Growing livestock populations have intensified the potential for detrimental effects of grazing on grassland soils globally. Grazing management techniques can mitigate these effects but they are livestock-specific and studies on horse grazing are rare. The objective of this work was to compare the effects of rotational grazing (i.e., livestock graze sub-sections of a pasture in sequence) with the continuous approach to grazing on (1) rates of water infiltration (i) at slightly negative pressure potentials (h, −15, −10, −5, −3.5, −1 hPa), (2) saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), and (3) bulk density (BD). At a site in New Jersey, USA, one pair of pastures was managed with rotational grazing while another pair experienced continuous grazing. Twelve Standardbred mares were grazed for two years at a stocking rate of 0.52 horses ha⁻¹. Over that period, i (n = 79, each at 5 h values) and BD (n = 154, from depth ranges 0–10 and 30–40 cm) were measured multiple times and Ksat values were derived from infiltration measurements. Also, the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was calculated with meteorological data from a nearby weather station. We found that: (1) i values inclusive of the largest pores tested (h = −1 hPa) were greater in rotationally- vs. continuously-grazed fields (geometric means ± GSE were 80.2 ± 1.15 and 42.3 ± 1.13 cm d⁻¹, respectively), (2) Ksat values were consistent with those of infiltration at h = −1 hPa but were too variable to isolate the effect of pasture management, and (3) near-surface BD was similar under rotational and continuous grazing (arithmetic means ± SE were 1.32 ± 0.02 and 1.37 ± 0.02 Mg m⁻³, respectively). Further, during periods of water surplus (i.e., when SPEI was positive), infiltration was strongly reduced in the smaller soil pores (h = −10 and −15 hPa) of the rotationally-grazed fields. This reduction was likely the result of pore colonization and blockage by pasture grass roots growing in these fields. This study suggests that rotational management allows for a larger macropore system than continuous grazing, which could lead to a reduction of water deficits and contribute to the sustainability of grazed ecosystems, with positive effects accruing through time.
Consumers demand for functional foods and nutraceutical is increasing owing to their health endorsing properties. Natural bioactive compounds are getting attention due to their health promoting potential. In addition, the extraction of these bioactive compounds is a significant industrial and technological perspectives. These bioactive moieties can be extracted via various conventional and modern methods. For instance; solid-phase extraction, solid-phase micro-extraction, and liquid-liquid extraction are considered as traditional/conventional methods. In contrast, modern eco-innovative methods for extraction such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pulsed electric field (PEF), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), instant controlled pressure drop (DIC), etc. are more economical and environment friendly. Additionally, these are ever-increasing demands of energy-efficient methods for the recovery of valuable compounds. Moreover, these methods produced less wastewater and hazardous substances. Conclusively, this review highlighted the conventional and modern extraction technologies and the role of these eco-innovative technologies in achieving the goal of a sustainable food system. ARTICLE HISTORY
This paper presents Model-based Reinforcement Learning (MB-RL) techniques to control the indoor air temperature, and CO2 concentration level, and minimize the energy consumption of the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, simultaneously. For this purpose, a trade-off is made between maintaining indoor comfort levels and minimizing energy consumption. The control of the HVAC system is performed using the Deterministic Policy RL (DP-RL) method. Moreover, the nonlinear autoregressive exogenous neural network (NARX-NN) is employed as an approximation function with DP-RL method to provide a hybrid DP-NARX-RL controller. By applying the DP-RL and DP-NARX-RL controllers to the HVAC system of a typical building, parameters such as the indoor comfort levels, the electrical power, and energy consumed, and the energy costs at various pricing schemes are evaluated for two case studies. In both cases, the results show the better performance of DP-NARX-RL compared to DP-RL, RL, and PID controllers.
Chemical synthesis, structural analysis, theoretical calculations and optical properties exploration of (E)-2-((E)-(4-nitrobenzylidene)hydrazono)-3-phenyl-4-thiazolidinone 7 (C16H12N4O3S) are introduced. The synthesis method involves three steps. The applying of ¹H and ¹³C NMR, infrared radiation (IR), mass and UV–visible spectroscopies and melting point (m.p) confirmed the expected compound structure. Optimization of the compound geometrical structure is carried out via the theoretical calculation and evaluation of its nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The NLO properties of the synthesized 4-thiazolidinone derivative 7 are studied under the irradiation with visible and single transverse mode laser beam, through the determination of the nonlinear refractive index (NRI) via the diffraction ring patterns (DRPs) and the Z-scan together with optical limiting. Using two visible laser beams, the all-optical switching (AOS) in 4-thiazolidinone derivative 7 is studied too.
Absract All studies regarding the double passages channel use a rigid baffle to separate the two passages. In the current paper, we use a flexible separator and inspected its role in enhancing the performance of the heat transfer. The cold fluid is forced upward in the channel which is heated isothermally by different temperatures on its walls. A flexible sheet is fixed from its two ends and equally separate the channel to two passages. The problem is investigated numerically using the finite element method coupled with the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach. The problem is casted in dimensionless form and several pertained parameters have been inspected, like Reynolds number in each passage, elasticity of the separating sheet and the temperature ratio of the channel walls. Results are promising where it is found that the enhancement of heat transfer is possible passively in either passage with the aid of using a flexible separator rather than rigid separator. A 6% enhancement in the Nusselt number of the left passage, which comprises the higher temperature, is obtained by making the separator flexible. The flexible sheet is found to increase the pressure drop to 200% in some cases which leading to decline the thermal performance criterion to lower than unity. However, the thermal performance criterion TEC was feasible in the right passage which subjects to lower temperature.
Wearable devices are pervasive computing devices that have been heavily deployed in wireless body area networks for remote patient monitoring. These networks convey sensitive and private data items that are exchanged between the sensors and medical servers over public channels. Some of the transmitted data include heart rate, blood oxygen, body temperature, blood pressure, electromyogram and electrocardiogram. Upon receiving these signals, the medical staff or actuators take some appropriate actions, such as drug injections. Since public channels are deployed during signal transfers, attackers can perform malicious activities to the transmitted data, which may lead to erroneous responses from the medical staff. As such, it is critical that strong security and privacy protection be implemented during these transfers. Although many security protocols have been presented in literature based on methods such as digital signatures, advanced encryption standards and elliptic curve cryptography, their deployment in wireless body area networks is detrimental due to their high computational complexities. As such, the design of an efficient algorithm that offers trust, security and privacy provisioning in these networks is still an open challenge. In this paper, a wireless body area network-based algorithm is developed based on symmetric key cryptography and elliptic curve point multiplications. The security analysis shows that this scheme is resilient against power analysis-based side-channeling attacks. In addition, it offers mutual authentication, anonymity, backward and forward key secrecy and is robust against impersonation and packet replays among other attack vectors. Moreover, performance evaluation shows that it has the lowest computation costs and relatively lower bandwidth requirements compared with similar protocols.KeywordsBandwidthECCPervasive computingSide-channelingSymmetric cryptography
The drawbacks of the "take-or-pay" conception led to the search for alternatives to mitigate its effects. This paper proposes an intelligent multistage control system consisting of two-phased to control the energy sources' operation in a connected-mode microgrid consisting of renewable energy sources and a diesel generator. The first phase is the forecasting process to predict the day's required fuel amount, thus dispensing with the take-or-pay method that forces the purchase of redundant quantities of fuel periodically. This stage depends on the deep neural network long short-term memory method. The second phase is the energy management to find optimum energy source scheduling relying on a model-free strategy using reinforcement learning to achieve minimum energy cost consumption. The proposed methodology is verified using improved PSO. Simulations and theoretical calculations reveal that the proposed scheme is very successful at decreasing energy consumption costs, in addition to meeting the preferences of users.
A quantitative evaluation of watershed health based on climatic variability is essential for watershed management. This study used a well-known reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability water resources performance framework to assess watershed health for 7 transboundary sub-watersheds between Iraq and Iran, based on a standard precipitation drought index (SPI). The assumption is that rainfall variability is one of the main climatic factors that affect watershed health. The grided monthly rainfall data of PERSIANN (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks) type for 37 water years (1981–2018) were used to calculate SPI and the RRV indicators were calculated with an SPI threshold of 0.1 adapted from previous studies. The non-parametric seasonal Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator were used to investigate the trend and value of trend of rainfall and SPI dataset, respectively. The temporal and spatial variation of RRV and watershed health index (WHI) derived from RRV was mapped using geographic information system (GIS). Results revealed that rainfall data did not show any trend, while SPI showed a slightly decreasing trend. The findings of the study noted that RRV had the lowest values of 0.35, 0.19, and 1.45 for the 2017–2018 water year, while the highest values (0.96, 0.99, and 21.06) were recorded for the 1991–1992 node year. Based on the calculated RRV values in most years of the study, all sub-watersheds were considered unhealthy from the standpoint of SPI. Based on the spatial analysis, the northern and northeastern sub-watersheds had less rainfall anomaly and thus appeared relatively healthy as compared to the other parts of the study area.
Game theory is an excellent mathematical tool to describe the interaction between the immune system and cancerous leukocytes c . l e u . The feature of cancerous leukocytes to differentiate and mutate to give rise to leukemia is in the domain of ecological models as well. In this work, the dynamic of leukemia is described and compared by two models: firstly by a simple probabilistic mathematical model using the zero-sum two player game of Hawk and Dove, and secondly by Leslie Predator Prey model of ecology. The main goal of this study is to compare the results of both models and then discuss the treatment of leukemia i.e., Hematopoietic Stem cell transplant with the best model among them. Hawk and Dove model also describes the cell to cell interaction of cancerous leukocytes and healthy leukocytes l e u after diagnoses and the condition of the patient before and after treatments. In this work, Hematopoietic Stem cell transplant is discussed by using concepts of a zero-sum three player game. Also, both models will be characterized by determining the stability properties, identifying basins of attraction, and locating the equilibrium points to see, at what extent the patient’s survival is possible with leukemia in its body. Results for both models will be presented graphically.
The internal heat source and reaction effects on the onset of thermosolutal convection in a local thermal non-equilibrium porous medium are examined, where the temperature of the fluid and the solid skeleton may differ. The linear instability and nonlinear stability theories of Darcy–Brinkman type with fixed boundary condition are carried out where the layer is heated and salted from below. The D^2 Chebyshev tau technique is used to calculate the associated system of equations subject to the boundary conditions for both theories. Three different types of internal heat source function are considered, the first type increases across the layer, while the second decreases, and the third type heats and cools in a nonuniform way. The effect of different parameters on the Rayleigh number is depicted graphically. Moreover, the results detect that utilizing the internal heat source, reaction, and non-equilibrium have pronounced effects in determining the convection stability and instability thresholds.
Wireless networks have continued to evolve to offer connectivity between users and smart devices such as drones and wireless sensor nodes. In this environment, insecure public channels are deployed to link the users to their remote smart devices. Some of the application areas of these smart devices include military surveillance and healthcare monitoring. Since the data collected and transmitted to the users are highly sensitive and private, any leakages can have adverse effects. As such, strong entity authentication should be implemented before any access is granted in these wireless networks. Although numerous protocols have been developed for this purpose, the simultaneous attainment of robust security and privacy at low latencies, execution time and bandwidth remains a mirage. In this paper, a session-dependent token-based payload enciphering scheme for integrity enhancements in wireless networks is presented. This protocol amalgamates fuzzy extraction with extended Chebyshev chaotic maps to boost the integrity of the exchanged payload. The security analysis shows that this scheme offers entity anonymity and backward and forward key secrecy. In addition, it is demonstrated to be robust against secret ephemeral leakage, side-channeling, man-in-the-middle and impersonation attacks, among other security threats. From the performance perspective, the proposed scheme requires the least communication overheads and a relatively low execution time during the authentication process.
The natural river flows into Al Hawizeh marsh, have recently started to decline. As a result, the water depth and flow velocity in this marsh are highly variable. In this study, a 2-D model has been built using the well-known HEC-RAS software to assess the variations in water depth and velocity as a response to three different hydrological scenarios (dry, moderate and wet). The changes in the extent of the wetland inundation due to these scenarios was also examined by the model. Topographic features like earthen dykes which significantly affect the hydrodynamics of this wetland have been taken into account in the model by improving the accuracy of the available topography data to reflect the actual terrain. The differences maps obtained by the model were used to evaluate the changes in the water depth and velocity under the three modeled events (i.e. dry, moderate and wet). Using a dry event as a baseline for comparison, it was possible to assess how the water depth and velocity may be changed under the various flow conditions. The results of the model indicated that during the dry event, the water depth would be 2 to 3 m lower than during the mild and wet events. For velocity, there was no appreciable decline in velocity magnitudes during the dry conditions in contrast to the more wet seasons.
Consumer demand for fermented foods with a well‐balanced nutrient profile has been increasing owing to their ability to prevent chronic diseases as well as their functional, nutritional, and nutraceutical benefits. Among those functional foods, miso is a well‐known traditional fermented food with a distinctive savory flavor and aroma that is most commonly used as a seasoning in miso soup. Among different fermented products, miso is derived from soybeans and grains as a result of the activities of Koji enzymes and beneficial microbes. Additionally, the microbial community of miso is thought to be crucial in enhancing its distinct flavor and texture as well as its nutritional properties. Despite the importance of microorganisms in the production of miso, there has been relatively little research done to characterize and describe the nutritional and medicinal potential of miso. In this review, the potential therapeutic properties, i.e., anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiobesity, of miso have been discussed comprehensively. This review envisions the production technology, its history, microbial population, nutritional properties, and the potential health benefits of miso associated with its consumption. Miso is a well‐known traditional fermented food. In addition, this review envisions the production technology, its history, microbial population, nutritional properties and the potential health benefits of miso associated with its consumptions. In this review, the potential therapeutic properties i.e., anti‐cancer, anti‐microbial, anti‐obesity of miso have been discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, the positive effects of miso consumption, eliminating the radioactive effects, and regulating the cholesterol levels in the human body, are the limelight of this article.
In order to improve the strength of concrete structures, the fiber reinforcement of concrete has become an essential factor. This study was conducted as an experimental program to gain a better understanding of how the variance of fiber shape and type affect the structural performance of solid and hollow reinforced concrete beams using four types of fiber (hooked-end, straight, corrugated steel fiber, and polyolefin fiber) under torsion. For this purpose, ten fiber-reinforced concrete beam specimens, five solid and five hollow, with square cross sections were fabricated using the adopted types of fiber. The role of fiber type in the improvement of the mechanical properties of hardened concrete was also investigated. The results revealed that the mechanical properties of the hardened concrete mix was enhanced by using the existing fiber in concrete, and the higher improvement was shown in the splitting tensile strength test and modulus of rapture in specimens with corrugated steel fiber. The torsional behavior of solid and hollow beams was improved significantly, and the capacity of torsional strength was especially improved for the beams strengthened with corrugated steel fiber. Straight and polyolefin fiber showed a slight improvement in the concrete mechanical properties and less enhancement in the torsional capacity of the tested beams. However, the tested beams reinforced by polyolefin fiber provide better ductility under torsion compared with the use of other types of fiber.
The mitigation of vibrations due to a harmonic load induced by a mechanical oscillator is studied experimentally. The vertical components of soil particle velocities are measured (via geophones) at different locations apart from the source, where various frequencies (30–70 Hz) are generated. For normal conditions where no mitigation means are used, it is found that the measured peak particle velocities are proportional to the excitation frequencies. The mitigation effect of constructing an active (near source) open (0.4 m wide × 3 m long × 2 m deep) trench barrier is also studied. The measurements revealed velocity increase at the points in front of the trench due to the reflected waves. This increase is proportional to the vibration frequency. Although the presence of the barrier greatly reduced the peak particle velocities beyond it, it is found that the efficiency of screening is more pronounced at high vibration frequencies. Increased and fluctuated trends of the amplitude reduction ratio are reported away from the barrier. It is realized that passive (near target) screening is less effective for all frequencies except at 30 Hz. Active and passive trenches, filled with native soil–rubber mixture at various ratios (20–40% rubber), are also considered. The rubber material is in a form of tire chips purchased from the Unit of Recycling Scrap Tires in Al-Diwaniyah Tires Factory. Although the in-filled trenches are less effective in screening the vibrations, similar trends and behavior to the open trenches are noted. It is found that the mitigation efficacy is increased with the rubber content.
The ingredients and the preparation methods influence biscuit quality and safety. In Iraq, biscuit imports are increasing every year, but no information is available in the scientific literature on their quality and safety features. This work analyzed three types of biscuits (cookies, crackers, and digestives) sampled in the Basrah markets (Iraq) but produced in Spain, Iran, Turkey, and United Arab Emirates. Nine different brands were considered for each country of origin (n = 36), with three replicates per sample. Moisture, ash, fat, proteins, fiber, water activity, peroxide value, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF), acrylamide, heavy metals, and microbial load were analyzed. All the nutritional parameters were significantly influenced by the variables “Biscuit type” and “Country”. Cookies showed significantly higher fat content and lower protein content than crackers and digestives, as well as higher peroxide value (which was below the limit set by the FAO/WHO within theWorldWood Program). Spanish samples had more fat and fewer proteins than biscuits made in other countries. Very high variability was observed in HMF (from not detected to 62.08 mg/kg) and AA content (reaching 1421.8 �g/kg). Cadmium was always absent, and lead was considerably below the allowed limit. Yeasts and molds were above the limits in five samples.
More than 20 million people in the East African horn and the southern Arabian Peninsula chew khat (Catha edulis) on a daily basis. The glycemic effect of khat chewing, regardless of diabetes status, is still being debated. Using studies from countries where chewing khat is common, we attempted to discuss the potential glycemic effects of Catha edulis in humans and some animal models. This review included a thorough search in PubMed and the Cochrane Library using PRISMA guidelines, with words like (Khat) and (Qat) serving as query indicators for (diabetes) and (glucose), with no language or species restrictions. Khat is chewed for its stimulating and enjoyable properties. Despite a relatively small number of studies on khat's glycemic effect, the debate continues. Many studies have linked the glycemic effect of khat leaves to their freshness and the duration of the stimulant effect. Although only in animal models, khat's destructive effect on pancreatic-cells could cause some dysglycemic effects. The cathinone cannot be blamed for the glycemic effect.
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has a strong relationship with an increased risk of maternal and perinatal complications. However, in Basrah, Iraq, studies regarding GDM are still limited. In current study, we aimed to investigate the association between insulin resistance and some clinical predictors of GDM among pregnant women in 1st and 3rd trimesters of gestation. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted on 44 pregnant women with GDM and 45 without GDM aged 20 to 40 years who applied for GDM screening during the first (9-13 week) and third trimester (24-28 week) of pregnancy. Demographics, blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), spexin, nesfatin-1, orexin-A, vaspin and lipid profile levels were compared between groups. RESULTS: Subjects with GDM showed a higher level of glucose, insulin HOMA-IR, HbA1c, spexin, vaspin in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy (p
This article presents a miniaturized triple-band antenna for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. The miniaturization is achieved by using a split square ring resonator and half ring resonator. The antenna is fabricated on an FR4 substrate with dimensions of (33 × 22 × 1.6) mm3. The proposed antenna resonates at the frequencies 2.4 GHz, 3.7 GHz, and 5.8 GHz for WLAN and WiMax applications. The obtained −10 dB bandwidth for the three bands of the proposed antenna are 300 MHz, 360 MHz, and 900 MHz, respectively. The measured reflection coefficient values of the proposed antenna corresponding to each resonant frequency are equal to −14.772 dB, −20.971 dB, and −28.1755 dB, respectively. The measured gain values are 1.43 dBi, 0.89 dBi, and 1 dBi, respectively, at each resonant frequency. There is a good agreement between the measured and simulated results, and both show an omnidirectional radiation pattern at each of the antenna resonant frequencies that is suitable for IoT portable devices.
The movement of pesticides in the soil has a significant effect, causing the failure of pest control, and environmental contamination. The results of this study were to investigate the environmental behaviour of glyphosate in the soil column. The data’s kinetic reaction was confirmed that glyphosate is subjected to Pseudo-first order rather than Pseudo-second order with the rate constant 0.042 h-1. This indicated that decreasing glyphosate concentrations can occur and gradually decline with time. The data also pointed out that glyphosate was more fitted to Freundlich compared to the Langmuir model. It scored 3.083 to 1.814, indicating the behaviour of glyphosate occurred in the various surfaces. The contribution coefficient of glyphosate between the soil and its solution Kd valued 0.33 mL. g-1, explaining that the herbicide is less mobile and tends to adsorb on soil particles. Overall data demonstrated that the kinetics of glyphosate under this current condition tends to be immobile.
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