Cocaine is a widely used psychostimulant drug whose repeated exposure induces persistent cognitive/emotional dysregulation, which could be a predictor of relapse in users. However, there is scarce evidence on effective treatments to alleviate these symptoms. Environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to be associated with improved synaptic function and cellular plasticity changes related to adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN), resulting in cognitive enhancement. Therefore, EE could mitigate the negative impact of chronic administration of cocaine in mice and reduce the emotional and cognitive symptoms present during cocaine abstinence. In this study, mice were chronically administered with cocaine for 14 days, and control mice received saline. After the last cocaine or saline dose, mice were submitted to control or EE housing conditions, and they stayed undisturbed for 28 days. Subsequently, mice were evaluated with a battery of behavioural tests for exploratory activity, emotional behaviour, and cognitive performance. EE attenuated hyperlocomotion, induced anxiolytic‐like behaviour and alleviated cognitive impairment in spatial memory in the cocaine‐abstinent mice. The EE protocol notably upregulated AHN in both control and cocaine‐treated mice, though cocaine slightly reduced the number of immature neurons. Altogether, these results demonstrate that EE could enhance hippocampal neuroplasticity ameliorating the behavioural and cognitive consequences of repeated administration of cocaine. Therefore, environmental stimulation may be a useful strategy in the treatment cocaine addiction. In the present work, we provide for the first time evidence of environmental enrichment as a valuable therapeutic strategy to alleviate these cocaine‐induced symptoms as well as to increase adult neurogenesis in cocaine abstinent mice. We believe that these results are significant to support environmental interventions based on physical exercise and cognitive stimulation in substance abuse.
Flexible and distributed energy markets are a reality that is progressively reaching many regions. Despite their clear benefits, they should be accepted by the prosumers. Additionally, blockchain technology and smart contracts have been characterised as a technological enabler for the energy sector and P2P Energy Markets (PEM). However, little research has been done to explore blockchain's user-centred perspective. Therefore, this paper analyses the reluctance and/or concerns of prosumers regarding smart contracts, and investigates their perception on blockchain within PEMs. The authors present the results of a survey conducted across several European countries addressing the implementation of automated trading systems and analysing the adoption of smart contracts. Considering that the main survey outcomes are related to the regulation and legislation uncertainty around blockchain usage, this paper explores also the fit of smart contracts from a legal perspective. Additionally, a set of recommendations to be used as the basis for the design and development of PEMs is delivered, aiming to adopt blockchain and smart contracts. As a key take-away, the authors confirm the crucial role that blockchain will play in the deployment of fair, secure, flexible and distributed energy markets by ensuring transparency in the exchange of information between prosumers and energy stakeholders. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
This paper empirically investigates the leadership implications of adopting the European Smart Specialisation Strategies (S3) in a non-European context. A multiple case study compares the Latin American regions of Medellín, Colombia, and San Luis Potosí, Mexico. A variety of data collection procedures are used, including in-depth interviews with 33 relevant actors from the triple helix that participated in the S3 design. The paper contributes to the literature by identifying the leadership capabilities that lead to effective S3 in intermediate metropolitan regions, as well as the factors that foster and hinder those leadership capabilities. This paper argues that the leadership roles for S3 include a systemic perspective among a wide range of stakeholders, but also an evolutionary perspective to manage novelty and break path dependencies. Second, it argues that the degree of centralization and institutional context affect regional leadership. Finally, four leadership capabilities are suggested based on both systemic and evolutionary perspectives.
A data-driven model is used to predict one-hour ahead heat loads based on present and recent history of weather and heat loads. A computationally inexpensive method is built to deliver load forecasting based on existing data quality and resolution from smart meters. Optimal model formulation is discussed and optimized at 4-hour historical values. The model is trained and tested against synthetic data from a building energy simulation, resulting in absolute error <4% and R² values in the range of 0.92 to 0.94.
Peer victimization can lead to dysfunctional cognitions and numerous internalizing psychological problems. Thus, it is essential to identify factors that can moderate the impact of victimization. This study aimed to analyze the potential moderating role of perceived executive functions (PEF) in the impact of peer victimization (traditional and online) on internalizing symptoms (depression and social anxiety), early maladaptive schemas (disconnection/rejection domain), and PEF in adolescents. A two-wave longitudinal study was carried out with 680 Spanish adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age ( M = 14.58, SD = 1.36; 41.18% girls). Participants completed measures of self-reported executive functions, traditional and online victimization, early maladaptive schemas of the disconnection/rejection domain, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety symptoms in waves 1 and 2. Traditional and online perpetration was completed only in wave 1. The results indicated that when PEF were high (i.e., adolescents perceive that they have good executive functions), traditional and online victimization predicted more schemas of the disconnection/rejection domain and internalizing symptoms of depression and social anxiety. In non-victims, high PEF showed a protective role in the development of depressive symptoms and schemas of the disconnection/rejection domain. The findings highlight that PEF have a protective role that disappears when victimization (traditional and online) occurs.
Introduction: Research focused on the association between peer cybervictimization and declining health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is scarce. Currently, few longitudinal studies find an association between these phenomena, and none focus on cybervictimization profiles. The main objectives are: (1) to analyze the point and period prevalence, and incidence of cybervictimization profiles (uninvolved, new, ceased, intermittent, and stable cybervictims); (2) to study the relationship between cybervictimization and HRQoL over time; (3) to determine the longitudinal impact on the HRQoL of each type of profile. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in three waves over 13 months. A total of 1142 adolescents aged 11-18 years participated in all the waves (630 girls, 55.2%). Results: The prevalence of victimization for the three waves was 21.6% (Wave 1; W1), 23.5% (W2), and 19.6% (W3), respectively. The period prevalence was 41.3%, and the accumulated incidence was 25.1%. It was found that 24% of the participants were new victims, 5.9% were intermittent victims, and 6% were stable victims. Being a cybervictim at W1 poses a relative risk of 1.73 [1.29-2.32], that is, a twofold increased risk of presenting a low HRQoL 13 months later compared to those who are not cybervictims. Conclusion: One in four adolescents became a new cybervictim during the 13 months of the study. The adolescents who presented poorer HRQoL were the stable cybervictims.
Gambling disorder is a problem that is affecting increasingly more people. It is associated with difficulties in emotion regulation, gambling motives, blame, and shame. This study aims to study the relationship between gambling severity, blame, and shame, independently and together with emotion regulation and gambling motives; to analyse the mediating role of emotion regulation in the relationship between gambling severity and shame; and to compare mean differences in the study variables according to the sample group. For this purpose, a clinical and non-clinical sample of 158 individuals (119 males and 39 females) ranging in age from 12 to 30 years ( M = 19.70, SD = 5.35) was divided into three groups. The questionnaires were administered online and on paper. The results showed that blame and shame are related to the severity of gambling. In the case of shame, this relationship was found to be partially mediated by the emotion regulation strategy of self-blame. Gambling severity, blame and shame were also found to be related to various gambling motives and different emotion regulation strategies. All this information can be of great use in the prevention and treatment of gambling problems.
There is limited research that has investigated Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosures and corporate reputation in developing countries. Using content analysis of the annual and CSR reports of 40 Colombian firms belonging to MERCO Colombia between 2013 and 2015, this study aims to verify whether the disclosure of CSR information in its different dimensions influence corporate reputation. The results show that CSR information is relevant when it comes to achieving corporate reputation. All disclosure variables and the control variable age are positive and statistically significant in explaining reputation. This study bolsters and reinforces the accumulating body of empirical support for the positive impact of CSR disclosures on corporate reputation, using a combination of stakeholder, resource-based-view and signalling perspectives, extending the current body of knowledge beyond western developed countries to Colombia, and under-researched emerging country despite being one of the five largest Latin American economy.
COVID-19 is a disease that affects the quality of life in all aspects. However, the government policy applied in 2020 impacted the lifestyle of the whole world. In this sense, the study of sentiments of people in different countries is a very important task to face future challenges related to lockdown caused by a virus. To contribute to this objective, we have proposed a natural language processing model with the aim to detect positive and negative feelings in open-text answers obtained from a survey in pandemic times. We have proposed a distilBERT transformer model to carry out this task. We have used three approaches to perform a comparison, obtaining for our best model the following average metrics: Accuracy: 0.823, Precision: 0.826, Recall: 0.793 and F 1 Score: 0.803.
Community-engaged teacher education is conceived as a transformational pathway to prepare teachers to successfully engage and effectively work with students from vulnerable communities and historically marginalized. Grounded on the principles of dialogic learning, our approach emphasizes the power of transformative interactions between teachers and pre-service teachers, schools and communities, the critical consciousness raised by discussing evidence of social impact for those systematically excluded, and the co-creation of knowledge for dismantling prejudices and deficit thinking by valuing people's funds of knowledge and communities' cultural intelligence. Hence, a dialogic approach to community-engaged teacher education addresses persistent inequalities by fostering academic and social success for all.
Purpose Child-to-parent violence (CPV) is an important type of family violence that has been relatively understudied. This study examined the main psychometric properties of the revised Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ-R), which examines both violent behaviors against parents and reasons for these behaviors. The aims included identifying the dimensions of CPV and examining the magnitude of CPV during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A sample of 1,244 adolescents (aged from 12 to 17) from several schools in the Basque Country completed the CPAQ-R. Several confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, including exploratory, confirmatory, exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and bifactor analyses. Results The data supported a bifactor ESEM model in which a general factor of violence against parents explained aggressions against both mothers and fathers. In addition, three reasons for the violence emerged: instrumental, reactive, and defensive reasons. Rates of CPV during the COVID-19 pandemic were high, with 16.5% of adolescents reporting reiterative aggressions against their parents. There were no differences between aggressions against mothers and fathers. Conclusions The CPAQ-R is an adequate questionnaire for assessing CPV in adolescents. The confinement and restrictions placed on families during the COVID-19 pandemic may explain the high prevalence of CPV and shed light on possible differences related to the sex of the parents.
Visual hallucinations (VH) are present in up to 75% of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. However, their neural bases and participation of the visual system in VH are not well-understood in PD. Seventy-four participants, 12 PD with VH (PDVH), 35 PD without VH (PDnoVH) and 27 controls underwent a battery of primary visual function and visual cognition tests, retinal optical coherence tomography and structural and resting-state functional brain MRI. We quantified cortical thickness with Freesurfer and functional connectivity (FC) of Visual (VIS), Fronto-Parietal (FP), Ventral Attention (VAN) and Dorsal Attention (DAN) networks with CONN toolbox. Group comparisons were performed with MANCOVA. Area Under the Curve (AUC) was computed to assess the ability of visual variables to differentiate PDVH and PDnoVH. There were no significant PDVH vs PDnoVH differences in disease duration, motor manifestations, general cognition or dopamine agonist therapy (DA) use. Compared to PDnoVH and HC, and regardless of DA use, PDVH showed significantly reduced contrast sensitivity, visuoperceptive and visuospatial abilities, increased retina photoreceptor layer thickness, reduced cortical thickness mostly in right visual associative areas, decreased between-network VIS–VAN and VAN–DAN connectivity and increased within-network DAN connectivity. The combination of clinical and imaging variables that best discriminated PDVH and PDnoVH (highest AUC), where within-network DAN FC, photoreceptor layer thickness and cube analysis test from Visual Object and Space Perception Battery (accuracy of 81.8%). Compared to PDnoVH, PDVH have specific functional and structural abnormalities within the visual system, which can be quantified non-invasively and could potentially constitute biomarkers for VH in PD.
GEARING-Roles: a project to remember Lessons and thoughts from a four-year project GEARING-Roles aims to implement six equality plans to pursue the recognition and promotion of the research career of women, their incorporation in decision-making positions, and the promotion of a culture of equality in organisations, deconstructing sexual roles to unveil gender biases that operate in processes of decision-making, selection and promotion of people and in the attribution of value and recognition.
Bioclusters' promise of helping achieving sustainable bioeconomies has invoked great interest among policymakers and academia. However, bioclusters are not intrinsically sustainable. If they are to fulfil their promise, bioclusters must undergo green-restructuring. While cluster-research has elaborated on green regional development, we need more clarity on how clusters transition to normatively desired states; we need more evidence of how green-restructuring unfolds. In this study, we conduct a longitudinal analysis to demonstrate how a biocluster green-restructures through the interactions of agency, regional and industrial structures, and phenomena at (supra-)national levels. To execute this analysis, we created a novel cluster-evolution framework that treats clusters, and the regional innovation system and sectoral systems of innovation that contain the cluster, as complex adaptive systems. We applied this framework to study the greening of the Basque pulp-and paper-biocluster, over four phases between 1986 and 2019. Our analysis helped us discover patterns of agency, structural dynamics, and of agency-structure interactions and how supra-regional phenomena shaped structures and agency over the four phases. Based on our findings, we recommend policymakers encourage not only green-tech entrepreneurs, but also institutional-entrepreneurs and place-leaders who can help shape both (supra-)regional and industrial structures.
The essential role of creativity has been highlighted in several human knowledge areas. Regarding the neural underpinnings of creativity, there is evidence about the role of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) on divergent thinking (DT) and convergent thinking (CT). Transcranial stimulation studies suggest that the left DLPFC is associated with both DT and CT, whereas left IFG is more related to DT. However, none of the previous studies have targeted both hubs simultaneously and compared transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and random noise stimulation (tRNS). Additionally, given the relationship between cognitive flexibility and creativity, we included it in order to check if the improvement in creativity may be mediated by cognitive flexibility. In this double-blind, between-subjects study, 66 healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups ( N = 22) that received a transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), or sham for 20 min. The tDCS group received 1.5 mA with the anode over the left DLPFC and cathode over the left IFG. Locations in tRNS group were the same and they received 1.5 mA of high frequency tRNS (100–500 Hz). Divergent thinking was assessed before (baseline) and during stimulation with unusual uses (UU) and picture completion (PC) subtests from Torrance Creative thinking Test, whereas convergent thinking was evaluated with the remote association test (RAT). Stroop test was included to assess cognitive flexibility. ANCOVA results of performance under stimulation (controlling for baseline performance) showed that there were significant differences in PC ( F = 3.35, p = 0.042, n p 2 = 0.10) but not in UU ( F = 0.61, p = 0.546) and RAT ( F = 2.65, p = 0.079) scores. Post-hoc analyses showed that tRNS group had significantly higher scores compared to sham ( p = 0.004) in PC. More specifically, tRNS showed higher performance in fluency ( p = 0.012) and originality ( p = 0.021) dimensions of PC compared to sham. Regarding cognitive flexibility, we did not find any significant effect of any of the stimulation groups ( F = 0.34, p = 0.711). Therefore, no further mediation analyses were performed. Finally, the group that received tDCS reported more adverse effects than sham group ( F = 3.46, p = 0.035). Altogether, these results suggest that tRNS may have some advantages over tDCS in DT.
Although the study of religious phenomena from the perspective of lived religion was born in the North Atlantic countries, several researchers have adopted this approach in the Latin American context to account for the religious fact and its evolution. This orientation responds to the dissatisfaction with the conclusions reached by classical sociological theories when they try to explain the place and meaning of religion in the context of Latin American modernity, as in the case of the theories on secularization. This approach has proved promising, insofar as it offers evidence of the presence of the religious phenomenon in contemporary society that has not been sufficiently taken into account before. But, at the same time, it presents aspects that need to be clarified and/ or developed. One of them is the relationship between lived religion and the theoretical frameworks that, from the different social sciences, are intended to explain the religious phenomenon. This article offers some considerations on the fruitful relationship that can be established between lived religion and the phenomenology of religion. It identifies aspects in which both disciplines complement and enrich each other, as well as critical issues to be taken into account. Specifically, it proposes a phenomenological approach to two distinct and, at the same time, intertwined fields of analysis: lived religion and lived spirituality.
The main objective pursued by this survey is to debate the feasibility of a new distribution system in low voltage direct current (LVDC) microgrids and its impact on social development. To this end, this study provides valuable information for renewable energy planners and researchers, giving insights or solutions to reduce the transition gap between the current energy network and the future DC energy microgrids. Mainly, this article is divided into interlinking converters, protection schemes, and control systems, which have been analyzed taking into account the technical aspects of an LVDC microgrid as well as the social impact they have in poverty areas. This survey studies how low voltage DC networks can produce social welfare. In short, this paper assess social implications and technical issues, such as low inertia, grounding issues, voltage regulations, arc apparition, etc., providing a different approach to overcome these issues.
This study answers research calls regarding data analytics in a specific unit and its impact at the unit and organizational level. In doing so, it takes an information value chain approach to theorize about how quality data and IT-enabled data analytics sensing capability in the marketing unit relate differently to the unit performance as well as to firm-level performance. Results from a survey of 346 firms confirm the hypotheses by showing partially and fully mediated effects for quality data, and direct and partially mediated effects for sensing capability.
This paper aims to show how some standard general results can be used to uncover the spectral theory of tridiagonal and related matrices more elegantly and simply than existing approaches. As a typical example, we apply the theory to the special tridiagonal matrices in recent papers on orthogonal polynomials arising from Jordan blocks. Consequently, we find that the polynomials and spectral theory of the special matrices are expressible in terms of the Chebyshev polynomials of second kind, whose properties yield interesting results. For special cases, we obtain results in terms of the Fibonacci numbers and Legendre polynomials.
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