Objectives: This study aimed to investigate oral microbial signatures associated with hyper- glycaemia, by correlating the oral microbiome with three glycaemic markers. Potential association between clinical parameters and oral bacterial taxa that could be modulating the hyperglycaemic microbiome was also explored. Methods: Twenty-three individuals diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) and presenting periodontitis were included, as well as 25 systemically and periodontally healthy ones. Fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, salivary glucose, periodontitis classifica- tion, caries experience and activity and salivary pH were evaluated. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified from total salivary DNA, and amplicons were sequenced (Illumina MiSeq). Results: Hyperglycaemia was correlated with proportions of Treponema, Desulfobulbus, Phocaiecola and Saccharimonadaceae. Desulfobulbus was ubiquitous and the most enriched organism in T2D individuals (log2FC = 4). The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was higher at alkali salivary pH than acidic pH. In the network analysis, Desulfobulbus was clustered in a negative association with caries-associated and butyrate-producing bacteria. Conclusion: The salivary microbiome is shaped by systemic hyperglycaemia, as well as changes in the salivary pH, which may be linked to local hyperglycaemia. The enrichment of predictive biomarkers of gut dysbiosis in the salivary microbiome can reflect its capacity for impairment of hyperglycaemia.
Obesity is nowadays considered a pandemic which prevalence’s has been steadily increasingly in western countries. It is a dynamic, complex, and multifactorial disease which propitiates the development of several metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, as well as cancer. Excessive adipose tissue has been causally related to cancer progression and is a preventable risk factor for overall and cancer-specific survival, associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. The onset of obesity features a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and secretion of a diversity of adipocyte-derived molecules (adipokines, cytokines, hormones), responsible for altering the metabolic, inflammatory, and immune landscape. The crosstalk between adipocytes and tumor cells fuels the tumor microenvironment with pro-inflammatory factors, promoting tissue injury, mutagenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Although classically established as a risk factor for cancer and treatment toxicity, recent evidence suggests mild obesity is related to better outcomes, with obese cancer patients showing better responses to treatment when compared to lean cancer patients. This phenomenon is termed obesity paradox and has been reported in different types and stages of cancer. The mechanisms underlying this paradoxical relationship between obesity and cancer are still not fully described but point to systemic alterations in metabolic fitness and modulation of the tumor microenvironment by obesity-associated molecules. Obesity impacts the response to cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy, and has been reported as having a positive association with immune checkpoint therapy. In this review, we discuss obesity’s association to inflammation and cancer, also highlighting potential physiological and biological mechanisms underlying this association, hoping to clarify the existence and impact of obesity paradox in cancer development and treatment.
The chemical pollution crisis severely threatens human and environmental health globally. To tackle this challenge the establishment of an overarching international science–policy body has recently been suggested. We strongly support this initiative based on the awareness that humanity has already likely left the safe operating space within planetary boundaries for novel entities including chemical pollution. Immediate action is essential and needs to be informed by sound scientific knowledge and data compiled and critically evaluated by an overarching science–policy interface body. Major challenges for such a body are (i) to foster global knowledge production on exposure, impacts and governance going beyond data-rich regions (e.g., Europe and North America), (ii) to cover the entirety of hazardous chemicals, mixtures and wastes, (iii) to follow a one-health perspective considering the risks posed by chemicals and waste on ecosystem and human health, and (iv) to strive for solution-oriented assessments based on systems thinking. Based on multiple evidence on urgent action on a global scale, we call scientists and practitioners to mobilize their scientific networks and to intensify science–policy interaction with national governments to support the negotiations on the establishment of an intergovernmental body based on scientific knowledge explaining the anticipated benefit for human and environmental health.
Objective To present an updated and evidence-based guideline for the use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess body composition in clinical practice. Materials and methods This Official Position was developed by the Scientific Committee of the Brazilian Association of Bone Assessment and Metabolism ( Associação Brasileira de Avaliação Óssea e Osteometabolismo , ABRASSO) and experts in the field who were invited to contribute to the preparation of this document. The authors searched current databases for relevant publications in the area of body composition assessment. In this second part of the Official Position, the authors discuss the interpretation and reporting of body composition parameters assessed by DXA and the use of DXA for body composition evaluation in special situations, including evaluation of children, persons with HIV, and animals. Conclusion This document offers recommendations for the use of DXA in body composition evaluation, including indications, interpretation, and applications, to serve as a guiding tool in clinical practice and research for health care professionals in Brazil.
Municipalities across the country have debated the safety effect of automatic red-light cameras (RLC) and their political and financial implications. Most empirical studies have used the Empirical Bayesian (EB) approach to assess the safe effects to facilitate policy debates. While popular, the EB method has several limitations in data requirement, reference site selection, and control of confounding factors. Moreover, empirical studies of the RLC deactivation effects are limited. This study fills these gaps using the Moran’s I statistic and the Geographically Weighted Negative Binomial Regression (GWNBR) approach for data in the City of Arlington, Texas. The results indicate that the total, injury, and angle crashes in Arlington are on the rise over the study period and that crashes are higher at RLC deactivation intersections than those at other intersections. The direct safety effect of removing RLCs is statistically significant. The spillover effect is observed but statistically insignificant. Speed limit plays an important role in road safety. The findings have significant implications for safety research and practices.
The characterization of mortars of facades of buildings located in the Gaza Strip is the main objective of this work. More specifically, the objective of this work is to provide a reliable source of data that allows the documentation of the construction systems used and that serves as a basis for future renovations and interventions in the buildings under study. Three buildings built at different times (Al-Ashi 1920 BC, Al-Ghussain 1865 BC and Al-Hato 1331 BC) were chosen, aiming to evaluate the evolution of the binders used in these buildings. The characterization was performed by chemical mineralogi-cal analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XDR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that the construction of Al-Ashi consists of mortars made with a natural hydraulic binder obtained with limestone rich in aluminosilicates (clay) and activated by sodium from sea water. Consequently, as the main decomposition phenomena, saline efflorescence was observed. In the realization of the Al-Ghussain building, a natural hydraulic binder was used, made with limestone rock, volcanic ash as natural pozzolans and gypsum plaster to improve the plasticity and adhesion of the mortars. The main pathologies observed were stains and disaggregation, related to the formation of secondary ettringites and mechanical impacts. Finally, the Al-Hato building, built according to Ottoman architecture, features mortars made with natural hydraulic binders like Al-Ghussain and natural fibers. The main pathology is the excess of porous phase, due to the degradation of the natural fiber over time. Thus, it is concluded that the techniques used allow the identification of the main binders used in the production of the mortars under study.
The lives of the urban poor in the majority world are unfree: blighted by social injustice in its manifold forms, from violence and ill-health to absent economic opportunities. We explore the pursuit of freedom through migration away from the metropole to ramais (colonisation tracks) at the rainforest frontier. Drawing on a case study in Brazilian Amazonia, we reveal urban-rural migration as a frontier dynamic driven by the search for a good life. We theorize freedom and the good life using the capabilities approach, starting from the observation that people in the ramais reported feeling better, and asking why that is. We find that frontiers provide a safer environment, which fosters individual and collective capabilities. A lower risk of violence reduces fears around bodily integrity, pervasive in Latin American cities. This safety fosters freedom and dignity by reducing worries and anxieties, leading to improvements in emotional well-being. We understand this increased sense of freedom as enhanced agency, that is, empowerment. In addition to new forms of political activity and subjectivity, we report a flourishing of senses, imagination and affiliation with others. Inequalities are reduced, positively influencing dignity and self-worth. These new freedoms are threatened by lack of rights provisioning by the State, however. We recommend that the Brazilian state should address social and environmental dimensions of these new forest frontiers. The state should recognize and support these settlements as valid forms of development, because they so clearly contribute to human wellbeing and flourishing. The state should guide and assist livelihood and landscape management toward more ecological approaches such as agroecology and agroforestry, to mitigate deforestation risks typical of forest frontiers.
Background Heart failure (HF) is the most prevalent disease among chronic diseases and has been associated with a high prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED). Objective this study aims to analyze research that has as its object of study the sexual activity of patients with HF. Methods A high-sensitivity search was performed in databases (PUBMED via MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS AND CINAHL) using descriptors linked to sexuality and heart failure. Results Fifteen studies from 7 countries with a total sample of 6244 participants were included. Conclusion It was identified that patients with HF have alterations in their sexual activities, which are more common in males. Among men, it was noticed that the most reported sexual disorder was erectile dysfunction.
Shunt reactors are used for long and high voltage transmission lines operation. Therefore, it is necessary to use a protection logic to identify turn-to-ground and turn-to-turn faults with few turns involved or high leakage factor value. In this context, the present work evaluates the use of differential functions based on Alternative Current Alpha Plane and based on Enhanced Generalized Alpha Plane for dry-type air-core shunt reactors protection. These algorithms are independent of voltage measurement and are implemented considering the reactor’s zero-sequence current and neutral current. Based on simulations implemented in the Alternative Transient Program software, different turn-to-ground and turn-to-turn faults were investigated by varying the number of short-circuited turns, the leakage factor value, and fault resistance value. The obtained results reveal that the joint use of these functions guarantees a more secure identification of internal faults in shunt reactors, even when dealing with low current faults.
This paper analyzes the influence of anti-aliasing filters (AAFs) on traveling wave (TW)-based fault location (TWFL) methods. To do so, the Alternative Transients Program (ATP) is used to simulate several fault scenarios on a 230 kV/60 Hz test power system, allowing the assessment of AAFs influence when different TW filters and TWFL algorithms are used. The main goal is to clarify how much “villain” are the AAFs for TWFL methods if their cutoff frequencies are varied in noisy environments. By doing so, the most relevant spectrum band for TWFL solutions is investigated, addressing whether the application of AAFs with reduced cutoff frequencies would be critical or not. Although most people may think that the answer to this question is obvious, the obtained results show evidences that some solutions monitor transients within spectrum ranges wider than those they indeed require. Moreover, although AAFs can relevantly influence the performance of TWFL methods, it is proven that the application of AAFs with reduced cutoff frequencies is not necessarily critical, but rather, it depends on the used TW filters and TWFL methods, such that it can be beneficial when electrical noise is present in monitored signals.
Eco-innovation is the innovation of products that focuses on the use of renewable energy and meets specific environmental requirements, and is essential for energy conservation and environmental protection. There are recommendations and strategies available for general product development, but there are limited studies when focusing on renewable energy products. A proposal for eco-innovation in renewable energy is developed based on exergy analysis, TRIZ methodology, and knowledge management. The model is demonstrated with a specific case study. This study contributes to the analysis and development of products with renewable energy that help mitigate climate change, consistent with the change in the energy matrix. Furthermore, this study is a transdisciplinary effort that integrates concepts from different topics to achieve a comprehensive model.
This paper addresses the consensus problem for discrete-time nonlinear multi-agent systems subjected to switching communication topologies with a model predictive control (MPC) approach. For systems following a Markovian switching law, it is difficult for the existing MPC solutions to obtain reliable optimization based on the model predictions. We propose a new neural-network-based algorithm that reduces the effects of communication deficiencies by approximating and minimizing the MPC’s cost function in real-time. The convenience of the proposed method is certified in simulations for different applications and scenarios.
Genetic improvement programs of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) have been implemented worldwide aiming to enhance growth, survival and disease resistance traits. The use of low-density SNP panels for performing high-throughput, low-cost paternity assignments, kinship determination and evaluating genetic variability parameters and structure in L. vannamei broodstock lines will help increase observed genetic gains. Samples from four selection lines from a breeding nucleus (N = 167), from seven retail stores in Brazil (N = 191), and from families (offspring, known dams and putative sires) from a commercial breeding nucleus (N = 257) were used in the study. All samples were genotyped with a set of 96 SNP markers mined from a dataset developed locally. Observed minor allele frequencies for 88 quality-controlled SNPs ranged between 0.11 and 0.5 with an average of 0.38. Mean observed population heterozygosity varied from 0.319 to 0.471. Mean estimated population Fis was 0.022 and ranged from −0.075 to 0.109. STRUCTURE and PCA analysis revealed retail store samples to have a mean composition of 85% from a common population, suggesting a common post larvae producer supplied the different grow out farms and/or wholesale merchants from different sampled areas. Overall average estimated probabilities of non-exclusion considering one known parent and one putative parent was 1.1 × 10–6, 7.0 × 10–4 considering no known parents, and 2.6 × 10–10 considering a putative pair of sire and dam. Parentage analysis using CERVUS resulted in correct dam assignments of all tested offspring. Sire assignments with >95% confidence were obtained in all cases. Obtained results indicate the developed SNP panel provides a viable tool for performing large-scale high-throughput kinship and paternity assignments, and population structure and assignment of commercial Pacific white shrimp broodstock. The developed tool can provide pedigree information and improve genetic gains in breeding programs that seek to increase grow-out survival rates and overall productivity in biologically and non-biologically challenging production environments.
We establish a uniqueness result for the [φ,e→3]-catenary cylinders by their asymptotic behaviour. Well known examples of such cylinders are the grim reaper translating solitons for the mean curvature flow. For such solitons, F. Martín, J. Pérez-García, A. Savas-Halilaj and K. Smoczyk proved that, if Σ is a properly embedded translating soliton with locally bounded genus and C1-asymptotic to two vertical planes, outside a cylinder, then Σ must coincide with some grim reaper translating soliton. In this paper, applying the moving plane method of Alexandrov together with a strong maximum principle for elliptic operators, we increase the family of [φ,e→3]-minimal graphs where these types of results hold under different assumption of asymptotic behaviour.
We discuss the existence of multiple positive solutions leading to the occurrence of an S-shaped bifurcation curve to the equations of the form −Δpu=f(u), with p>1. We deal with relatively unexplored cases when f is non-Lipschitz at 0, f(0)=0 and f(u)<0, u∈(0,r), for some r<+∞. Using the nonlinear generalized Rayleigh quotients method we find a range of parameters where the equation may have distinct branches of solutions. As a consequence, applying the variational methods, we prove that the equation has at least three positive solutions with two of them linearly unstable and one linearly stable. The results evidence that the bifurcation curve is S-shaped and exhibits the so-called dual cusp catastrophe. Our results are new even in the one-dimensional case and p=2.
In this paper we consider a Hartree-Fock type system made by two Schrödinger equations in presence of a Coulomb interacting term and a cooperative pure power and subcritical nonlinearity, driven by a suitable parameter β≥0. We show the existence of semitrivial and vectorial ground states solutions depending on the parameters involved. The asymptotic behavior with respect to the parameter β of these solutions is also studied.
We conducted a systematic review to better understand this gap and analyzed i) in which global regions are studies usually conducted, ii) the taxon studied, iii) sampling methods and iv) how authors collaborated in these studies. We also tested the relationship between different types of land use and land cover and adult EPT communities using a meta-analysis. We searched for relevant articles on the website Web of Science, using specific words related to the subject. We found 454 papers and selected 31 of them for the scientometric analysis, as they were in accordance with our objectives, and eight for the meta-analysis. Among this subset, we observed that study areas and collaborations among authors were largely restricted to a few countries in Europe and North America. Most studies used the group Trichoptera, probably due to its diversity and the longevity of the adults compared to other groups. Light traps were the most common sampling method, most likely due to their efficiency in capturing flying insects with nocturnal habits. The greatest differences in adult EPT communities were found between open areas (moorland and prairie) and forest areas. This result indicated that the conversion of forest habitats into open areas negatively impacts adult EPT communities. Our systematic review can be an important tool to help researchers choose appropriate collection methods and taxonomic groups to work with in studies on impacts of land use change on adult EPT communities.
Metalloproteomics is an innovative methodology for identifying of protein-associated mercury. Thus, we analyzed the muscle proteome of Arapaima gigas (pirarucu), collected in the Madeira River of the Brazilian Amazon, to identify protein-associated mercury, with the aim of identifying possible mercury biomarkers in fish muscle tissue. After obtaining the protein pellet, we conducted two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D PAGE) to fractionate the muscle proteome. Total mercury in muscle tissue and protein pellets and mapping of mercury content in protein spots of the 2D PAGE gels was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The protein-associated mercury identification was performed using liquid chromatography coupled with sequence mass spectrometry (LC‒MS/MS). Total mercury determinations by GFAAS indicated concentrations on the order of 153 ± 1.90 mg kg−1 and 142 ± 1.50 mg kg−1 (total precipitation of protein fraction) and 139 ± 1.45 mg kg−1 (fractional precipitation of protein fraction) in muscle tissue and protein pellets, respectively. Mercury concentrations in the range of 48 ± 0.90 to 165 ± 3.00 mg kg−1 were found in twelve protein spots. Among the 2D PAGE protein spots, eleven Hg-binding proteins were identified using LC‒MS/MS, which showed characteristics of mercury exposure biomarkers for important metabolic functions, such as five parvalbumin isoforms, triosephosphate isomerase, cofilin 2 (muscle), and fructose-bisphosphate aldolases.
Resumo O racismo institucional impera nos serviços de saúde no Brasil, fundados em relações concretas de poder que subjugam, dominam e excluem negros/as do adequado acesso aos serviços e instituições de saúde. Este ensaio crítico analisa a importância da ampliação do debate e da produção do conhecimento sobre a saúde da população negra (SPN), focando dois pontos: o papel da Política Nacional de Saúde Integral da População Negra (PNSIPN) e a importância da inserção do quesito cor nos sistemas de informação em saúde; e a necessidade de um processo de formação permanente dos/as profissionais, inserindo conteúdos relacionados à compreensão do racismo como um dos elementos de determinação social de saúde/doença e seus efeitos. Para demonstrar como o racismo estrutural e institucional tem afetado a população negra, trazemos também exemplos das populações quilombolas no contexto da pandemia de COVID-19 no país a partir de 2020. Conclui-se que a promoção do cuidado, a redução das iniquidades e a qualidade da atenção à saúde precisam passar por mudanças em várias dimensões, como o fortalecimento do SUS e o combate cotidiano ao racismo estrutural e institucional.
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