University of Colombo
  • Colombo, Sri Lanka
Recent publications
Edited by Claudia Montefusco Keywords: Ferritin Liza haematocheila Iron deprivation Host antibacterial defense A B S T R A C T Iron (Fe) is considered as an essential micronutrient due to its diverse functions in living systems. However, regulation of free iron levels is essential because free Fe ions, in excess, induce biological toxicity through different routes, including production of reactive oxygen species. Ferritin proteins play a vital role in controlling free Fe ion homeostasis by sequestering excess iron in the body. Ferritins comprise an H subunit with a fer-roxidase center and an L subunit with a Fe nucleation site. However, lower vertebrates such as fish harbor an additional subunit termed ferritin M, which shows the characteristic features of both H and L. In this study, two ferritin subunits (H and M) with ferroxidase centers were identified and characterized from red-lip mullet (Liza haematocheila). The open reading frames of red-lip mullet ferritin H (LhFerH) and ferritin M− like (LhFerM) subunits comprise 534 and 531 bps, which encode for putative polypeptides of 177 and 176 amino acids, respectively. LhFerH and LhFerM were found to retain well-conserved residues, including seven ferroxidase di-iron centers, characteristic domains, and signatures of their known homologs. We cloned the open reading frames of the two ferritin subunits to overexpress the corresponding proteins in Escherichia coli and subsequently demonstrated their iron sequestration activity along with antibacterial activity against E. coli using respective purified recombinant proteins in vitro. A basal expression analysis of two LhFer genes in selected tissues using qPCR assays showed pronounced expression in blood cells with respect to both genes. A relatively high expression level of LhFerH was also detected in muscle tissues. The expression level of LhFer in the head kidney was significantly up-regulated following lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and Lactococcus garvieae injection. The resulting gene expression pattern upon immune stimulation suggests that ferritin may contribute to the defense against harmful pathogen infection. Collectively, our results indicate that both LhFerH and LhFerM potentially participate in the homeostasis of free Fe ions and in the host immune defense of red-lip mullet.
Sri Lanka has a rich snake diversity, but the island’s scolecophidians (‘blindsnakes’) are poorly understood due to the cryptic, burrowing habits of these inconspicuous animals and lack of systematic field surveys and morphological and molecular analyses. Here we report findings from a systematic survey carried out over a decade across the island of Sri Lanka, focusing particularly on the globally widespread, parthenogenetic species Indotyphlops braminus. We report 780 locations across the island in which this species was recorded, at elevations of 1–1,424 m asl, and mostly <1,000 m (771 out of 780 localities). We provide a molecular-systematics perspective by reporting new DNA sequence data for 15 specimens from Sri Lanka, and new analyses of asiatyphlopine molecular genetic diversity and relationships. Based on molecular results, we conclude that (i) Indotyphlops, as originally conceived may not be monophyletic, (ii) phenotypically the I. braminus-like blindsnakes widespread across most of Sri Lanka are a single, genetically homogeneous species, and (iii) some populations from peninsular India are very similar in DNA sequence to I. braminus from Sri Lanka, but others are genetically highly distinct and unlikely to be conspecific. Based on the estimated phylogenetic relationships, we recommend that I. braminus is currently best recognized as a phenotypically exceptional species of Indotyphlops rather than, as recently proposed, the only species of a monotypic genus (Virgotyphlops).
Background Medical professionalism reflects the commitment of physicians to their patients, society, themselves, and the profession. The study examined residents’ attitudes towards professionalism and how these attitudes vary among the different demographic groups, namely gender, specialty, and year of residency. Methods A proportionate random sampling strategy was used to select the study sample. Medical residents from six specialties at a large tertiary care teaching facility were invited to participate in an online survey. The survey used the modified Learners Attitude of Medical Professionalism Scale (LAMPS), which consists of five domains: respect, excellence, altruism, duty/accountability, and integrity. Chi-square, Student t-test, one-way ANOVA, factorial ANOVA, and post hoc analysis were used to examine the attitudinal differences towards professionalism among the different demographic factors. Results The overall response rate was 82.7%. Overall, the residents’ self-reported attitudes towards professionalism was positive. The highest score was for the “respect” domain (4.61), and the lowest was for “altruism” (3.67). No significant association was found between the mean scores and the three studied variables, namely, gender, specialty (surgical/nonsurgical), and level (senior/junior). Conclusions No significant differences were observed in the overall attitude towards professionalism among the residents regarding their year of residency, gender, and specialty. The low altruism score and absence of improvement of the total score regarding the residents’ increasing experience in the profession are concerns that need remedial action. Therefore, we suggest that future research look for possible explanations by using multi-institutional surveys that explore not only the residents’ attitudes, but also the trainers’ attitudes and practice, work situations, the hidden curriculum, and culture. • Key messages • Attitudes towards professionalism among different demographic groups of residents do not show similar variations as has been reported in the literature, albeit in different sociocultural contexts. • The low altruism score and absence of improvement of the total score as the residents gained more experience in the profession are concerns that need remedial action. • A longitudinal study involving more than one institution for both residents and their faculty members to compare faculty scores with those of residents, while controlling for specialty and gender, may help elucidate the factors affecting attitudes towards professionalism and suggest possible means of addressing unfavourable attitudes.
Objective To study the change in trend of antenatal mental health and associated factors among a cohort of pregnant women during the second wave of COVID-19 using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Previous study using the same scale, during the first wave reported a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression. Results A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at the two large maternity hospitals in Colombo, Sri Lanka: Castle Street Hospital for Women (CSHW) and De Soysa Hospital for Women (DSHW). Consecutively recruited 311 women were studied. Out of which, 272 (87.5%) were having uncomplicated pregnancies at the time of the survey and 106 (34.1%) were either anxious, depressed, or both. Prevalence of anxiety was 17.0% and depression 27.0%. Overall, continuing COVID-19 pandemic increased antenatal anxiety and depression. The trend was to aggravate depression more intensively compared to anxiety in this cohort of women studied. Special support is needed for pregnant mothers during infectious epidemics taking more attention to antenatal depression.
Being the dietary staple in most Asian countries, the concentrations of toxic and essential element content in rice is an important aspect in terms of both toxicological and nutritional standpoints. This study aimed to analyse trace elements (As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, and Mo) in improved, traditional, and imported rice varieties consumed in Colombo district , Sri Lanka during 2018 and 2019. Further, the potential health risks were assessed in terms of maximum levels and provisional tolerable daily intake. Among the toxic elements analysed, As, Cd, Cr, and Pb were detected in certain rice varieties. Arsenic was detected in all three rice categories and the number of As detected samples were higher compared to other toxic elements in 2018 and 2019. In 2018, 4.2% of traditional rice exceeded As maximum level (0.2 mg/kg) whereas 2.1% of improved and 4.2% of traditional rice exceeded Pb maximum level (0.2 mg/kg). However, none of the toxic elements in rice exceeded the respective maximum levels in 2019. Only mean estimated daily intake of Pb through Kaluheenati exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intake value (0.0015 mg/kg bw/d) in 2018. Rice varieties that reported the highest toxic elements were Basmathi (imported), Samba (improved), and Kaluheenati, Madathawalu, Pachchaperuman , and Suwadel ( traditional ) . With regard to essential elements, concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Mo in rice were positively correlated ( p < 0.05) to each other, and the highest essential element concentration were found in traditional rice with red pericarp (i.e., Kaluheenati, Madathawalu, and Pachchaperuman ).
Objective Although linkage studies have been utilized for the identification of variants associated with cancer in the world, little is known about their role in non BRCA1/2 individuals in the Sri Lankans. Hence we performed linkage analysis to identify susceptibility loci related to the inherited risk of cancer in a cohort of Sri Lankans affected with hereditary breast cancer. The Illumina global screening array having 654,027 single nucleotide polymorphism markers was performed in four families, in which at least three individuals within third degree relatives were affected by breast cancer. Two-point parametric linkage analysis was conducted assuming disease allele frequency of 1%. Penetrance was set at 90% for carriers with a 10% phenocopy rate. Results Thirty-one variants exhibited genome-wide suggestive HLODs. The top overall HLOD score was at rs1856277, an intronic variant in MYO16 on chromosome 13. The two most informative families also suggested several candidate linked loci in genes, including ERAP1 , RPRM , WWOX , CDH1 , EXOC1, HUS1B , STIM1 and TUSC1 . This study provides the first step in identifying germline variants that may be involved in risk of cancer in cancer-aggregated non- BRCA1/2 families from the understudied Sri Lankan population. Several candidate linked regions showed suggestive evidence of linkage to cancer risk.
Background Preeclampsia is a multifactorial cardiovascular disorder of pregnancy. If left untreated, it can lead to severe maternal and fetal outcomes. Hence, timely diagnosis and management of preeclampsia are extremely important. Biomarkers of oxidative stress are associated with the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and therefore could be indicative of evolving preeclampsia and utilized for timely diagnosis. In this study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the most reliable oxidative stress biomarkers in preeclampsia, based on their diagnostic sensitivities and specificities as well as their positive and negative predictive values. Methods A systematic search using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ResearchGate, and PLOS databases (1900 to March 2021) identified nine relevant studies including a total of 343 women with preeclampsia and 354 normotensive controls. Results Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), uric acid (UA), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were associated with 3.38 (95% CI 2.23, 4.53), 3.05 (95% CI 2.39, 3.71), and 2.37 (95% CI 1.03, 3.70) odds ratios for preeclampsia diagnosis, respectively. The IMA showed the most promising diagnostic potential with the positive predictive ratio (PPV) of 0.852 (95% CI 0.728, 0.929) and negative predictive ratio (NPV) of 0.811 (95% CI 0.683, 0.890) for preeclampsia. Minor between-study heterogeneity was reported for these biomarkers (Higgins’ I ² = 0–15.879%). Conclusions This systematic review and meta-analysis identified IMA, UA, and MDA as the most promising oxidative stress biomarkers associated with established preeclampsia. IMA as a biomarker of tissue damage exhibited the best diagnostic test accuracy. Thus, these oxidative stress biomarkers should be further explored in larger cohorts for preeclampsia diagnosis. Graphical Abstract
Background The incidence of IgE mediated food allergy (FA) is increasing in the west. Cow's milk (CM), hen's egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nut, fish, and shellfish are responsible for 90% of food allergy in the west; however, local dietary habits may result in specific allergies. Data on food allergies in South Asia is scarce. The present study aims to evaluate the foods that cause immediate type hypersensitivity in Sri Lanka, and to compare with Asia and the developed west. Methods Records of patients referred to an Immunology clinic from 2010–January 2022 were reviewed. The diagnosis of food allergy was based on standard guidelines. Confirmation of the specific food implicated was based on the history and the presence of specific IgE or component resolved diagnostics by in vitro methods (Phadia ImmunoCap) or by skin prick testing with commercial extracts (Alk Abello). Prick to prick testing was performed for fruits and vegetables when commercial extracts were unavailable. Results Three hundred and forty-six patients were confirmed with food allergy. CM allergy (CMA) was the commonest (31.2%) followed by red meat allergy (27.7%) and food dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) (17.9%). Allergy to alpha-gal crustaceans, eggs, gelatin, wheat, coconut milk, and mollusks were seen in 2–10% of patients. The onset of CMA was mainly in childhood. However, in 23/108 patients, onset was after 5 years, including 8 patients in adulthood, and in 14 of the 23, it was preceded by red meat allergy. Onset of primary red meat allergy was predominantly in children, but in 33/96 (34.3%) of patients, it was in adults. Most patients with alpha-gal allergy (21/29, 72.4%) had initial symptoms in childhood and adolescence. Anaphylaxis was diagnosed in 213 patients. FDEIA is the commonest cause (24.7%) followed by red meat allergy (23%), CMA (21.5%) and alpha-gal allergy (10.3%). Allergy to peanuts and fruits were rare. Patients with red meat allergy and/or CMA developed allergy, including anaphylaxis, to vaccines containing bovine/porcine products. Conclusion CM was the most common food allergy in children, but egg allergy was uncommon. Primary red meat allergy was the second most common, and was associated with allergy to vaccines containing bovine products, such as the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. Allergy to peanuts and fruits were rare. Primary red meat allergy may be responsible for late onset CMA.
Background &objectives: BK virus (BKV) is a polyomavirus and cause of a common infection after renal transplantation which could be preceded to BKV-associated nephropathy. It has four main subtypes (I-IV). BKV subtypes II and III are rare, whereas subtype I shows a ubiquitous distribution. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevailing BKV subtypes and subgroups in renal transplant patients in Sri Lanka. Methods: The presence of BKV in urine was tested through virus load quantification by real-time PCR from 227 renal transplant patients who were suspected to have BKV infection. Of these patients only 41 were found to be BKV infected (>103copies/ml) and those were subjected to conventional PCR amplification of VP1 gene followed by BKV genotyping via phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequencing data. Results: Persistent BK viral loads varied from 1×103 to 3×108 copies/ml. Of the 41 patient samples, 25 gave positive results for PCR amplification of subtyping region of VP1 gene of BKV. BKV genotyping resulted in detecting subtype I in 18 (72%) and subtype II in seven (28%) patients. BKV subgroups of Ia, Ib-1 and Ib -11, and Ic were identified with frequencies of 6/18 (33.3%), 6/18 (33.3%), 5/18 (27.8%), and 1/18 (5.6%), respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Findings from this preliminary study showed a high occurrence of subtype I, while the presence of subtype II, which is rare and less prevalent, was a novel finding for this Asian region. This emphasizes the need for further molecular and serological studies to determine the prevalence of different BKV subtypes in Sri Lanka.
Introduction and importance Although synchronous and metachronous tumours of the bowel are well known associations of Lynch syndrome, the association of skin malignancies in such patients are extremely rare. Case presentation A 40-year-old Sri Lankan man with a strong family history of colorectal cancer had an extended right hemicolectomy for a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Two months after surgery, he developed two discrete ulcerative skin lesions in the chin and occipital region which excision biopsy confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma. After more than two years of follow-up, patient remains disease free. Clinical discussion The Muir Torre variant of Lynch syndrome is characteristically associated with sebaceous adenomas and carcinomas, occurance of squamous cell carcinomas are rare. In reported cases, defective mismatch repair genes associated with Lynch syndrome may suggest an increased predisposition for squamous cell carcinomas. Conclusion The patients with Lynch syndrome should be educated on the importance of seeking an early medical consult for new skin lesions and raising awareness of this rare phenomenon for physicians involved in follow up.
Background Anopheles stephensi is an invasive mosquito in Sri Lanka that can potentially transmit malaria. The transmission intensity is linked with biology, bionomic and behavioral aspects of a vector that are associated with the Vectorial Capacity (VC). However, the influence of larval conditions eventually affects the vectorial potential of An. stephensi are not well understood. Methods A colony of An. stephensi was established at the Regional Centre of the Open University of Sri Lanka, Jaffna District. The colony was maintained under confined conditions according to standard protocols. Biotypes of An. stephensi were characterized by referring to the number of egg ridges. Information on (a) biological aspects of eggs (duration for egg hatching, egg development and hatchability), (b) larval development time, larval survivorship pupation success, resting depth of larvae), (c) pupae (adult emergence rate, average time for adult emergence) and (d) adults (biting frequency, mating success gonotrophic cycle, fecundity, duration for egg-laying, percentage of sexes, adult survival/longevity) were evaluated under life-table analysis. Further, selected morphometric characters of each life cycle stage were recorded from the eggs (length and breadth), larvae (head length, width of head, length of thorax, width of thorax, length of abdomen, width of abdomen, and the total length of larvae), pupae (cephalothoracic length and width) and adults (length & width of wing, thorax and abdomen). The VC was calculated using a mathematical-based approach. Descriptive statistics, General Linear Model (GLM) and independent-sample t-test were used for the statistical analysis. Results All three biotypes were identified based on egg morphology. Mysorensis biotype (47%; n = 470) was predominant followed by type (38.1%; n = 381) and intermediate (14.9%; n = 149). The mean egg length (F (2,997) = 3.56; P = 0.029) and breadth (F (2,997) = 4.57; P = 0.011) denoted significant differences among the three biotypes. The mating success of females observed was 80.7 ± 4.45%. The mean hatching period was 1.9 ± 0.03 days, with a hatching rate of 86.2 ± 0.77%. Overall, 8.0 ± 0.14 days were required for larval development and 30.3 ± 0.14 h were spent in the pupal stage. The pupation success was 94.5 ± 0.37%, and the majority were males (53.1 ± 0.73%). The mean fecundity was 106.5 ± 6.38 eggs and a gonotrophic cycle of 3.4 ± 0.06 days. The female survival rate was 43.2 ± 2.4%, with a mean biting frequency of 66.6 ± 3.5%. The average VC of adult An. stephensi was estimated to be 18.7. Conclusions The type biotype, which is an effective vector in the Indian subcontinent is present in Sri Lanka. According to the mathematical approximation, An. stephensi found locally has a vectorial capacity of over 18. Therefore, this study warrants the health authorities and vector control programmes to continue the entomological surveys, monitoring of vector densities and implementing appropriate vector control interventions based on biology and bionomic information of vectors.
Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean connected by the sea routes of the Western and Eastern worlds. Although settlements of anatomically modern humans date back to 48,000 years, to date there is no genetic information on pre-historic individuals in Sri Lanka. We report here the first complete mitochondrial sequences for Mesolithic hunter-gatherers from two cave sites. The mitochondrial haplogroups of pre-historic individuals were M18a and M35a. Pre-historic mitochondrial lineage M18a was found at a low prevalence among Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamils, and Sri Lankan Indian Tamil in the Sri Lankan population, whereas M35a lineage was observed across all Sri Lankan populations with a comparatively higher frequency among the Sinhalese. Both haplogroups are Indian derived and observed in the South Asian region and rarely outside the region.
Background: The recently emerged novel coronavirus, "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)", caused a highly contagious disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has severely damaged the world's most developed countries and has turned into a major threat for low- and middle-income countries. Since its emergence in late 2019, medical interventions have been substantial, and most countries relied on public health measures collectively known as nonpharmaceutical interventions. Aims: To centralize the accumulative knowledge on non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against COVID-19 for each country under one worldwide consortium. Methods: International COVID-19 Research Network collaborators developed a cross-sectional online-survey to assess the implications of NPIs and sanitary supply on incidence and mortality of COVID-19. Survey was conducted between January 1 and February 1, 2021, and participants from 92 countries/territories completed it. The association between NPIs, sanitation supplies and incidence and mortality were examined by multivariate regression, with log-transformed value of population as an offset value. Results: Majority of countries/territories applied several preventive strategies including social distancing (100.0%), quarantine (100.0%), isolation (98.9%), and school closure (97.8%). Individual-level preventive measures such as personal hygiene (100.0%) and wearing facial mask (94.6% at hospital; 93.5% at mass transportation; 91.3% in mass gathering facilities) were also frequently applied. Quarantine at a designated place was negatively associated with incidence and mortality compared to home quarantine. Isolation at a designated place was also associated with reduced mortality compared to home isolation. Recommendations to use sanitizer for personal hygiene reduced incidence compared to recommendation to use soap did. Deprivation of mask was associated with increased incidence. Higher incidence and mortality were found in countries/territories with higher economic level. Mask deprivation was pervasive regardless of economic level. Conclusion: NPIs against COVID-19 such as using sanitizer, quarantine, and isolation can decrease incidence and mortality of COVID-19. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Background Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is the most common form of arthritis, causing disability and impaired quality of life especially in the elderly. Sri Lankan traditional medicine (STM) is widely used to treat OA, but no clinical trial evaluated on STM regimens for KOA to discuss their safety and efficacy in the treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of STM regimen for KOA in comparison to recommended conventional pain management therapy over a period of 8 weeks on relieving the condition. Study design This is a clinical trial following a protocol-driven open-labeled randomized controlled study enrolling patients with KOA that will be conducted as a single-center trial in the National Ayurveda Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka. Rasnadvigunabhagasaya herbal decoction (RDBD) and an herbal pill Yoaraja Guggulu were selected as the rescue medication for treating joint disorders. The two Ayurvedic dosage forms will be tested against the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs tab paracetamol and tab ibuprofen as the rescue medication for their safety and efficacy. As test products for external application, oil with an herbal fomentation—Kumburuetaperumkayam Pottani (KAP)—and paste—Sandivadam Lepaya (SVL)—were selected. External applications will be tested against the diclofenac sodium gel and hot water fomentation. KOA patients will be allocated randomly into two arms, and the medications will be given orally for 60 days and externally for 30 days. The primary endpoint is the change in the score on the WOMAC after 08 weeks. WOMAC and KOOS will be recorded and compared between the two arms prior to visiting 1, at the end of 15 days and end of 30 days, and end of the 45 days and end of the second month and 3 months of follow-up. KOOS and WOMAC subscales, a pain disability index, a visual analog scale for pain and sleep quality, and a quality-of-life index are used as secondary outcome measurements. Discussion This clinical trial will be able to provide evidence-based scientific data on Sri Lankan traditional medicine regimens in the management of KOA. This trial is expected to develop capacity to scientifically evaluate various STM that are claimed to have efficacy in treatment of various disease conditions. Trial registration ISRCTN58050062.
Abstract Background Excessive free sugar intake tends to be associated with unpleasant health consequences, such as dental caries and unhealthy weight gain in children, as well as a number of noncommunicable diseases in adults. The WHO suggests that the best method for addressing these issues is to reduce free sugar consumption throughout life, in order to be successful, these measures should be implemented as early as possible. This makes the early formative years of preschool an important point for possible intervention. To confirm this, baseline information on current sugar intake levels is needed, as well as identification of factors associated with high levels of consumption. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in the district of Colombo, Sri Lanka. The probability proportionate to size technique combined with cluster sampling was used to select a representative sample of 813 children aged 4-5-years from 82 preschools. We developed, and validated a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess free sugar consumption. Data on correlated factors were collected from caregivers using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Results Based on the data, the daily median (IQR) free sugar intake of preschool children was 57.9 (33.2-95.8) grams/day (approximately to 14.5 (8.3-23.9) teaspoons/day) or 21.1% (12.5-34.9%) of their daily energy requirements. The WHO recommends limiting sugar intake to less than 5% of total energy intake; however, the current level is fourfold, and 96% of children consume higher percentage of energy from free sugar than recommended. In terms of total daily sugar consumption, bakery products accounted for 27%, followed by biscuits (15%), and table sugar (15%). Increasing maternal education level significantly reduced sugar intake (p = 0.04). Children of other ethnicities ate more sugar than the Sinhala children (p = 0.01). There was higher sugar intake among those who ate while returning from preschool (p
Societies’ ideologies on the distribution of unpaid labour seem to have remained stagnant despite dramatic shifts in the worlds of work and society. The distribution of unpaid labour has implications for the wellbeing of individuals and the sustainability of their various personal and professional relationships. Our study addressed the less-researched “what” and “why” of the distribution of unpaid labour among dual-earner couples during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used a qualitative approach, conducting 32 semi-structured interviews with individuals belonging to dual-earner couples in Sri Lanka. Interview data were thematically analysed using social role theory. Six major findings emanated from our study; (1) the pandemic did not drastically change the distribution of unpaid labour in most dual-earner couples, confirming traditional gender norms; (2) there was a change in the contribution of men towards unpaid labour when the woman was at home (working from home or during maternity leave), or had other means of support from domestic aid or extended family; (3) three clusters of men were identified as “sharing”, “chipping-in”, and “not-my-problem” types, depending on their involvement in unpaid labour; (4) “chipping-in” and “not-my-problem” type men reinforced the notion of gendered distribution of unpaid labour; (5) three clusters of women were identified as “sharing”, “asking-for-help”, and “bearing-the-cross” types; and (6) these couples, and women specifically, endured the unequal division of unpaid labour with the assistance of parents, in-laws, or paid domestic help. Our study has implications for the sustainability of individuals, as well as their wellbeing, families, organisations, and society.
As the number of observations submitted to the citizen science platform iNaturalist continues to grow, it is increasingly important that these observations can be identified to the finest taxonomic level, maximizing their value for biodiversity research. Here, we explore the benefits of acting as an identifier on iNaturalist.
Child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) are a global priority. Different countries across the globe face unique challenges in CAMH services that are specific to them. However, there are multiple issues that are also similar across countries. These issues have been presented in this commentary from the lens of early career CAMH professionals who are alumni of the Donald J Cohen Fellowship program of the IACAPAP. We also present recommendations that can be implemented locally, namely, how promoting mental health and development of children and adolescents can result in better awareness and interventions, the need to improve quality of care and access to care, use of technology to advance research and practices in CAMH, and how investing in research can secure and support CAMH professionals and benefit children and adolescents across the globe. As we continue to navigate significant uncertainty due to dynamic circumstances globally, bolstering collaborations by "bringing change locally, while thinking globally" are invaluable to advancing global CAMH research, clinical service provision, and advancement of the field.
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5,381 members
Chandrika Nanayakkara
  • Department of Plant Sciences
Rajika Dewasurendra
  • Department of Parasitology
Pathirage Kamal Perera
  • Institute of Indigenous Medicine (IIM)
Senaka Rajapakse
  • Department of Clinical Medicine
Erandathie Lokupitiya
  • Department of Zoology and Environment Sciences
90, Cumaratunga Munidasa Mawatha, 00300, Colombo, Sri Lanka