Background In sub-Saharan Africa, recent graduates from medical school provide more direct surgical and procedural care to patients than their counterparts from the Global North. Nigeria has no nationally representative data on the procedures performed by trainees before graduation from medical school and their confidence in performing these procedures upon graduation has also not been evaluated. Methods We performed an internet-based, cross-sectional survey of recent medical school graduates from 15 accredited Federal, State, and private Nigerian medical schools spanning six geopolitical zones. Essential surgical procedures, bedside interventions and three Bellwether procedures were incorporated into the survey. Self-reported confidence immediately after graduation was calculated and compared using cumulative confidence scores with subgroup analysis of results by type and location of institution. Qualitative analysis of free text recommendations by participants was performed using the constant comparative method in grounded theory. Results Four hundred ninety-nine recent graduates from 6 geopolitical zones participated, representing 15 out of a total of 44 medical schools in Nigeria. Male to female ratio was 2:1, and most respondents (59%) graduated from Federal institutions. Students had greatest practical mean exposure to bedside procedures like intravenous access and passing urethral foley catheters and were most confident performing these. Less than 23% had performed over 10 of any of the assessed procedures. They had least exposures to chest tube insertion (0.24/person), caesarean Sect. (0.12/person), and laparotomy (0.09/person). Recent graduates from Federal institutions had less procedural exposure in urethral catheterization (p < 0.001), reduction (p = 0.035), and debridement (p < 0.035). Respondents that studied in the underserved North-East and North-West performed the highest median number of procedures prior to graduation. Cumulative confidence scores were low across all graduates (maximum 25/60), but highest in graduates from Northern Nigeria and private institutions. Graduates recommended prioritizing medical students over senior trainees, using simulation-based training and constructive individualized non-toxic feedback from faculty. Conclusion Nigerian medical students have poor exposure to procedures and low confidence in performing basic procedures after graduation. More attention should be placed on training for essential surgeries and procedures in medical schools.
Lead (Pb) toxicity is a worldwide significant public health challenge causing several neurological disorders. Reports indicate that plants rich in antioxidants, such as Rosmarinus officinalis (RO), can counteract Pb accumulation and its toxicity in the brain. Due to a dearth of literature evidence demonstrating the protective activity of RO against Pb toxicity, this study investigated such activity in Wistar rats. Thirty-six Wistar rats were allocated into six groups (n=6), namely I (control), II (lead acetate [Pb]; 100 mg/kg b.w.), III (100 mg/kg of RO and 100 mg/kg of Pb), IV (200 mg/kg of RO and 100 mg/kg of Pb), V (100 mg/kg b.w. of RO) and VI (200 mg/kg b.w. of RO). After 28 days, neurobehavioural, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation, apoptotic and inflammatory activities as well as the histology of the cerebellum were evaluated. Body weight, locomotion and exploration as well as antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in Pb-exposed rats when compared to control. Conversely, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and caspase-3 activities were significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated in the Pb-exposed rats when compared to control. These parameters were, however, significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in the RO-pretreated rats when compared to Pb-exposed rats. Cerebellar histology of the Pb-exposed rats showed severe degeneration of the Purkinje cells whereas the RO-pretreated rats showed better cerebellar architecture. These findings demonstrate that the neuroprotective activity of RO is facilitated via its effective antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects.
Article 6(2) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child places an obligation on countries to ensure the survival and development of the child. The right underlines the importance of ensuring that children's rights to health, an adequate standard of living, access to basic services and education are respected in all circumstances. In addition, it requires effective national and international implementation. These provisions are included in section 4 of the Child's Right Act to ensure optimum protection for children in Nigeria. Nonetheless, children's rights have been drastically affected by the Boko-Haram insurgency. This has resulted in death, abduction, displacement of, and violence against children. Moreover, the prevalence of malnutrition, food scarcity, diseases, and lack of access to water, sanitation, health care, and education remains a challenge. Accordingly, this paper seeks to examine the efficacy of the laws and policies in place to protect children's right to survival and development in Nigeria. It argues that despite the existing legal and policy framework for protecting children's rights, there has been little focus on the best interest standard in the attainment of the rights of the child. The paper recommends a child-centric approach to adequately provide protection for children in conflict-plagued zones in Nigeria.
Heavy metal (HM) pollution in groundwater poses a significant environmental threat to the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, principally because of the activities of oil companies within the locality. The current study considered it necessary to measure the HM level in the groundwater of this location. 18 groundwater samples were collected and tested for physical parameters (pH, EC, TDS), as well as heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Co, Fe, Mn, B, Ni, and Cd). Results from the principal component analysis (PCA) analysis reveal the influence of heavy metals on groundwater chemistry. The correlation matrix results showed that there exists a weak and positive correlation among elements, revealing that heavy metals in water with a low pH tend to be more toxic, as they become more soluble and bioavailable. HM pollution assessment results revealed that the values were considered low, with values ranging from 0 to 0.33 with an average value of 0.07. Metal pollution index (MPI) results showed that the groundwater sample was very pure. Nemerow Pollution Index (PNI) results revealed that the groundwater samples were heavily polluted. Results from the modified degree of contamination (MCd), showed that the majority of the samples had a very low degree of contamination. The pollution load index (PLI) results indicated that the entire samples were polluted. Quantification of contamination (QoC) results showed a geogenic impact on the samples. Based on the findings, monitoring groundwater quality and using appropriate treatment technologies to purify the water before consumption are recommended.
Background Unprotected sexual intercourse among the youth is common in Malawi. This has led to high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and unplanned pregnancies. The study investigated the prevalence and the determinants of male and female condom use for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies among the youth in Malawi. Methods The 2015/2016 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (MDHS) data were used among 15 to 24-year-old male and female who had sexual intercourse four months preceding the survey. A total of 1543 male and 5143 female were selected from 3226 male and 10,367 female respectively and analyzed with SPSS version 20 using.descriptive, bivariate, and logistic regression. Results The study found a low prevalence (27.1%) of condom use among the youth in the last sexual intercourse within four months before the survey. More male (55.8%) used condoms than female (18.5%). The significant predictors of condom use among the male and female youth were: being sexually active (OR 0.39 CI 0.33–0.47), aged 20–24 (OR 0.80 CI 0.68–0.95), ever married (OR 0.07 CI 0.06–0.08), coming from central region (OR 0.56 CI 0.40–0.77), and southern region (OR 0.59 CI 0.42–0.83), residing in the rural area (OR 0.74 CI 0.61–0.90) and ever tested of HIV (OR 1.29 CI 1.03–1.55). Conclusion Having established low prevalence of condom use among the youth in Malawi, there is a need to scale up programs and policies that target the youth to practice safe sex, which will assist in addressing the challenges of STIs, including HIV, and preventing unplanned pregnancies in Malawi.
Several authors have documented the presences of acetaminophen (APAP) in both surface and groundwater and have received attention from government agencies and basic authorities across the globe. The impacts of such pharmaceutical products on non-target organism like fish are underestimated as a result of selected investigation using few biomarkers. We evaluated the sub-chronic impacts of APAP in female catfish (Clarias gariepinus) using multiple biomarkers. The exposure of female catfish to APAP induced oxidative stress. Markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were significantly higher in all exposed groups. Exposure of Clarias gariepinus to APAPA caused histological alterations in the gills (fusion and shortening of some filaments, hyperplasia of the epithelial gill cells, aneurism, congestion, and epithelial rupture of the gills), liver (apoptotic hyperplasia, sinusoidal congestion, and necrosis of the hepatocytes), and gonad (degenerated follicles and ovarian apoptosis). Furthermore, multivariate results indicated that there was a distinct response from the acetaminophen-exposed female catfish, with over 95% of the biomarkers significantly contributing to the discrimination between the acetaminophen-exposed female catfish and the control groups. Our research provides evidence supporting the use of a multiple biomarker approach to evaluate the impacts of drugs on the health status of exposed fish. Graphical Abstract
Plant-mediated methods are increasingly favored for synthesizing magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs) due to their cost-effectiveness, ease of use, and eco-friendly nature compared to chemical and physical approaches. In this study, the potential of plant-derived phytochemicals as bio-reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of MgONPs was explored. Specifically, MgONPs were successfully synthesized using an aqueous extract obtained from rubber seed shells (RSS) and rubber leaves (RL). To validate the obtained MgONPs, various characterization techniques including FTIR, DLS, XRD and SEM were employed. The FTIR analysis confirmed the formation of magnesium oxide. According to DLS analysis, the average particle size of MgONPs derived from rubber seed shells was determined to be 1199 nm, while those derived from rubber leaves exhibited an average size of 44.57 nm. The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms a high level of crystallinity and validates the crystalline nature of both sets of synthesized nanoparticles. SEM examination revealed that the rubber seed shell-based MgONPs displayed irregular-shaped particles with a high degree of aggregation, whereas the MgONPs derived from rubber leaves exhibited a more uniform and spherical morphology. These findings highlight the efficacy of plant-mediated methods using rubber seed shells and rubber leaves extracts for synthesizing MgONPs. The characterization techniques employed in this study provided valuable insights into the structural properties of the nanoparticles. Such knowledge is crucial for further exploration and utilization of plant-mediated approaches in the synthesis of nanomaterials with desired sizes and morphologies, contributing to the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly strategies in nanotechnology.
Interactions between plants and herbivores are central in most ecosystems, but their strength is highly variable. The amount of variability within a system is thought to influence most aspects of plant-herbivore biology, from ecological stability to plant defense evolution. Our understanding of what influences variability, however, is limited by sparse data. We collected standardized surveys of herbivory for 503 plant species at 790 sites across 116° of latitude. With these data, we show that within-population variability in herbivory increases with latitude, decreases with plant size, and is phylogenetically structured. Differences in the magnitude of variability are thus central to how plant-herbivore biology varies across macroscale gradients. We argue that increased focus on interaction variability will advance understanding of patterns of life on Earth.
Bartonella species are vector-borne infectious pathogens with a severe impact on animal and human health. This comprehensive systematic review aimed to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the global impact of this pathogen on pet health. A literature search was performed on electronic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus) to find relevant peer-reviewed published papers (n = 131). A random-effects model was employed to calculate pooled prevalence estimates, and Q-statistic and I2 index were used to assess the heterogeneity. Based on 20.133 cats and 9.824 dogs, the global prevalence estimates were 15.3% and 3.6%. The heterogeneity was significantly high in both species, with I2 = 95.8%, p-value <0.0001, and I2 = 87.7%, p-value <0.0001 in cats and dogs, respectively. The meta-analysis conducted using location coordinates showed a consistently high prevalence in regions located between latitudes −40 to −30 or latitudes 30–40 in both populations, in agreement with the pure spatial analysis results, which computed significantly high relative risk areas within these region coordinates. When analyzing cat data for other subgroup moderators, Bartonella spp. prevalence was higher in animals of young age (<1 year, p-value = 0.001), with a free roaming lifestyle (p-value <0.0001) and/or having ectoparasite infestation (p-value = 0.004). Globally, among the Bartonella species detected in cats, Bartonella henselae was the most frequent (13.05%), followed by Bartonella clarridgeiae (1.7%) and Bartonella koehlerae (0.11%). When considering Bartonella henselae genotype distribution, high heterogeneity ( p < 0.0001 ) was observed based on geographical subgroups. Dogs displayed infection by Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (1.1%), B. henselae (1%), Candidatus B. merieuxii (0.9%) and B. rochalimae (0.38%). The present study provides a global picture of the epidemiological distribution of Bartonella spp. in cat and dog populations that may be pivotal for implementing proper preventive and control measures.
Objectives This study evaluated prescribing in children under the age of five attending paediatric outpatient clinics at three Central hospitals in Delta State, Nigeria and determined the conditions mostly associated with inappropriate prescriptions and omissions. Methods This was a retrospective study of prescriptions made to children from 0 to 59 months who attended the clinics. Prescriptions were evaluated using the POPI tool, occurrence of potentially inappropriate prescriptions and prescribing omissions were reported as percentages and inappropriate prescription types and prescription omissions were also reported as frequencies. Relationship between inappropriate prescriptions, omissions of prescriptions and age group and gender were determined, P < 0.05 was considered significant. Key findings A total of 1327 prescriptions from the three centres were analyzed. There was a preponderance of infants (>1 month–12 months of age) in the study (43.0%) and a somewhat even gender distribution. Exactly 29.8% of all the prescriptions studied had at least one occurrence of inappropriate prescription. The use of H1 antagonists with sedative or atropine-like effects accounted for the majority of inappropriate prescriptions (49.5%), while the prescription of drinkable amoxicillin or other antibiotics in doses other than mg was the most frequent omission of prescription (97.2%). There was a significant relationship between the occurrence of inappropriate prescription and age group (P > 0.001). Conclusions Inappropriate prescriptions and omissions of prescriptions were high and effectively detected by the POPI tool.
This review article focuses on the safety of street-vended foods (SVFs) in Nigeria, a cultural phenomenon that has become a major source of income and nutrition for many, particularly in low-and middle-income countries. Despite their popularity, SVFs have been associated with unsanitary practices and public health risks due to inadequate monitoring by government agencies and limited coverage in the National food safety policy documents. In this review, we examine the challenges faced by SVFs in Nigeria and recommend better collaboration between food safety stakeholders and the government to address these issues. We also suggest the passage of the Food Safety and Quality Bill (FSQB) as a solution to the gaps in the regulation of street foods and institutional reform of food safety management through the establishment of a National Food Safety Commission. By implementing these recommendations, we can ensure the safety of street-vended foods in Nigeria.
A hybrid control strategy integrating proportional derivative (PD) and the H-infinity control methodology is proposed for a serial two-link robotic manipulator with the goal of improving the tracking performance of the robot arm. The H-infinity controller has the ability to achieve a high performance and robustness in the presence of disturbances and uncertainties, while the PD controller is effective in stabilizing the manipulator. Simulation results using Matlab and Simulink show that the proposed hybrid controller, which integrates the advantages of both PD and H-infinity controllers, has the lowest rise time for the second link, the lowest settling time for the two links, the lowest peak time for both links, and the fastest decay of the error response. In addition, the hybrid control scheme also has the lowest mean square error value, with a 53.3% improvement over the H-infinity controller and a 91.8% improvement over the PD controller, indicating an improved trajectory tracking performance when compared with pure PD and pure H-infinity controllers, respectively. It was also found that the hybrid controller has the lowest integral absolute error, integral square error, integral time absolute error, and integral time square error for the second link, while the error values for the first link are satisfactory, showing a superior performance of the hybrid controller above the PD and H-infinity controllers, respectively.
Internal exposure of public to radiation arising from ingestion of natural radionuclides in tuber crops of Ebonyi State origin was investigated in this study. Committed effective doses and lifetime cancer risk of 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th in cassava, cocoyam, water yam, and white yam were calculated. The average activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th determined by gamma spectrometric Na (TI) detector were, respectively, 199.15 ± 23.51, 77.57 ± 7.98, and 118.20 ± 10.72 Bq/kg in cassava; 146.62 ± 40.69, 43.42 ± 7.63, and 75.61 ± 2.89 Bq/kg in cocoyam; 162.81 ± 20.43, 63.17 ± 11.36, and 81.50 ± 10.27 Bq/kg in water yam; and 184.50 ± 20.22, 80.23 ± 10.93, and 116.29 ± 5.93 Bq/kg in white yam. The total committed effective dose via ingestion aligned in this order of cassava (7.05 mSv/year) > white yam (4.38 mSv/year) > water yam (0.42 mSv/year) > cocoyam (0.21 mSv/year) with overall average dose of 3.12 mSv/year. The values of dose were higher than world average of 0.29 mSv/year given by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The lifetime cancer risk values were above tolerance level of >10−4 prescribed by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), suggesting probable evolvement of radiogenic cancer morbidity. The data presented in this study contributes to baseline information on radiological characteristics of tuber crops in Ebonyi, which would be valuable to WHO/FAO food safety policy in Nigeria and rest of the world.
Medicinal plants contain chemical substances that can modulate biological processes similar to synthetic drugs and also demonstrate certain degree of toxicity. The current study investigated the safety of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Triumfetta rhomboidea leaves in normal male albino rats. Leaves of T. rhomboidea were collected and prepared to obtain aqueous (AETR) and ethanol (EETR) extracts of T. rhomboidea. Acute toxicity testing followed standard procedure. In sub-chronic testing, animals were allotted into 6 groups containing 5 animals each: Animals in group 1 (control) were given distilled water while groups 2–6 were respectively administered 100, 500, 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg extract/kg body weight daily in single dose using oral gavage. After 28th days of extracts dosing, rats were sacrificed and samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The results of LD50 revealed toxicity level above 5000 mg extract/kg for AETR and EETR in acute exposure. Sub-chronic administration of AETR and EETR caused significant (P < 0.05) increase in rat body weight. Doses of AETR and EETR demonstrated significant reduction in AST, ALP, GGT, creatinine while only high doses above 3000 mg AETR/kg significantly (P < 0.05) elevated urea. Despite cholesterol was significantly elevated in AETR and EETR treated animals, the concentration of HDL-C also increased significantly. Conclusively, this study has experimentally demonstrated the safety of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Triumfetta rhomboidea, but caution should be observed when extrapolating these results in humans because continuous dosing could alter organ structures.
Background Obesity is a global health issue arising from the unhealthy accumulation of fat. Medicinal plants such as Alstonia boonei stem bark has been reported to possess body weight reducing effect in obese rats. Thus, this study sought to investigate the in vitro and in silico effects of fractions from Alstonia boonei stem bark on selected obesity-related digestive enzymes and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Method Two fractions were prepared from A. boonei: crude alkaloid fraction (CAF) and crude saponin fraction (CSF), and their phytochemical compounds were profiled using Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS). The fractions were assayed for inhibitory activity against lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase, likewise their antiadipogenic effect in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The binding properties with the 3 enzymes were also assessed using in silico tools. Results Eleven alkaloids and six saponin phytochemical compounds were identified in the CAF and CSF using LCMS/MS. The CAF and CSF revealed good inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase enzyme, but weak and good activity against amylase respectively while only CSF had inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. Both fractions showed antiadipogenic effect in the clearance of adipocytes and reduction of lipid content in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The LCMS/MS identified compounds (41) from both fractions demonstrated good binding properties with the 3 enzymes, with at least the top ten compounds having higher binding energies than the reference inhibitors (acarbose and orlistat). The best two docked compounds to the three enzymes were firmly anchored in the substrate binding pockets of the enzymes. In a similar binding pattern as the reference acarbose, Estradiol-17-phenylpropionate (-11.0 kcal/mol) and 3α-O-trans-Feruloyl-2 α -hydroxy-12-ursen-28-oic acid (-10.0 kcal/mol) interacted with Asp197 a catalytic nucleophile of pancreatic amylase. Estradiol-17-phenylpropionate (-10.8 kcal/mol) and 10-Hydroxyyohimbine (-10.4 kcal/mol) interacted with the catalytic triad (Ser152-Asp176-His263) of pancreatic lipase while Estradiol-17-phenylpropionate (-10.1 kcal/mol) and 10-Hydroxyyohimbine (-9.9 kcal/mol) interacted with Asp616 and Asp518 the acid/base and nucleophilic residues of modelled α-glucosidase. Conclusion The antiobesity effect of A. boonei was displayed by both the alkaloid and saponin fractions of the plant via inhibition of pancreatic lipase and adipogenesis.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.