Social acceleration, the rapidly increasing speeding up of the pace of life, has been described and theorised by contemporary social theorists including Paul Virilio, Ben Agger, Thomas Hylland Eriksen, and Hartmut Rosa. While these theorists use illustrations from education, and others such as Foucault and Adam have considered the relationship between education and time, there has been little theorisation of dromology (a term Virilio coined to describe the ‘science’ of speed) in education studies itself. Given its growing importance as a ‘grand theory’ in social science, this paper calls for educationalists to recognise the value of theories of social acceleration to gain a better understanding of contemporary educational practices and how the COVID-19 pandemic is illustrative of this.
This paper provides a brief overview of citizen science, attending to its tensions and possibilities. We acknowledge the creative potential of citizen science for expanding and diversifying public participation in knowledge production and dissemination, and we also draw attention to its contradictions. We point to emerging postdigital tensions as new technologies and vast public databases are increasingly becoming cornerstones of citizen science. We discuss how postdigital citizen science operates in the context of knowledge capitalism while aiming at its transformation and highlight three key challenges for postdigital citizen science: the challenge of technology, the challenge of political economy, and the challenge of participation. Different postdigital challenges cannot be separated from each other, so we call for a deep reimagination and reconfiguration of citizen science in and for the postdigital condition. We start this reimagination by asking three questions: What is postdigital citizen science? Who (or what!) is the postdigital citizen scientist? How to conduct postdigital citizen science?
Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from passenger vehicles have attracted considerable interest over the last decade. In order to reduce PM emissions, improving maximum injection pressure has been a developing trend for new generation GDI engines. However, comparing gasoline and ethanol impingement spray characteristics from a GDI injector under high injection pressure is still unclear. In this paper, a comparative investigation on both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of impingement spray from a GDI injector fuelled with gasoline and ethanol was performed under injection pressure up to 50 MPa, providing new findings to promote a more homogeneous air–fuel mixture and reduce PM emissions. The experimental results show that under the same PI (injection pressure), rebound height of gasoline impingement spray is a bit higher than ethanol. AS (spray area) of gasoline is slightly higher than ethanol under PI=10MPa. However, under PI=30MPa and PI=50MPa, AS of gasoline is gradually exceeded by that of ethanol as time progresses. By increasing PI to 50 MPa, the difference in DN (diffusion distance of the near side) between gasoline and ethanol is greatly reduced, meantime DF (diffusion distance of the far side) becomes weaker than ethanol. For both gasoline and ethanol, with the increase PI from 10 MPa to 50 MPa, VN (average normal component of droplet velocity) and VT (average tangential component of droplet velocity) of incident droplets increase by around 1 m/s. Meantime, there is a slight decrease in the absolute value of VN and VT of reflected droplets. DSMD (Sauter mean diameter of droplets) presents a significant decreasing trend with the increase of PI. Besides, a smaller DSMD can be seen for the gasoline impingement spray compared to ethanol under the same PI.
Outer hair cells (OHCs) of the organ of Corti (OoC), acting as bidirectional cellular mechanoelectrical- transducers, generate, receive, and exchange forces with other major elements of the cochlear partition, including the sensory inner hair cells (IHCs). Force exchange is mediated via a supporting cell scaffold, including Deiters’ (DC) and outer pillar cells (OPC), to enable the sensitivity and exquisite frequency selectivity of the mammalian cochlea and to transmit its responses to the auditory nerve. To selectively activate DCs and OPCs in male and female mice, we conditionally expressed in them a hyperpolarizing halorhodopsin (HOP), a light-gated inward chloride ion pump and measured extracellular receptor potentials (ERPs) and their DC component (ERPDCs) from the Cortilymph, which fills the OoC fluid spaces, and compared the responses with similar potentials from HOP -/- littermates. The compound action potentials (CAP) of the auditory nerve were measured as an indication of IHC activity and transmission of cochlear responses to the CNS. HOP light-activated hyperpolarization of DCs and OPCs suppressed cochlear amplification through changing timing of its feedback, altered basilar membrane (BM) responses to tones at all measured levels and frequencies, and reduced IHC excitation. HOP-activation findings reported here complement recent studies that revealed channelrhodopsin activation depolarized DCs and OPCs and effectively bypassed, rather than blocked, the control of OHC mechanical and electrical responses to sound and their contribution to timed and directed electromechanical feedback to the mammalian cochlea. Moreover, our findings identify DCs and OPCs as potential targets for the treatment of noise-induced hearing loss. Significance Statement Outer hair cells provide electromechanical feedback to the organ of Corti, mediated via a cellular scaffold of Deiters’ and outer pillar cells, that enables the sensitivity and fine frequency tuning of the cochlea. The role of this scaffold was explored by expressing the halorhodopsin HOP in Deiters’ and pillar cells of male and female mice which became hyperpolarized when illuminated. HOP light-activated hyperpolarization suppressed cochlear amplification, altered basilar membrane responses to tones, including those at levels and frequencies not subject to amplification, and attenuated neural excitation. The findings indicate supporting cells in mediating force transmission between outer hair cells and the organ of Corti and as targets for hearing loss treatments.
This paper investigates the relationship between music qualification choice and academic performance in secondary education in England at Key Stage 4 (KS4; usually at ages 15 and 16). We analysed data from 2257 pupils at 18 educational settings in a city in the southeast of England. Two regression analyses with clustered errors modelled KS4 music qualification choice and GCSE academic achievement in English, Mathematics and other English Baccalaureate subjects, while controlling for a range of demographic, academic and socio‐economic variables. Choice of music as a subject at KS4 was positively associated with the total volume of KS4 qualifications entered for examination and was also predicted by coming from an affluent neighbourhood. Furthermore, this choice of music at KS4 was associated with greater academic performance on English Baccalaureate subjects above and beyond other significant predictors (gender, language, prior academic achievement, total volume of KS4 qualifications and neighbourhood socio‐economic status; local Cohen's f ‐squared = 0.09). These results point to moderate but significant additive effect of studying music at KS4 in relation to performance on core GCSE subjects. We also found that schools with KS4 music qualification choice greater than the national average were higher in overall academic attainment, in the proportion of pupils attending extra‐curricular instrumental lessons, and in our composite measure of school's engagement with a local music education hub. The results are interpreted in light of sociological theories of education in an attempt to better understand the underlying systemic factors affecting youth music engagement.
Two quinidine-functionalized coumarin molecular probes have been synthesized and have been found to bind metal cations (Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+) with high affinity in organic-aqueous media (DMSO-HEPES). The chemodosimeters coordinate with the Zn2+ ions in a two-to-one ratio (molecular probe : Zn2+) with a log β of 10.0 M-2. Upon the addition of the closed-shell metal ions studied, a fluorescence turn-on via an excimer formation is seen at 542 nm due to the quinaldine moiety adopting a syn arrangement when coordinated to the metal Zn2+ ions. Confocal microscopy monitored free Zn2+ ions in the Human Embryonic Kidney cell line HEK293 by coordinating with the chemodosimter.
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on population-wide mental health and well-being. Although people experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage may be especially vulnerable, they experience barriers in accessing mental health care. To overcome these barriers, the World Health Organization (WHO) designed two scalable psychosocial interventions, namely the web-based Doing What Matters in Times of Stress (DWM) and the face-to-face Problem Management Plus (PM+), to help people manage stressful situations. Our study aims to test the effectiveness of a stepped-care program using DWM and PM + among individuals experiencing unstable housing in France – a majority of whom are migrant or have sought asylum. Methods This is a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a stepped-care program using DWM and PM + among persons with psychological distress and experiencing unstable housing, in comparison to enhanced care as usual (eCAU). Participants (N = 210) will be randomised to two parallel groups: eCAU or eCAU plus the stepped-care program. The main study outcomes are symptoms of depression and anxiety measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety and Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS). Discussion This randomised controlled trial will contribute to a better understanding of effective community-based scalable strategies that can help address the mental health needs of persons experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage, whose needs are high yet who frequently have limited access to mental health care services. Trial registration this randomised trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under the number NCT05033210.
Background Early mobilisation (EM) is an intervention that may improve the outcome of critically ill patients. There is limited data on EM in COVID-19 patients and its use during the first pandemic wave. Methods This is a pre-planned subanalysis of the ESICM UNITE-COVID, an international multicenter observational study involving critically ill COVID-19 patients in the ICU between February 15th and May 15th, 2020. We analysed variables associated with the initiation of EM (within 72 h of ICU admission) and explored the impact of EM on mortality, ICU and hospital length of stay, as well as discharge location. Statistical analyses were done using (generalised) linear mixed-effect models and ANOVAs. Results Mobilisation data from 4190 patients from 280 ICUs in 45 countries were analysed. 1114 (26.6%) of these patients received mobilisation within 72 h after ICU admission; 3076 (73.4%) did not. In our analysis of factors associated with EM, mechanical ventilation at admission (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.25, 0.35; p = 0.001), higher age (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98, 1.00; p ≤ 0.001), pre-existing asthma (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.73, 0.98; p = 0.028), and pre-existing kidney disease (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.71, 0.99; p = 0.036) were negatively associated with the initiation of EM. EM was associated with a higher chance of being discharged home (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.08, 1.58; p = 0.007) but was not associated with length of stay in ICU (adj. difference 0.91 days; 95% CI − 0.47, 1.37, p = 0.34) and hospital (adj. difference 1.4 days; 95% CI − 0.62, 2.35, p = 0.24) or mortality (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.7, 1.09, p = 0.24) when adjusted for covariates. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that a quarter of COVID-19 patients received EM. There was no association found between EM in COVID-19 patients' ICU and hospital length of stay or mortality. However, EM in COVID-19 patients was associated with increased odds of being discharged home rather than to a care facility. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04836065 (retrospectively registered April 8th 2021).
Die magische Kraft der körperlichen Aktivität: das Zehn-Säulen-ModellThe magical power of physical activity: the 10-pillar model: Leitfaden zur Förderung der körperlichen Aktivität und Motivation von Verhaltensänderungen: „Nie wichtiger als jetzt“Guidelines for promotion of physical activity and motivation of behavioral changes: “never more important than now”. German version
Numerous international studies have shown the sad reality that more than one quarter of all adults worldwide lead a sedentary and inactive lifestyle. In contrast, physical activity has a positive or pleiotropic effect on all organs and organ systems. This effect like a “polypill”, prevents or reduces the occurrence of a multitude of chronic diseases. Therefore, it is never too early and never too late to become physically active and start with regular movement. As such, sports medicine examination essentially includes counselling and motivation of healthy and sick people to start with regular exercise, physical activity and sport. The motivation pyramid is strongly recommended for promoting physical activity considering the steps 1–5. Every doctor at every patient contact should ask about physical activity as the fifth vital sign. Counselling for physical activity must take the individual life circumstances, the life habits, the objectives and possibilities for implementation of the person into account. Healthy persons and patients should be included in the decision on the planned activity. This includes assistance for the practical implementation as well as overcoming obstacles through practice-related problem solving. Based on the transtheoretical model sequence intention to plan, preparation, action and adherence, analogue and digital possibilities such as wearables for observational follow-up are helpful. They enable supervision, feedback and teach back support. Exercise prescription for health and motivational guidance brings about the necessary sustainability and adherence to physical activity. The strongest argument of the advice for healthy and persons is those who are physically active feel better, stay fitter, live better and longer!
Tidal marshes store large amounts of organic carbon in their soils. Field data quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks provide an important resource for researchers, natural resource managers, and policy-makers working towards the protection, restoration, and valuation of these ecosystems. We collated a global dataset of tidal marsh soil organic carbon (MarSOC) from 99 studies that includes location, soil depth, site name, dry bulk density, SOC, and/or soil organic matter (SOM). The MarSOC dataset includes 17,454 data points from 2,329 unique locations, and 29 countries. We generated a general transfer function for the conversion of SOM to SOC. Using this data we estimated a median (± median absolute deviation) value of 79.2 ± 38.1 Mg SOC ha⁻¹ in the top 30 cm and 231 ± 134 Mg SOC ha⁻¹ in the top 1 m of tidal marsh soils globally. This data can serve as a basis for future work, and may contribute to incorporation of tidal marsh ecosystems into climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies and policies.
Sexual minorities from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds face multiple forms of discrimination and may be at higher risk of poor mental health than White British people. Many of the risk factors for poor mental health are preventable social and psychological stressors, such as homonegativity, racism, and internalised homonegativity. Research has also identified potential protective factors, such as identity resilience, access to social support, and engagement with psychotherapy. This chapter provides a brief overview of minority stress theory, intersectionality, and identity process theory, which collectively can shed light on the relations between identity, stressors, and mental health in BAME sexual minorities, as well as the factors that may undermine or enhance mental health outcomes. The chapter concludes with a short case study and provides reflections on counselling and social psychological interventions that may reduce the risk of poor mental health in BAME sexual minorities.
The Federal Reserve's tenth interest rate hike has further impacted the U.S. economy and society. Therefore, this paper analyses the current economic environment in the United States and the implications of high interest rates, as well as the link between high interest rates and US Treasuries against the background of the tenth interest rate hike by the Federal Reserve. The research uses information and data from the Federal Reserve, current news, and data from the US stock market as the basis for the analysis. This study concludes that high interest rates are unfavourable for the US economy in the short term, but have helped employment, mortgage repayment costs, and growth in some sectors.
Objectives. Provide insights into the experiences and perspectives of healthcare staff who treated scabies or managed outbreaks in formal and informal refugee/ migrant camps in Europe 2014-2017. Design. Retrospective qualitative study using semistructured telephone interviews and framework analysis. Recruitment was done primarily through online networks of healthcare staff involved in medical care in refugee/migrant settings. Setting. Formal and informal refugee/migrant camps in Europe 2014-2017. Participants. Twelve participants (four doctors, four nurses, three allied health workers, one medical student) who had worked in camps (six in informal camps, nine in formal ones) across 15 locations within seven European countries (Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Turkey, France, the Netherlands, Belgium). Results. Participants reported that in camps they had worked, scabies diagnosis was primarily clinical (without dermatoscopy), and treatment and outbreak management varied highly. Seven stated scabicides were provided, while five reported that only symptomatic management was offered. They described camps as difficult places to work, with poor living standards for residents. Key perceived barriers to scabies control were (1) lack of water, sanitation and hygiene, specifically: absent/limited showers (difficult to wash off topical scabicides), and inability to wash clothes and bedding (may have increased transmission/reinfestation); (2) social factors: language, stigma, treatment non-compliance and mobility (interfering with contact tracing and follow-up treatments); (3) healthcare factors: scabicide shortages and diversity, lack of examination privacy and staff inexperience; (4) organisational factors: overcrowding, ineffective interorganisational coordination, and lack of support and maltreatment by state authorities (eg, not providing basic facilities, obstruction of self-care by camp residents and non-governmental organisation (NGO) aid). Conclusions. We recommend development of accessible scabies guidelines for camps, use of consensus diagnostic criteria and oral ivermectin mass treatments. In addition, as much of the work described was by small, volunteer-staffed NGOs, we in the wider healthcare community should reflect how to better support such initiatives and those they serve.
Biogeographic rules illustrate linkages between selective pressures and morphological traits among species that occur along broad environmental (usually latitudinal) gradients. Most research on such rules consists of observational studies, lacking any forms of experimental control. Species invasions, especially those consisting of multiple, independent introductions, present a form of natural experiment by which these rules can be more rigorously assessed. Here, we investigate whether the morphological traits of both native and non-native invasive populations of Monk Parakeet, a widespread invasive parrot distributed in North America, follow Allen’s, Bergmann’s, and Gloger’s rules. Furthermore, we go beyond correlations between latitude and morphological traits, and investigate specific climatic variables pertaining to prevailing precipitation and temperature conditions for their effects on morphology. Analyzing morphological measurements from 148 study skins from North and South America, we found statistical support for latitudinal effects on body mass consistent with predictions from Bergmann’s rule, but no support for Allen’s rule as no effects of latitude on bill length were detected once we corrected it for body size. Our findings show that areas with warmer winters and higher precipitation were associated with smaller specimens with larger wings. We also found areas with higher minimum precipitation were associated with specimens with larger bills relative to body size, a pattern potentially related with feeding resources. We observed no relationship between plumage luminance and latitude or climatic variables, suggesting that monk parakeets do not adhere to Gloger’s rule.
Detecting crime intent from user-generated content on social media platforms has become increasingly important for law enforcement and crime prevention. This paper presents a comprehensive approach for crime intent detection from user tweets using machine learning techniques. The study utilizes a dataset of about 400,000 tweets and applies data preprocessing, feature selection, and model training with logistic regression, ridge regression classifier, Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) classifier, Random Forests, and support vector machine models. Evaluation metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score are employed to assess the models’ performance. The results reveal that the logistic regression model achieves the highest accuracy ratio of 0.981 in detecting crime intent from tweets. This research showcases the effectiveness of machine learning and advanced transformer-based models in leveraging social media data for crime analysis. The findings provide valuable insights into the potential for early detection and monitoring of crime intent using online platforms, contributing to the field of crime prevention and law enforcement. The utilization of machine learning techniques offers new avenues for understanding and analyzing crime-related sentiments expressed by social media users. By accurately detecting crime intent from user-generated content, law enforcement agencies can enhance their proactive measures, monitor public sentiment towards crime, and shape policies and interventions to address public concerns effectively. The research highlights the significance of leveraging social media data for crime detection and emphasizes the potential impact of advanced machine learning models in improving public safety and crime prevention efforts.
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