In this present paper, we concern a non-smooth higher-order extension of Noether’s symmetry theorem for variational isoperimetric problems with delayed arguments. The result is proven to be valid in the class of Lipschitz functions, as long as the delayed higher-order Euler–Lagrange extremals are restricted to those that satisfy the delayed higher-order DuBois-Reymond necessary optimality condition. The important case of delayed isoperimetric optimal control problems is considered as well.
The use of anthropogenic debris as nest-building materials may affect nest function. We study ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) on an island with scarce vegetation and high availability of beached marine debris. We describe the anthropogenic debris in osprey nests, evaluate the factors affecting its prevalence and abundance, and test its potential effects on breeding parameters. We also quantify plastic entanglements among adults and nestlings. Of the 36 studied nests, 92 % included non-natural items, with plastic being the most frequent material (88.9 %). Nests that were bigger and closer to the coast had more anthropogenic items. The abundance of anthropogenic items in nests did not correlate with osprey breeding parameters. We recorded two live entangled adult females, which represent 3.9 % of the adult population. Monitoring the abundance of anthropogenic debris and its effects on wildlife is necessary to guarantee long-term viability of coastal wildlife.
Sub‐Saharan Africa has been the last continent to experience a significant number of cases in the novel Coronavirus (COVID‐19). Studies suggest that air pollution is related to COVID‐19 mortality; poor air quality has been linked to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases, which are considered co‐morbidities linked to COVID‐19 deaths. We examine potential connections between country‐wide COVID‐19 cases and environmental conditions in Senegal, Cabo Verde, Nigeria, Cote D'Ivorie, and Angola. We analyze PM2.5 concentrations, temperatures from cost‐effective in situ measurements, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and fire count and NO2 column values from space‐borne platforms from 1 January 2020 through 31 March 2021. Our results show that the first COVID‐19 wave in West Africa began during the wet season of 2020, followed by a second during the dry season of 2020. In Angola, the first wave starts during the biomass burning season but does not peak until November of 2020. Overall PM2.5 concentrations are the highest in Ibadan, Nigeria, and coincided with the second wave of COVID‐19 in late 2021 and early 2022. The COVID‐19 waves in Cabo Verde are not in phase with those in Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote, lagging by several months in general. Overall, the highest correlations occurred between weekly new COVID‐19 cases meteorological and air quality variables occurred in the dry season.
Coral reefs are losing the capacity to sustain their biological functions¹. In addition to other well-known stressors, such as climatic change and overfishing¹, plastic pollution is an emerging threat to coral reefs, spreading throughout reef food webs², and increasing disease transmission and structural damage to reef organisms³. Although recognized as a global concern⁴, the distribution and quantity of plastics trapped in the world’s coral reefs remains uncertain³. Here we survey 84 shallow and deep coral ecosystems at 25 locations across the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian ocean basins for anthropogenic macrodebris (pollution by human-generated objects larger than 5 centimetres, including plastics), performing 1,231 transects. Our results show anthropogenic debris in 77 out of the 84 reefs surveyed, including in some of Earth’s most remote and near-pristine reefs, such as in uninhabited central Pacific atolls. Macroplastics represent 88% of the anthropogenic debris, and, like other debris types, peak in deeper reefs (mesophotic zones at 30–150 metres depth), with fishing activities as the main source of plastics in most areas. These findings contrast with the global pattern observed in other nearshore marine ecosystems, where macroplastic densities decrease with depth and are dominated by consumer items⁵. As the world moves towards a global treaty to tackle plastic pollution⁶, understanding its distribution and drivers provides key information to help to design the strategies needed to address this ubiquitous threat.
The transport of passively dispersed organisms across tropical margins remains poorly understood. Hypotheses of oceanographic transportation potential lack testing with large scale empirical data. To address this gap, we used the seagrass species, Halodule wrightii, which is unique in spanning the entire tropical Atlantic. We tested the hypothesis that genetic differentiation estimated across its large-scale biogeographic range can be predicted by simulated oceanographic transport. The alternative hypothesis posits that dispersal is independent of ocean currents, such as transport by grazers. We compared empirical genetic estimates and modelled predictions of dispersal along the distribution of H. wrightii. We genotyped eight microsatellite loci on 19 populations distributed across Atlantic Africa, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Brazil and developed a biophysical model with high-resolution ocean currents. Genetic data revealed low gene flow and highest differentiation between (1) the Gulf of Mexico and two other regions: (2) Caribbean-Brazil and (3) Atlantic Africa. These two were more genetically similar despite separation by an ocean. The biophysical model indicated low or no probability of passive dispersal among populations and did not match the empirical genetic data. The results support the alternative hypothesis of a role for active dispersal vectors like grazers.
Created in 2015 by the United Nations Statistical Commission, the Praia Group on Governance Statistics aims “to contribute to establishing international standards and methods for the compilation of statistics on the major dimensions of governance”. The Praia Group has recently created two “Task Teams” led by national statistical offices from around the world – one on Non-Discrimination and Equality, and one on Participation in Political and Public Affairs – whose aim is to advance the development of international statistical guidance, standards and instruments to measure these two dimensions. This article reviews the work accomplished so far by each Task Team to develop internationally harmonized model survey questionnaires on these two dimensions, in order to enable the production of comprehensive survey-based statistics on Discrimination and Participation that are comparable across different cultures, languages and development contexts, and over time.
Predator-prey interactions provide key information on the role of each species in the community and an overall assessment of the stability of food webs. DNA metabarcoding has the potential to provide highly informative data which substantially enhance trophic interactions analysis, by providing higher taxonomic detail compared to earlier methods. Here we show, using the Cabo Verde seabird community, that the integrated analysis of trophic networks based on DNA metabarcoding of faecal samples can increase considerably our understanding of the trophic interactions in whole communities. Results revealed that these seabird species prey mostly on fish, with most seabirds relying heavily on very few prey species, which are also targeted by fisheries. This community shows high specialization and modularity levels, i.e., is dominated by seabird species with specialized diets. Such network structure has implications for its management and conservation because specialist predators are especially vulnerable to prey depletion. The Cape Verde shearwater ( Calonectris edwardsii ), identified as the main network connector species, was confirmed to be a suitable sentinel species of changes in this marine food web. Our results clearly show that network analysis can be used effectively to maximize the potential of DNA metabarcoding in studying trophic interactions of complex communities.
This manuscript presents the advances of a pilot testing, located in Spain, using ultrafiltration (UF) membranes to supply drinking water. These results could be extended to the islands of the Macaronesia area, for instance, Azores, Madeira, Canaries, and Cape Verde. The UF project targeted by the pilot activity is a refurbishment of an existing installation. The existing installation is located at a higher altitude, thus drinking water could be supplied to most of the island without further pumping, reducing the carbon footprint, ecological footprint, and energy consumption. The raw water is soft surface water (mainly of rainwater origin) coming from a dam. On the islands of Macaronesia, water is a scarce resource in high demand. Therefore, this is a technically and economically viable business opportunity with a promising future for isolated water treatment systems to produce drinking water on islands. The Macaronesia area is formed by volcanic islands with a small surface in the Atlantic Ocean, so usually there is not enough space for conventional technology and only a compact UF can be used. The raw water quality is not satisfactory and the municipality receives many complaints from end users, thus a potable water plant with UF membranes is in high demand to supply drinking water of good quality. Membrane processes can be categorized into various, related methods, three of which include the following: pore size, molecular weight cut-off, and operating pressure. Regarding the obtained results, the UF system successfully produced excellent filtrate quality with turbidity readings on average less than 0.03 NTU; furthermore, membrane instantaneous flux of 90 Lmh at 14 °C is achievable with long-term stability under various feed water conditions, peak operations are available at 105 Lmh without a large impact on the filtration performance of the modules, and CIP is only to be performed if the TMP increase reaches the terminal point.
Plants continue to constitute key elements of medical practice in West African countries. The Cabo Verde archipelago hosts a great diversity of medicinal plants and local markets are considered important sites for trading plants harvested by rural communities. This study has two main goals: (i) to assess the medicinal uses of native species in Santiago, the biggest island of the archipelago, and (ii) to evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antidiabetic/antihyperglycemic activities of two native trees (Tamarix senegalensis and Sideroxylon marginatum) used in traditional medicine and traded in local markets. Our results revealed that on Santiago Island, 24 native plants are used in traditional medicine. The main uses of these species (e.g., forage, timber, food and fibres), their medicinal applications, the plant parts used, their mode of administration and conservation status are presented here for the first time. Moreover, the pharmacological characterization of two native tree species revealed that hydroethanolic extracts were richer in phenolic compounds and more active than their aqueous counterparts. All the studied extracts revealed significant antioxidant properties (DPPH and FRAP assays) and were generally moderately active against Gram-positive bacteria. All the extracts inhibited the activities of the carbohydrate digestive enzymes α-glucosidase and α-amylase in a dose-dependent manner. For α-glucosidase, the detected inhibitory activity (IC50 values from 2.0 ± 0.2 μg/mL to 9.9 ± 1.2 μg/mL) was significantly higher than that of acarbose, suggesting that extracts of both species can delay glucose absorption, thereby assisting in slowing down the progression of diabetes. Our findings highlight the crucial importance that medicinal plants have for the Cabo Verdean population, while also raising awareness on the need for sustainable use and conservation of native flora, and of tree species traded in local markets in particular.
Ultra-High-Performance Concrete (UHPC) is characterized by having an ultra-compact matrix resulting in ultra-high mechanical properties, low permeability to water and gases, and improved ductility provided by the addition of fibers. The production of structures with this type of concrete is advantageous in some situations, especially in aggressive environments since it significantly increases durability. However, high dosages of Portland cement and silica fume are commonly adopted, increasing not only the cost but also the environmental impact, jeopardizing its use, mainly in the present context where the sustainability of the construction sector is a global priority. In this sense, improving the eco-efficiency of this type of concrete is mandatory. The objective of this work is to develop eco-ultra-high-durability concrete (eco-UHDC). The UHDC matrix was optimized, focusing mainly on durability and looking for the lowest environmental impact, where several parameters were varied: cement replacement ratio, additions in binder matrix and its relative proportions, water/binder ratio, type of fibers, and its proportion. The developed eco-UHDC was characterized both in fresh and hardened states, in terms of mechanical properties, time-dependent properties, and durability. This last topic includes the characterization of durability parameters under laboratory conditions and in a real environment, namely, in the tidal zone of the coast of Cape Verde. The results of resistance to carbonation and chloride penetration were used to predict the service life of structures produced with these eco-UHDC. The optimization of the UHDC matrix allowed the development of mixtures with only 60% of cement in relation to the total amount of powder of the matrix, maintaining good workability and the desired mechanical characteristics (compressive strength higher than 100 MPa and flexural strength higher than 12 MPa). The results also showed that considering only the requirements related to durability, the cover of structures produced with these optimized mixtures can be lower than the values recommended by Eurocode 2, with differences that can reach 55%, mainly when pozzolan of Cape Verde is used as partial replacement of Portland cement.
This chapter refers to aging in Cabo Verde, a Western African country. The text starts with aging in Africa and the West African Region, followed by geography and climate of Cabo Verde and a historical overview of settlement by the Portuguese, their initial perceptions as healthy islands, epidemiology of slave society and the consequences of prevalent diseases and famines. The one genetic profile of the Cape Verdean population, the age pyramid and urbanization phenomenon are addressed, including the demographic effects of aging and the elderly. Philosophy, structures and budgetary evolution of the National Health Service, healthy and active aging policies, aging and poverty and aging and gender are also addressed. The main principles and values of public policies intended for the elderly caring are revisited, followed by considerations concerning the next update to the Strategic Plan for Healthy Aging and public policies, intended for healthy living and active aging in Cabo Verde.
A Lei n.o 6/2011, de 10 de março, que alterou a Lei n.o 23/96, de 26 de julho (Lei dos Serviços Públicos Essenciais) e a Lei n.o 63/2019, de 16 de agosto, que alterou a Lei n.o 24/96, de 31 de Julho (Lei de Defesa do Consumidor) preveem a arbitragem potestativa para litígios de consumo no âmbito dos serviços públicos essenciais ou de reduzido valor económico, respetivamente. Em ambos os regimes, permite-se ao consumidor a resolução dos litígios de consumo por arbitragem, através de um centro de arbitragem de consumo, impondo-se esta sua vontade ao profissional. Procede-se neste artigo a uma referência à importância da arbitragem potestativa no acesso ao direito por parte dos consumidores, seguindo-se uma análise dos respetivos regimes previstos na Lei dos Serviços Públicos Essenciais e na Lei de Defesa do Consumidor, primeiro isoladamente, destacando-se os principais aspetos dos respetivos regimes, e depois conjuntamente, salientando-se as principais diferenças e semelhanças entre eles, bem como alguns problemas de ordem processual que se colocam em torno de ambos os regimes.
INTRODUÇÃO: A interação medicamento-alimento/nutriente é um fenómeno, que merece uma atenta reflexão por parte dos profissionais de saúde, principalmente daqueles que na sua área de intervenção prescrevem, dispensam ou aconselham medicamentos e alimentos. É muito importante que esses profissionais, conheçam as particularidades (físico)-químicas dessas substâncias, para que assim, possam evitar possíveis interações entre elas, e consequentemente, garantir o sucesso terapêutico de cada doente. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo tem como objetivo caraterizar o conhecimento dos profissionais da saúde, nomeadamente nutricionistas e profissionais da área de farmácia, sobre interações entre medicamentos e alimentos. METODOLOGIA: Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, recorrendo a um inquérito por questionário, enviado a profissionais de saúde que na sua área de intervenção se deparam com os riscos potenciais da interação entre medicamentos e alimentos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: A análise dos resultados obtidos demonstra que os profissionais da área da farmácia, têm pouco conhecimento sobre as interações que podem ocorrer entre os medicamentos e os alimentos. Ainda que com algumas lacunas no conhecimento, os resultados indicam que os nutricionistas demonstram ter maior conhecimento sobre este tema. Considerando os resultados obtidos, e para otimizar o uso do medicamento, é importante desenvolver mecanismos que contribuam para aumentar o conhecimento dos profissionais de saúde sobre as interações entre medicamentos e alimentos.
Este artigo analisa a trajetória social e a construção da cidadania na África Ocidental com particular enfoque para a realidade cabo-verdiana, considerada como peculiar quando comparada com outras realidades da sua (sub)região oeste africana. O principal argumento defendido é de que a construção da cidadania em Cabo Verde segue, em seus diferentes momentos fundadores, uma orientação top down perpetrada pelo Estado, desviando-se, assim, da tradição liberal amplamente divulgada nos países centrais de que a construção da cidadania teria sido desenvolvida a partir das estratégias de mobilização bottom up. Os resultados do artigo inserem-se nessa linha argumentativa e apontam para uma trajetória social em que a cidadania terá sido resultado da intervenção estatal, ou seja, criada pelo Estado através da implantação de diversos mecanismos sociais visando a constituição de um campo de atuação convergente com as estruturas de oportunidades políticas e eleitorais existentes no país. Palavras-Chave: África Ocidental. Cabo Verde. Cidadania. Trajetória Social. Trajetória da Dependência.
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Praça António Lereno, CP 379C, Praia, Santiago, Cabo Verde
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Judite Medina do Nascimento
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