# University of Franche-Comté

• Besançon, France
Recent publications
Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is frequently managed by platinum-based chemotherapy during the disease course. The real benefit of these treatments is uncertain at advanced stages of the disease and in non-triple-negative subtypes. Since homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) could inform about tumor sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, we aimed to determine biomarkers of genomic instability, and their link with platinum efficacy. In this single-center study, we report BRCA1/2 mutational status, HRD score and signature 3 levels, all obtained by tumor exome sequencing, in 86 patients with various subtypes of MBC and who received platinum-based chemotherapy. Overall response rate, disease control rate, PFS and PFS2/PFS1 ratio were evaluated to assess platinum-based chemotherapy efficacy. Among the 86 tumor samples analyzed, 7 harbored BRCA1/2 mutations. We found a subset of BRCA -proficient MBC with high HRD score or high S3 levels, comparable to BRCA -mutated tumors. However, these patients with high HRD score or high S3 tumor level do not seem to benefit more from platinum-based chemotherapy than the others, in terms of response rates and/or PFS, regardless of BC molecular subtype. By multivariate analysis, only the absence of liver metastases was independently associated with significantly better PFS on platinum-based chemotherapy. However, some of our exploratory analyses reveal that certain methods, when optimized, seem to associate with platinum benefit. Tumor exome sequencing methodology for quantifying HRD has to be approached systematically, and further validated and standardized prior to its clinical use. Further studies are warranted to confirm these results to guide platinum use in MBC.
Objective Determine whether hip abductor muscle fatigue influenced ankle kinematic and muscle activity during ankle-destabilized tasks. Design Cross-sectional study Methods Twenty-six healthy, active participants performed 2 tests (Star Excursion Balance Test, SEBT; Weight Bearing Inversion Test, WBIT) for assessment of dynamic balance and ability to control inversion. Participants were equipped with an ankle-destabilizing sandal in inversion and eversion to perform both tests, which were completed before and after a fatiguing exercise of hip abductor muscles (up to 50% reduction in strength). Electromyographic activity of peroneus longus (PL) and brevis (PB), tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius lateralis (GastL) and gluteus medius (GlutM) muscles were recorded. In addition, ankle kinematics were recorded using an inertial measurement unit. Results Hip abductor fatigue induced a significant decrease in SEBT scores in 3 directions (p<0.01). During SEBT, ankle supination decreased by 3.2° in the anterior and posteromedial directions (p<0.01). Muscle activity of GastL increased during achievement of 3 directions (p<0.05) in response to hip abductor fatigue. In posteromedial direction, PL (p<0.001) and GlutM (p<0.01) activity increased with fatigue. During WBIT, inversion angular velocity was not impacted by fatigue while, PB and GastL activity increased after fatiguing exercise (p<0.005). Conclusion A decrease in SEBT performance and EMG adaptations with proximal fatigue attest to the importance of the hip abductor muscle in dynamic postural control. This could have important implications in building injury prevention programs. Changes in ankle supination may reflect a protective strategy of the joint in response to hip fatigue.
The ameliorative effects of Spirulina and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) against fipronil toxicity in Nile tilapia fish were investigated. Fipronil is a kind of pesticide that is widely used in agriculture, thus this trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of fipronil on growth related parameters (final body weight, feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio), hematology related parameters (RBCs, WBCs, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and deferential leukocytic count), biochemistry related parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, albumin, urea, and creatinine), histopathology of liver, intestine, gills, and spleen, and gene expression of antioxidants, stress, inflammatory, apoptotic, and related to junction proteins genes as SOD and GPx, COX II, TNF-α, Casp-3, and Claudin-3, respectively, in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four hundred and five Nile tilapia fish were distributed in a glass aquarium into nine groups according to the Spirulina and S. cerevisiae supplemented diets, with or without fipronil contaminated water. The classified groups are control, Sc: S. cerevisiae (4 g/Kg diet), Sp: Spirulina (1 g/100 g diet), Fb1: 0.0021 mg fipronil/L, ScFb1: S. cerevisiae (4 g/Kg diet) with 0.0021 mg fipronil/L, SpFb1: Spirulina (1 g/100 g diet) with 0.0021 mg fipronil/L, Fb2: 0.0042 mg fipronil/L, ScFb2: S. cerevisiae (4 g/Kg diet) with 0.0042 mg fipronil/L, and SpFb2: Spirulina (1 g/100 g diet) with 0.0042 mg fipronil/L. The results of the present investigation indicated the negative effect of fipronil on the growth performance parameters of Nile tilapia, which was confirmed by the results of hematology, biochemistry, and histopathology. In addition, the results of gene expression of antioxidants, stress, inflammatory, and apoptotic genes indicate the genotoxicity of fipronil. However, these negative effects were ameliorated by Spirulina and Saccharomyces dietary supplementation.
In the article, we find new dilatation results on non-commutative Lp\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$L^p$$\end{document} spaces. We prove that any self-adjoint, unital, positive measurable Schur multiplier on some B(L2(Σ))\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$B(L^2(\Sigma ))$$\end{document} admits, for all 1⩽p<∞\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$1\leqslant p<\infty$$\end{document}, an invertible isometric dilation on some non-commutative Lp\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$L^p$$\end{document}-space. We obtain a similar result for self-adjoint, unital, completely positive Fourier multiplier on VN(G), when G is a unimodular locally compact group. Furthermore, we establish multivariable versions of these results.
Background: The objective of this study was to assess the preliminary efficacy and safety of conservative management compared with systematic suture in isolated vaginal or first-degree perineal tears after birth. Methods: We conducted a preliminary efficacy, open-label, randomized, controlled, and prospective trial. This study implemented Simon's 2-step plan (interim analysis and final analysis) to test the success rate of the digital compression strategy group. Primiparous women aged ≥18 years with isolated vaginal or first-degree perineal tears after spontaneous vaginal birth of a cephalic presenting term (≥37 weeks) neonate were randomly allocated to the conservative management (CM) group (digital compression if bleeding followed by suture if persistent bleeding) or a systematic suture (SS) group. The primary outcome was the success of the intervention 10 days after delivery, defined by pain as evaluated using a visual analog scale < 3, satisfactory healing defined by a REEDA score ≤ 2, and no bleeding or infection. Sexual well-being was assessed at 2 and 6 months postpartum. Results: Among 861/2209 eligible women, 143 consenting women with a superficial perineal tear were randomized: 72 in the systematic suture group and 71 in the conservative management group. Success rate was 87.8% (90% CI [70.5-93.54]) (42/55) in the systematic suture group vs 90% (90% CI [78.3-93.8]) (53/61) in the conservative management group. The REEDA score was significantly higher in the systematic suture group (1.4 vs 0.9; P = 0.036). Perineal pain was significantly higher at day 1 in the systematic suture group (2.38 vs 1.69; P = 0.034). For the Female Sexual Functional Index score, no significant difference was found between the two groups at inclusion or at 2 and 6 months postpartum. Conclusions: Conservative management of superficial perineal tears shows an efficacy rate ≥90%. Women in the conservative management group had less pain at the 1st day follow-up and lower REEDA scores at the 10th day follow-up.
In European and many African, Middle Eastern and southern Asian populations, lactase persistence (LP) is the most strongly selected monogenic trait to have evolved over the past 10,000 years1. Although the selection of LP and the consumption of prehistoric milk must be linked, considerable uncertainty remains concerning their spatiotemporal configuration and specific interactions2,3. Here we provide detailed distributions of milk exploitation across Europe over the past 9,000 years using around 7,000 pottery fat residues from more than 550 archaeological sites. European milk use was widespread from the Neolithic period onwards but varied spatially and temporally in intensity. Notably, LP selection varying with levels of prehistoric milk exploitation is no better at explaining LP allele frequency trajectories than uniform selection since the Neolithic period. In the UK Biobank4,5 cohort of 500,000 contemporary Europeans, LP genotype was only weakly associated with milk consumption and did not show consistent associations with improved fitness or health indicators. This suggests that other reasons for the beneficial effects of LP should be considered for its rapid frequency increase. We propose that lactase non-persistent individuals consumed milk when it became available but, under conditions of famine and/or increased pathogen exposure, this was disadvantageous, driving LP selection in prehistoric Europe. Comparison of model likelihoods indicates that population fluctuations, settlement density and wild animal exploitation—proxies for these drivers—provide better explanations of LP selection than the extent of milk exploitation. These findings offer new perspectives on prehistoric milk exploitation and LP evolution. Examination of archaeological pottery residues and modern genes suggest that environmental conditions, subsistence economics and pathogen exposure may explain selection for lactase persistence better than prehistoric consumption of milk.
Background: Bacterial biofilm can occur on all medical implanted devices and lead to infection and/or dysfunction of the device. In this study, artificial biofilm was formed on four different medical implants (silicone, piccline, peripheral venous catheter and endotracheal tube) of interest for our daily clinical and/or research practice. We investigated the best conventional technic to dislodge the biofilm on the implants and quantified the number of bacteria. Staphylococcus epidermidis previously isolated from a breast implant capsular contracture on a patient in the university hospital of Dijon was selected for its ability to produce biofilm on the implants. Different technics (sonication, Digest-EUR®, mechanized bead mill, combination of sonication plus Digest-EUR®) were tested and compared to detach the biofilm before quantifying viable bacteria by colony counting. Results: For all treatments, the optical and scanning electron microscope images showed substantial less biofilm biomass remaining on the silicone implant compared to non-treated implant. This study demonstrated that the US procedure was statistically superior to the other physical treatment: beads, Digest-EUR® alone and Digest-EUR® + US (p < 0.001) for the flexible materials (picc-line, PIV, and silicone). The number of bacteria released by the US is significantly higher with a difference of 1 log on each material. The result for a rigid endotracheal tube were different with superiority for the chemical treatment dithiothreitol: Digest-EUR®. Surprisingly the combination of the US plus Digest-EUR® treatment was consistently inferior for the four materials. Conclusions: Depending on the materials used, the biofilm dislodging technique must be adapted. The US procedure was the best technic to dislodge S. epidermidis biofilm on silicone, piccline, peripheral venous catheter but not endotracheal tube. This suggested that scientists should compare themselves different methods before designing a protocol of biofilm study on a given material.
Flavor perception is a key factor in the acceptance or rejection of food. Aroma precursors such as cysteine conjugates are present in various plant-based foods and are metabolized into odorant thiols in the oral cavity. To date, the involved enzymes are unknown, despite previous studies pointing out the likely involvement of carbon–sulfur lyases (C–S lyases) from the oral microbiota. In this study, we show that saliva metabolizes allyl-cysteine into odorant thiol metabolites, with evidence suggesting that microbial pyridoxal phosphate-dependent C–S lyases are involved in the enzymatic process. A phylogenetic analysis of PatB C–S lyase sequences in four oral subspecies of Fusobacterium nucleatum was carried out and led to the identification of several putative targets. FnaPatB1 from F. nucleatum subspecies animalis, a putative C–S lyase, was characterized and showed high activity with a range of cysteine conjugates. Enzymatic and X-ray crystallographic data showed that FnaPatB1 metabolizes cysteine derivatives within a unique active site environment that enables the formation of flavor sulfur compounds. Using an enzymatic screen with a library of pure compounds, we identified several inhibitors able to reduce the C–S lyase activity of FnaPatB1 in vitro, which paves the way for controlling the release of odorant sulfur compounds from their cysteine precursors in the oral cavity.
The use of non-toxic synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (FeO NPs) by an aqueous plant extract has proven to be a viable and environmentally friendly method. Therefore, the present investigation is based on the FeO NPs synthesis by means of FeCl3·6H2O as a precursor, and the plant extract of Nephrolepis exaltata (N. exaltata) serves as a capping and reducing agent. Various techniques were used to examine the synthesized FeO NPs, such as UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The FT-IR studies were used to identify different photoactive biomolecules at 3285, 2928, 1415, 1170, and 600 cm−1 in the wavenumber range from 4000 to 400 cm−1, indicating the -OH, C-H, C-O, C-C, and M-O groups, respectively. The XRD examination exhibited crystallinity, and the average diameter of the particle was 16 nm. The spherical nature of synthesized FeO NPs was recognized by SEM images, while the elemental composition of nanoparticles was identified by an EDX spectrophotometer. The antiplasmodial activity of synthesized FeO NPs was investigated against Plasmodium parasites. The antiplasmodial property of FeO NPs was evaluated by means of parasite inhibitory concentration, which showed higher efficiency (62 ± 1.3 at 25 μg/mL) against Plasmodium parasite if compared to plant extracts and precursor. The cytotoxicity of FeO NPs was also assessed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under in vitro conditions. The lack of toxic effects through FeO NPs keeps them more effective for use in pharmaceutical and medical applications.
Aim We estimated the proportion and severity of cognitive disorders in an unselected population of patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Second, we describe clinical and cognitive outcomes at 1 year. Methods Eligible patients were aged ≥ 70 years, with symptomatic aortic stenosis and an indication for TAVI. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to assess cognitive dysfunction (CD), defined as no CD if score ≥ 26, mild CD if 18–25; moderate CD if 10–18, and severe CD if < 10. We assessed survival and in-hospital complications at 6 months and 1 year. Results Between June 2019 and October 2020, 105 patients were included; 21 (20%) did not undergo TAVI, and thus, 84 were analyzed; median age 85 years, 53.6% females, median EuroScore 11.5%. Median MoCA score was 22 (19–25); CD was excluded in 18 (21%), mild in 50 (59.5%), moderate in 15 (19%) and severe in 1. Mean MoCA score at follow-up was 21.9(± 4.69) and did not differ significantly from baseline (21.79 (± 4.61), p = 0.73). There was no difference in success rate, in-hospital complications, or death across CD categories. Conclusion The clinical course of patients with mild or moderate CD is not different at 1 year after TAVI compared to those without cognitive dysfunction.
The molecules that elicit taste sensation are perceived by interacting with the taste receptors located in the taste buds. Enzymes involved in the detoxification processes are found in saliva as well as in type II cells, where taste receptors, including bitter taste receptors, are located. These enzymes are known to interact with a large panel of molecules. To explore a possible link between these enzymes and bitter taste perception, we demonstrate that salivary glutathione transferases (GSTA1 and GSTP1) can metabolize bitter molecules. To support these abilities, we solve three X-ray structures of these enzymes in complexes with isothiocyanates. Salivary GSTA1 and GSTP1 are expressed in a large panel of subjects. Additionally, GSTA1 levels in the saliva of people suffering from taste disorders are significantly lower than those in the saliva of the control group.
This paper investigates the problem of forecasting multivariate aggregated human mobility while preserving the privacy of the individuals concerned. Differential privacy, a state-of-the-art formal notion, has been used as the privacy guarantee in two different and independent steps when training deep learning models. On one hand, we considered gradient perturbation, which uses the differentially private stochastic gradient descent algorithm to guarantee the privacy of each time series sample in the learning stage. On the other hand, we considered input perturbation, which adds differential privacy guarantees in each sample of the series before applying any learning. We compared four state-of-the-art recurrent neural networks: Long Short-Term Memory, Gated Recurrent Unit, and their Bidirectional architectures, i.e., Bidirectional-LSTM and Bidirectional-GRU. Extensive experiments were conducted with a real-world multivariate mobility dataset, which we published openly along with this paper. As shown in the results, differentially private deep learning models trained under gradient or input perturbation achieve nearly the same performance as non-private deep learning models, with loss in performance varying between 0.57% to 2.8%. The contribution of this paper is significant for those involved in urban planning and decision-making, providing a solution to the human mobility multivariate forecast problem through differentially private deep learning models.
Intraarticular (IA) injections provide the opportunity to deliver biologics directly to their site of action for a local and efficient treatment of osteoarthritis. However, the synovial joint is a challenging site of administration since the drug is rapidly eliminated across the synovial membrane and has limited distribution into cartilage, resulting in unsatisfactory therapeutic efficacy. In order to rationally develop appropriate drug delivery systems, it is essential to thoroughly understand the unique biopharmaceutical environments and kinetics in the joint to adequately simulate them in relevant experimental models. This review presents a detailed view on articular kinetics and drug-tissue interplay of IA administered drugs and summarizes how these can be translated into reasonable formulation strategies by identification of key factors through which the joint residence time can be prolonged and specific structures can be targeted. In this way, pros and cons of the delivery approaches for biologics will be evaluated and the extent to which biorelevant models are applicable to gain mechanistic insights and ameliorate formulation design is discussed.
In this paper, each of the two following proteins, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the Main protease (Main pro) of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) were grafted for the first time on homemade neutravidin poly(GMA-co-EDMA) capillary columns for the research of their ligands. The effect of the column diameter on the quantity of immobilized biotinylated protein was studied. For a capillary length of 40 mm, when its internal diameter varied from 75 to 25 μm, the grafted quantity of ACE2 decreased by 85% (from 1.50 to 0.24 μg). Among all the studied ligands, a particular vigilance has been given for dexamethasone, a widely used molecule today for adult patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2. Competition experiments were performed with SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Binding Domain used as reference molecule with the ACE2 affinity column to assess the orthosteric binding site of dexamethasone (Dex) on ACE2. This ligand was then immobilized on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (Dex/MWCNT). By comparison of the normalized breakthrough curves measured for Dex and Dex/MWCNT on both the ACE2 and Main pro affinity columns, it was showed for the first time that nanovectorisation of Dex with MWCNT enhanced and stabilized its binding to both ACE2 and Main pro. This last result reinforced the use of Dex and the interest of MWCNT for boosting immune health against COVID 19.
The first description and naming of the hippocampus is usually credited to Arantius (c. 1530 – 1589), whose comparison of the swelling inside the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle to a seahorse (hippocampus) or silkworm (bombyx) was published in the 1587 edition of the Anatomicarum Observationum Liber. However, in the 17th century, the term hippocampus was rarely used and its precise anatomy remained a mystery. The 18th century saw the hippocampus referred to as a wide range of animals and divinities. These terminological issues provoked heated discussions in the French Académie Royale des Sciences, culminating in the seminal description of the hippocampus in the 1780s by Félix Vicq d’Azyr (1748–1794). However, it is striking that no hypothesis concerning the function of the hippocampus was proposed, and its link with memory was not established until the mid-20th century.
Objectives The femoral tripod remains technically crucial in vascular surgery, as well for an elective revascularization as for an extensive approach to the arterial tree. The management of septic complications and healing disorders in this area is really challenging. Obturator bypass (OB) represents an alternative sometimes employed in this context, but few recent series were recently published. The objectives of this work were thus to evaluate the results of OB in terms of patency, morbi-mortality, healing evolution and absence of reinfection. Material and Methods This was a monocentric retrospective study including all the patients treated by OB, whatever the cause, between January 2010 and December 2020. Primary outcomes were the primary and the secondary patencies. The secondary outcomes were the morbi-mortality, freedom from infection and healing. Results During this period, 23 OBs were carried out in 22 patients, with a majority of men (77%) whose median age was 70 years [34 - 87]. The indications were infection in 19 patients (86%), and iterative thrombosis in three patients (14%). The substitute was an arterial allograft in 82% of the cases, and the outflow was the deep femoral artery only in 14% of the cases. The median operative time was 224 min [111-391] and median blood losses were 900 mL [300-3900]. We observed seven systemic (32%), and eight local complications (36%). Healing was obtained in 90% of the cases, and freedom from infection was obtained in 100% of the cases. The median duration of follow-up was 594 days [5 - 2517]. One-year, two-year and three-year primary patency rates were 84%, 78%, and 63%, respectively. One-year, two-year and three-year secondary patencies were 94%, 94%, and 80%, respectively. One-month, one-year, two-year and three-year survival rates were 86%, 73%, 67%, and 53%, respectively. Conclusion Our study showed that the OB represents a relevant alternative in the event of complex lesions of the femoral tripod, with good patency and healing rates and good infection control. On the other hand, its consequences in terms of morbi-mortality confirm that OB is a major surgery that should be used when a traditional approach is not possible.
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