Health indicators are indices that act as intermediary links between raw SHM data and prognostic models. An efficient HI should satisfy prognostic requirements such as monotonicity, trendability, and prognosability in such a way that it can be effectively used as an input in a prognostic model for remaining useful life estimation. However, discovering or designing a suitable HI for composite structures is a challenging task due to the inherent complexity of the evolution of damage events in such materials. Previous research has shown that data-driven models are efficient for accomplishing this goal. Large labeled datasets, however, are normally required, and the SHM data can only be labeled, respecting prognostic requirements, after a series of nominally identical structures are tested to failure. In this paper, a semi-supervised learning approach based on implicitly imposing prognostic criteria is adopted to design a novel HI suitable. To this end, single-stiffener composite panels were subjected to compression-compression fatigue loading and monitored using acoustic emission (AE). The AE data after signal processing and feature extraction were fused using a multi-layer LSTM neural network with criteria-based hypothetical targets to generate an intelligent HI. The results confirm the performance of the proposed scenario according to the prognostic criteria.
Background The popularity of consumer-wearable activity trackers has led the scientific community to conduct an increasing number of intervention studies integrating them to promote physical activity (PA) and to reduce sedentary behavior (SB) levels among school-aged children. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the effects of consumer-wearable activity tracker-based programs on daily objectively measured PA and SB among apparently healthy school-aged children, as well as to compare the influence of participants’ and programs’ characteristics. Methods Eligibility criteria were: (1) participants: apparently healthy school-aged children (< 18 years old); (2) intervention: aimed to promote PA and/or to reduce SB incorporating consumer-wearable activity trackers; (3) comparator: baseline measurements and/or a control/traditional group; (4) outcomes: objectively measured daily PA and/or SB levels; (5) study design: pre-experimental, quasi-experimental, and true-experimental trials. Relevant studies were searched from eight databases up to December 2020, as well as from four alternative modes of searching. Based on the Cochrane Risk-of-bias tool 2, the risk of bias was assessed following four domains: (1) randomization process; (2) missing outcome data; (3) measurement of the outcomes; and (4) selection of the reported results. Based on a comprehensive systematic review, meta-analyses of the Cohen’s standardized mean difference (d) and 95% confidence interval (CI) with a random-effects model were conducted to estimate the overall effects, as well as the within- and between-study subgroups analyses effects, of the programs on daily total steps, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), total PA and SB. Results Forty-four publications (i.e., 45 studies) were included in the systematic review (5,620 unique participants; mean age = 12.85 ± 2.84 years) and 40 publications (i.e., 41 studies) in the meta-analysis. Programs had a mean length of 11.78 ± 13.17 weeks and most used a waist-worn consumer-wearable activity tracker (77.78% waist-worn; 22.22% wrist-worn). Programs characteristics were: goal-setting strategies (64.06%); participants’ logbooks (56.25%); counseling sessions (62.50%); reminders (28.13%); motivational strategies (42.19%); and exercise routine (17.19%). Results showed a statistically significant moderate favorable effect on daily total steps (d = 0.612, 95% CI 0.477–0.746), small favorable effect on daily MVPA (d = 0.220, 95% CI 0.134–0.307), trivial favorable effect on daily total PA (d = 0.151, 95% CI 0.038–0.264) and trivial unfavorable effect on daily SB (d = 0.172, 95% CI 0.039–0.305). Subgroups analyses showed a higher effect for daily total steps and daily MVPA levels in females and the physically inactive for daily total steps (p = 0.003–0.044). Programs with educational counseling and/or goal-setting strategies, as well as a greater number of strategies, were more effective for improving children’s daily total steps, and wrist-worn activity trackers were more effective than waist-worn trackers for improving their daily MVPA levels (p = 0.001–0.021). Conclusions Consumer-wearable activity tracker-based programs seem to be effective in promoting school-aged children’s daily total steps and MVPA levels, especially for females and those that are physically inactive. These programs should include specific goal-setting, educational counseling, and wrist-worn trackers as especially effective strategies. However, due to the certainty of evidence being from “low” to “moderate”, future well-designed primary research studies about the topic are needed. PROSPERO: CRD42020222363.
The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed to meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.
SWI/SNF complexes are major targets of mutations in cancer. Here, we combined multiple “-omics” methods to assess SWI/SNF composition and aberrations in LUAD. Mutations in lung SWI/SNF subunits were highly recurrent in our LUAD cohort (41.4%), and over 70% of the mutations were predicted to have functional impact. Furthermore, SWI/SNF expression in LUAD suffered an overall repression that could not be explained exclusively by genetic alterations. Finally, SWI/SNF mutations were associated with poorer overall survival in TCGA-LUAD. We propose SWI/SNF-mutant LUAD as a separate clinical subgroup with practical implications.
Purpose A tourniquet is routinely used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to reduce intra-operative hemorrhage, though surgery without a tourniquet is becoming popular. To address concerns about the effect of blood at cement interfaces on long-term implant stability, we conducted a systematic review among patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty to determine if TKA with a tourniquet, compared to TKA without a tourniquet or with reduced tourniquet duration, is associated with better mid-term and long-term implant stability. Methods A literature search was conducted without language restriction in PubMed, Cochrane database and Web of Science from conception to 17th March, 2021. Prospective cohorts, randomized and observational, that compared tourniquet use with a control group, followed patients for 3 months or more and reported outcomes concerning implant stability, limb function, pain and inflammation. Article selection, quality assessment according to the Revised Cochrane risk assessment scale and Newcastle Ottawa Scale, and data extraction were conducted in duplicate. PROSPERO: CRD42020179020. Results The search yielded 4868 articles, from which 16 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and four prospective cohort studies, evaluating outcomes of 1884 knees, were included. Eleven RCTs were evaluated to be low overall risk of bias, five RCTs had some concerns and four cohort studies were good quality. Few studies showed benefits of tourniquet use in mid-term implant stability (1/6), pain (1/11) and limb inflammation (1/5), and long-term implant stability (1/1). One study reported a significantly improved range of motion (1/14) while another reported significantly reduced quadriceps strength (1/6) in the tourniquet group. The remaining studies reported non-significant effect of tourniquet use. Conclusion Although few studies indicated benefits of tourniquet use in mid-term pain, limb inflammation, implant loosening and function, and long-term implant loosening, the majority of studies report no significant advantage of tourniquet use in total knee arthroplasty.
Background Sustainable production and consumption are two important issues, which mutually interact. Whereas individuals have little direct influence on the former, they can play a key role on the latter. This paper describes the subject matter of sustainable consumption and outlines its key features. It also describes some international initiatives in this field. Results By means of an international survey, the study explores the emphasis given to sustainable consumption during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the degree of preparedness in individuals to engage in the purchase of green and sustainably manufactured products. The main results indicate that the pandemic offered an opportunity to promote sustainable consumption; nevertheless, the pandemic alone cannot be regarded as a ‘game changer’ in this topic. Conclusions Apart from an online survey with responses from 31 countries, which makes it one of the most representative studies on the topic, a logit model was used to analyse the main variables that affect the probability of pro-environmental consumption behaviour because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The paper lists some of the technological and social innovations that may be needed, so as to guide more sustainable consumption patterns in a post-pandemic world.
This study aims to assess the energy poverty risk in the municipalities in Andalusia (Spain) to know their existing differences to prioritise the aids in the municipalities with greater needs. For this purpose, a composed indicator is developed. This new indicator is based on the so-called High Energy Requirements (HER) index, where proxy indicators related to the building energy efficiency are joint and where climate severity indicators, together with the income conditions and the gender gap of the population, are included. This new indicator assesses energy poverty globally, joining the indicators related to the characteristics of the dwelling stock with other factors related to energy poverty, such as monetary poverty or gender gap. The results are analysed at a municipal level, so the cases with greater problems both in general terms and those particularly from partial aspects (such as the conservation state or the type of climate) are identified. This characterisation of the phenomenon allows the most appropriate policies to be identified according to the indicators presenting the most unfavourable values, thus constituting a useful tool to prioritise and to implement measures adapted to each municipality’s needs.
Species richness is a widely used proxy for patterns of biodiversity variation in metacommunities. However, deeper analyses require additional metrics, such as the occupancy-frequency distributions (SOFD) of different local communities. The SOFD patterns indicate the number of shared species between study sites; therefore, they can provide new insights into the current debate on how to create more biodiversity-friendly cities. Breeding birds were counted from 593 point-count stations located in five 500 m × 500 m squares in land-sharing (LSH; low-density built areas interspersed with green spaces) and five similar nearby squares in land-sparing (LSP; densely built-up with set-aside, large-sized, continuous green spaces) landscapes in nine cities across Europe. High beta-diversity (with over 42% of the 103 species detected being restricted to a single city and only 7% found in all studied cities) showed the uniqueness of cities at the continental scale. Urban bird metacommunities followed the unimodal-satellite SOFD pattern at the European continental scale but a bimodal symmetric or asymmetric distribution at the city-level scale, suggesting that many common species occur in cities on a smaller scale. The LSP urban areas followed a unimodal satellite SOFD pattern with numerous rare species. In contrast, the LSH areas fit several types of bimodal SOFD patterns equally well, where communities share several common species. The findings also highlight the need to use multi-scale approaches to analyze the effects of LSH-LSP urban designs on urban bird diversity.
We establish a uniqueness result for the [φ,e→3]-catenary cylinders by their asymptotic behaviour. Well known examples of such cylinders are the grim reaper translating solitons for the mean curvature flow. For such solitons, F. Martín, J. Pérez-García, A. Savas-Halilaj and K. Smoczyk proved that, if Σ is a properly embedded translating soliton with locally bounded genus and C1-asymptotic to two vertical planes, outside a cylinder, then Σ must coincide with some grim reaper translating soliton. In this paper, applying the moving plane method of Alexandrov together with a strong maximum principle for elliptic operators, we increase the family of [φ,e→3]-minimal graphs where these types of results hold under different assumption of asymptotic behaviour.
Resumen Objetivo Determinar si existe asociación entre la enfermedad periodontal en las gestantes y el desarrollo de diabetes mellitus gestacional durante su embarazo. Materiales y métodos La presente revisión se realizó en base a las directrices de la declaración Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA). Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en cuatro bases de datos: MEDLINE (vía PubMed), Cochrane Library, Scopus y Web of Science. Se incluyeron todos los trabajos encontrados hasta marzo del 2021. Los estudios que resultaron elegibles fueron evaluados a través de la escala de Newcastle-Ottawa en cuanto a su calidad metodológica. Resultados De 161 estudios resultaron elegibles un total de 8 estudios, 3 de tipo caso-control, 2 de tipo transversal y 3 de tipo cohorte. En la mayoría de los estudios se verificó una asociación entre EP y DMG. Conclusión La enfermedad periodontal aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar diabetes mellitus gestacional. Es necesario realizar más estudios con diferentes diseños, enfoque multicéntrico y distintas poblaciones para profundizar esta asociación.
The designs presented in crowdsourcing platforms for supporting, facilitating, and regulating solvers’ behaviors have significantly effect on solvers’ decision to participate. To estimate those important designs, referred to as participation-oriented designs in this study, a decision support model is developed based on quality function deployment (QFD). This model connects participation-oriented designs to solvers’ motives through the matched incentives, ensuring the estimated designs could activate solvers’ motives most. Specifically, the relations among these three aspects are represented by two house of quality (HoQ) models in which one links solver motives and incentives and the other connects the incentives and participation-oriented designs. Moreover, a combination of the fuzzy Delphi method (FDM), fuzzy Best-Worst method (BWM), and fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory Model (DEMATEL) is developed to handle information in these two HoQ models. Therein, the FDM is employed to screen and map solver motives, incentives, and participation-oriented designs. The fuzzy BWM is used to determine the relationship weights between solver motives and incentives and incentives and participation-oriented designs respectively. The fuzzy DEMATEL is employed to describe and calculate the inner dependencies of incentives and participation-oriented designs respectively. A case of the crowdsourcing platforms for graphic design contests is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed model.
The growing evidence on road distraction during the recent years has shown how road distractions might be playing a relevant role on traffic crash causation. However, the empirical insights about how it works in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are really limited so far. The case of Colombian non-professional drivers remains virtually unexplored on this regard. This research aims to assess the effect of road distractions, driving-related issues and road behaviors on the self-reported crashes suffered by drivers in Bogotá, Colombia. To do so, a sample of 659 drivers (64% males and 36% females) with a mean age of 37.9 years (SD = 11.7) was gathered, who answered an online survey on road distractions, behaviors and self-reported crash history. Most of the distracting sources reported were found to be rather common among most of the drivers, even though only a few gender differences were found. Structural Equation Models show that there is a significant effect of road distractions on drivers’ self-reported crash rates and that young adults are more prone to incur in these behaviors as a consequence thereof. These findings support the design of safety interventions that focus on mitigating the risk of being distracted. In the same vein, authorities should increase the efforts to enforce ICT-related laws while driving, thus contributing to reduce the prevalence and impact of distracting sources while driving.
This care pathway from the European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS) provides an updated pathway for monitoring and guidance of women at midlife, focusing on those approaching the end of the reproductive life-cycle, going through the menopausal transition and beyond. The care pathway is written by professionals involved in women's health and provides a stepwise individualized approach, stratified according to needs, symptoms and reproductive stage. Furthermore, the pathway provides details on screening for chronic diseases related to menopause and ageing. Treatment options for climacteric symptoms range from menopausal hormone therapy to non-hormonal alternatives and lifestyle modifications. Therapy should be tailored to personal needs and wishes. The pathway aims to offer a holistic, balanced approach for monitoring middle-aged women, aiming to control health problems effectively and ensure healthy ageing.
In six vignette-based experiments, we assessed people's moral reactions towards various cognition-enhancing brain implants, including their overall approval and perceived fairness, as well as the dehumanization of brain-implanted agents. Across the domains of memory (Studies 1-4, 6), general intelligence (Study 5A), and emotional stability (Study 5B), people in general approved of alleviating ailments, and even of attaining optimal human performance, but expressed greater opposition towards superhuman levels of enhancement. Further analyses of individual differences indicated that the tendency to condemn transhumanist technologies, such as brain implants, was linked to sexual disgust sensitivity and the binding moral foundations-two characteristic correlates of a conservative worldview. In turn, exposure to science fiction was tied to greater approval of brain implants. We also examined potential idiosyncrasies associated with our stimulus materials and did not find reliable effects of any secondary factors on moral attitudes. Taken together, our studies reveal certain moral boundaries to neurotechnological enhancement, strong among those with conservative affective and moral dispositions but relaxed among those familiar with science fiction themes.
Medium- and long-chain fatty acids and glycerol contained in the oily fraction of many food-industry effluents are excellent candidates to produce biobased high-value triacylglycerides (TAGs) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The typical process configuration for TAGs recovery from lipid-rich streams always includes two steps (culture enrichment plus storage compounds accumulation) whereas, for PHAs production, an additional pretreatment of the substrate for the obtainment of soluble volatile fatty acids (VFAs) is required. To simplify the process, substrate hydrolysis, culture enrichment, and accumulation (TAG and PHA storage) were coupled here in a single sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operated under the double growth limitation strategy (DGL) and fed in pulses with industrial waste fish oil during the whole feast phase. When the SBR was operated in 12 h cycles, it was reached up to 51 wt % biopolymers after only 6 h of feast (TAG:PHA ratio of 50:51; 0.423 CmmolBIOP/CmmolS). Daily storage compound production was observed to be over 25% higher than the reached when enrichment and accumulation stages were carried in separate operational units. Increasing the feast phase length from 6 to 12 h (18 h cycle) negatively affected the DGL strategy performance and hence system storage capacity, which was recovered after also extending the famine phase in the same proportion (24 h cycle). Besides, the carbon influx during the feast phase was identified as a key operational parameter controlling storage compounds production and, together with the C/N ratio, culture selection. The different cycle configurations tested clearly modulated the total fungal abundances without no significant differences in the size of the bacterial populations. Several PHA and TAG producers were found in the mixed culture although the PHA and TAG productions were poorly associated with the increased relative abundances (RAs) of specific operational taxonomic units (OTUs).
Travelling at excessive speed increases the risk of having a road crash. Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems might help the driver to make safe speed decisions along road sections with limited visibility. A recently developed ISA system, called V–ISA (Hazoor et al., 2021), is able to estimate the dynamic (real-time) speed limit, based on the prevailing sight conditions and stopping distance. The V-ISA operates in the following three ways: it can (i) display visual information, (ii) alert the driver with a warning sound, and/or (iii) intervene directly to modify and control vehicle speed. The effects of V-ISA on driving performance have yet to be investigated. Thus, the question of whether V-ISA modulates driving speed choice remains open. Here, we assessed the impact of V-ISA variants on driver speed choice. Thirty expert drivers experienced four simulated driving conditions, in which the three V–ISA variants together with the V-ISA off control condition were tested separately. Furthermore, drivers were asked for feedback on the acceptance and usability of the three V-ISA. Our results suggested that V–ISA was effective in mitigating the risks associated with speeding, with relatively high acceptance and perceived usability levels. The results indicate that V–ISA can have a positive impact on road safety by helping drivers to modulate their chosen driving speed.
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