying torque, turning effects are produced on the flow of the fluids flowing between the two concentric cylinders, which have different radii and are moving in the same or opposite directions with similar or variable velocities. This kind of flow is called torsional flow. In this article, different cases are taken into account to study the variation in heat transfer for the flow of nanofluid between the two concentric cylinders. The influence of magnetic fields and nonlinear thermal radiation is also examined. After non-dimensionalizing the formulated equations, the bvp4c (boundary value problem of 4th order) MATLAB function is utilized to determine the impact of different parameters on flow rate and fluid temperature. The graphical interpretation helps to show the behavior of emerging parameters.
Current research aims to identify a framework to enhance the performance of employees in government sector healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic. Perceived organizational support was identified to enhance employees' performance through the intervention of a psychological process containing 3 states, that is, psychological safety, felt obligation and organization-based self-esteem. Job performance is considered as planned behavior, and psychological links are developed on the basis of the theory of planned behavior. This study is quantitative and used an empirical survey. Respondents of the study were nursing staff of government hospitals in Pakistan. The data were collected during the first wave of COVID-19 in Pakistan through online distributed questionnaires, and the data were analyzed using Smart PLS. Results show that perceived organizational support positively affects job performance during the COVID-19 crisis, and all the psychological states mediate the relationship. The study results are helpful for decision-makers of public sector organizations dealing with the most common problem of performance reduction during COVID-19. Results are also helpful for policymakers to address reduced performance in most government hospitals. Future research should consider antecedents of the perception of organizational support in the context of government and private hospitals.
Delonix regia (common name: Flame tree) pods, an inexpensive lignocellulosic waste matrix, were successfully used to produce value-added bioethanol. Initially, the potentiality of D. regia pods as a lignocellulosic biomass was assessed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which revealed the presence of several functional groups belonging to cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, implying that D. regia pods could serve as an excellent lignocellulosic biomass. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Central Composite Design (CCD) were used to optimize pretreatment conditions of incubation time (10–70 min), H2SO4 concentration (0.5–3%), amount of substrate (0.02–0.22 g), and temperature (45–100 °C). Then, RSM-suggested 30 trials of pretreatment conditions experimented in the laboratory, and a trial using 0.16 g substrate, 3% H2SO4, 70 min incubation at 90 °C, yielded the highest amount of glucose (0.296 mg·mL−1), and xylose (0.477 mg·mL−1). Subsequently, the same trial conditions were chosen in the downstream process, and pretreated D. regia pods were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with 5 mL of indigenously produced cellulase enzyme (74 filter per unit [FPU]) at 50 °C for 72 h to augment the yield of fermentable sugars, yielding up to 55.57 mg·mL−1 of glucose. Finally, the released sugars were fermented to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yielding a maximum of 7.771% ethanol after 72 h of incubation at 30 °C. Conclusively, this study entails the successful valorization of D. regia pods for bioethanol production.
Bis-acyl-thiourea derivatives, namely N,N’-(((4-nitro-1,2-phenylene)bis(azanediyl)) bis(carbonothioyl))bis(2,4-dichlorobenzamide) (UP-1), N,N’-(((4-nitro-1,2-phenylene) bis(azanediyl))bis(carbonothioyl))diheptanamide (UP-2), and N,N’-(((4-nitro-1,2-phenylene)bis(azanediyl))bis(carbonothioyl))dibutannamide (UP-3), were synthesized in two steps. The structural characterization of the derivatives was carried out by FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR, and then their DNA binding, anti-urease, and anticancer activities were explored. Both theoretical and experimental results, as obtained by density functional theory, molecular docking, UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence (Flu-)spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and viscometry, pointed towards compounds’ interactions with DNA. However, the values of binding constant (Kb), binding site size (n), and negative Gibbs free energy change (ΔG) (as evaluated by docking, UV-vis, Flu-, and CV) indicated that all the derivatives exhibited binding interactions with the DNA in the order UP-3 > UP-2 > UP-1. The experimental findings from spectral and electrochemical analysis complemented each other and supported the theoretical analysis. The lower diffusion coefficient (Do) values, as obtained from CV responses of each compound after DNA addition at various scan rates, further confirmed the formation of a bulky compound–DNA complex that caused slow diffusion. The mixed binding mode of interaction as seen in docking was further verified by changes in DNA viscosity with varying compound concentrations. All compounds showed strong anti-urease activity, whereas UP-1 was found to have comparatively better inhibitory efficiency, with an IC50 value of 1.55 ± 0.0288 µM. The dose-dependent cytotoxicity of the synthesized derivatives against glioblastoma MG-U87 cells (a human brain cancer cell line) followed by HEK-293 cells (a normal human embryonic kidney cell line) indicated that UP-1 and UP-3 have greater cytotoxicity against both cancerous and healthy cell lines at 400 µM. However, dose-dependent responses of UP-2 showed cytotoxicity against cancerous cells, while it showed no cytotoxicity on the healthy cell line at a low concentration range of 40–120 µM.
In this research work, pure and lanthanum (La)-doped copper oxide nanoparticle (CuO-NPs) are synthesized using a sol-gel technique which is quite simple, efficient and cost-effective as well. Various characterization techniques have been employed to investigate the effect of rare earth dopant (La) on morphological, compositional, structural, optical, and vibrational properties of fabricated nanomaterial which is tested as potential photo catalyst. Quite interestingly, the bandgap was reduced by the introduction of dopant element. Additionally, the average particle size was also reduced for doped samples. Degradation of methylene blue (MB) was investigated under UV visible light for 100 min in the presence of synthesized photocatalysts. The best efficiency of 80% is achieved by 2% La-doped sample attributed to Burstein-Moss effect. Experimental results are well consistent with the results of the simulation which were realized while using finite element analysis (FEA) technique in RF module (version 5.3a) of COMSOL Multiphysics. This simulation technique helped to understand the insight about the various aspect of the photocatalytic process reported here. Graphical abstract
Software reverse engineering and reengineering are becoming common in the field of games and website development. Simulation and modeling play an important role in understanding the flow of the overall system. Business process modeling notation (BPMN) is used to show the overall architecture of the business process. Simulated business process re-engineering is essential for implementing change or creating new processes. The simulation model explains whether a change will be successful or not prior to adopting any new business processes or other changes. Some available tools help convert the BPMN to a simulating BPMN model but converting the discrete event simulation model build in commercial off the shelf simulation packages like Simul8 to the BPMN to help generate business process simulation to BPMN is also a key challenge. This framework is introduced to convert the simulation model to BPMN using the reverse engineering concept to understand how the converting tools convert the BPMN model to the simulation model. After understanding this process, the concept of reengineering will be used to build a BPMN from the simulation model. The framework is divided into three main parts model translation, model mapping, and model formation. For model building, two simulation tools Simul8 and BPSimulator are used. It is then tested on two case studies bank and product manufacturing. The output shows the BPMN model is generated from the simulation model within less time on a single click saving time and resources for developing BPMN model first and then making simulation model for testing purpose.
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5,207 members
muhammad isa Khan
  • Department of Physics
M. suleman Tahir
  • Department of Chemical Engineering
Muhammad Asam Raza
  • Department of Chemistry
Noman Mazher
  • Department of Information Technology
Hafiz Hayat Campus, 50700, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan
Head of institution
Prof. Dr. Shabbar Atiq
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