Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting more than 250 million people worldwide. The transcription factor c-Jun, which is induced in S. mansoni infection-associated liver disease, can promote hepatocyte survival but can also trigger hepatocellular carcinogenesis. We aimed to analyze the hepatic role of c-Jun following S. mansoni infection. We adopted a hepatocyte-specific c-Jun knockout mouse model (Alb-Cre/c-Jun loxP) and analyzed liver tissue and serum samples by quantitative real-time PCR array, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, hydroxyproline quantification, and functional analyses. Hepatocyte-specific c-Jun knockout (c-JunΔli) was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Infection with S. mansoni induced elevated aminotransferase-serum levels in c-JunΔli mice. Of note, hepatic Cyclin D1 expression was induced in infected c-Junf/f control mice but to a lower extent in c-JunΔli mice. S. mansoni soluble egg antigen-induced proliferation in a human hepatoma cell line was diminished by inhibition of c-Jun signaling. Markers for apoptosis, oxidative stress, ER stress, inflammation, autophagy, DNA-damage, and fibrosis were not altered in S. mansoni infected c-JunΔli mice compared to infected c-Junf/f controls. Enhanced liver damage in c-JunΔli mice suggested a protective role of c-Jun. A reduced Cyclin D1 expression and reduced hepatic regeneration could be the reason. In addition, it seems likely that the trends in pathological changes in c-JunΔli mice cumulatively led to a loss of the protective potential being responsible for the increased hepatocyte damage and loss of regenerative ability.
Introduction Identifying various interacting risk factors for suicidality is important to develop preventive measures. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS) postulates suicidal ideation resulting from the occurrence of Perceived Burdensomeness (PB) and Thwarted Belongingness (TB) . Suicidal behavior ultimately occurs if people have a Capability for Suicide . In past studies, the validity of TB was often not empirically confirmed, questioning which of the aspects of TB are central and related to suicidal ideation and whether applied measurement methods adequately capture the construct. Method Using a sample of 3,404 individuals from different clinical and nonclinical settings, 30% (1,023) of whom reported suicidal ideation, two network analyses were conducted on the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) and a variable mapping suicidal ideation. Results Analyses revealed that some items of the INQ were not related to suicidal ideation and the most central items did not have the strongest associations to suicidal ideation. Conclusion Based on these results, a shortened version of the INQ with the four items that showed the strongest associations with suicidal ideation in the network analyses was suggested.
This study examined the photochemical transformation of an oxazolone derivative in a continuous microreactor irradiated by a UVC LED array (273 nm). The aim of this study was to transfer the reaction protocol originally developed under batch conditions to continuous flow and to further evaluate the scope of this application. A custom-built UVC-LED panel was combined with a microchip, and this microflow system allowed to work under perfectly controlled operating conditions. NMR and LC-MS were used to identify and quantify the main products obtained during the reaction. From this, an HPLC method was developed for imine separation, allowing for an easy and fast monitoring of the reaction progress. Subsequently, the influence of the operating conditions (residence time, photon flux density, temperature) on the selectivity and conversion was investigated to identify the most favorable conditions for a specific product. Temperature did not affect conversion but had an impact on the reaction’s selectivity. The developed UVC-LED-driven continuous-flow microreactor was found to be very efficient since a quantum photon balance ratio of 0.7 was enough to convert all the reactant, while at the same time achieving the maximal yield of the target product. Exhaustive irradiation did not change the molar ratio of each compound present in the reaction medium, thus excluding follow-up photoreactions of the products. This work opens promising perspectives for boosting flow photochemistry in the UV-C domain.
Plastics pollution research attracts scientists from diverse disciplines. Many Early Career Researchers (ECRs) are drawn to this field to investigate and subsequently mitigate the negative impacts of plastics. Solving the multi-faceted plastic problem will always require breakthroughs across all levels of science disciplinarity, which supports interdisciplinary discoveries and underpins transdisciplinary solutions. In this context, ECRs have the opportunity to work across scientific discipline boundaries and connect with different stakeholders, including industry, policymakers and the public. To fully realize their potential, ECRs need to develop strong communication and project management skills to be able to effectively interface with academic peers and non-academic stakeholders. At the end of their formal education, many ECRs will choose to leave academia and pursue a career in private industry, government, research institutes or non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Here we give perspectives on how ECRs can develop the skills to tackle the challenges and opportunities of this transdisciplinary research field and how these skills can be transferred to different working sectors. We also explore how advisors can support an ECRs’ growth through inclusive leadership and coaching. We further consider the roles each party may play in developing ECRs into mature scientists by helping them build a strong foundation, while also critically assessing problems in an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary context. We hope these concepts can be useful in fostering the development of the next generation of plastics pollution researchers so they can address this global challenge more effectively. Graphical Abstract
Background Quantification of the SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response by serological immunoassays is critical for the management of the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, neutralizing antibody titers to the viral spike (S) protein have been proposed as a correlate of protection (CoP). The WHO established the First International Standard (WHO IS) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (Ig) (NIBSC 20/136) to harmonize binding assays with the same antigen specificity by assigning the same unitage in binding antibody units (BAU)/ml. Method In this study, we analyzed the S1-specific antibody response in a cohort of healthcare workers in Germany (n = 76) during a three-dose vaccination course over 8.5 months. Subjects received either heterologous or homologous prime-boost vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or three doses of BNT162b2. Antibodies were quantified using three anti-S1 binding assays (ELISA, ECLIA, and PETIA) harmonized to the WHO IS. Serum levels of neutralizing antibodies were determined using a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT). Binding assays were compared using Spearman’s rank correlation and Passing–Bablok regression. Findings All assays showed good correlation and similar antibody kinetics correlating with neutralizing potential. However, the assays show large proportional differences in BAU/ml. ECLIA and PETIA, which detect total antibodies against the receptor- binding domain (RBD) within the S1 subunit, interact similarly with the convalescent plasma-derived WHO IS but differently with vaccine serum, indicating a high sensitivity to the IgG/IgM/IgA ratio. Conclusion All three binding assays allow monitoring of the antibody response in COVID-19-vaccinated individuals. However, the assay-specific differences hinder the definition of a common protective threshold in BAU/ml. Our results highlight the need for the thoughtful use of conversion factors and consideration of method-specific differences. To improve the management of future pandemics and harmonize total antibody assays, we should strive for reference material with a well-characterized Ig isotype composition.
The survival motor neuron (SMN) complex is a multi-megadalton complex involved in post-transcriptional gene expression in eukaryotes via promotion of the biogenesis of uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (UsnRNPs). The functional center of the complex is formed from the SMN/Gemin2 subunit. By binding the pentameric ring made up of the Sm proteins SmD1/D2/E/F/G and allowing for their transfer to a uridine-rich short nuclear RNA (UsnRNA), the Gemin2 protein in particular is crucial for the selectivity of the Sm core assembly. It is well established that post-translational modifications control UsnRNP biogenesis. In our work presented here, we emphasize the crucial role of Gemin2, showing that the phospho-status of Gemin2 influences the capacity of the SMN complex to condense in Cajal bodies (CBs) in vivo. Additionally, we define Gemin2 as a novel and particular binding partner and phosphorylation substrate of the mTOR pathway kinase ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (p70S6K). Experiments using size exclusion chromatography further demonstrated that the Gemin2 protein functions as a connecting element between the 6S complex and the SMN complex. As a result, p70S6K knockdown lowered the number of CBs, which in turn inhibited in vivo UsnRNP synthesis. In summary, these findings reveal a unique regulatory mechanism of UsnRNP biogenesis.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been linked to less prosocial behavior during social exclusion in vulnerable groups. However, little is known about the impact of the timing of ACE and the roles of protective factors. Therefore, this study investigated the association of the behavioral response to experimental partial social exclusion with adverse and adaptive experiences across age groups and resilience in clinical groups with persistent depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder, i.e., groups with high ACE, and in healthy controls (HC) (N = 140). Adverse and adaptive experiences during childhood, youth, and adulthood were assessed with the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire, and resilience was measured with the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale. A modified version of the Cyberball paradigm was used to assess the direct behavioral response to partial social exclusion. In patients, adverse events during youth ( B = − 0.12, p = 0.016) and adulthood ( B = − 0.14, p = 0.013) were negatively associated with prosocial behavior, whereas in the HC sample, adaptive experiences during youth were positively associated with prosocial behavior ( B = 0.25, p = 0.041). Resilience did not mediate these effects. The findings indicate that critical events during youth may be particularly relevant for interpersonal dysfunction in adulthood.
Due to the development of novel light-sources, methodologies and technologies, photochemistry has seen a remarkable renaissance in academia and industry. Many photochemical investigations are now routinely performed under continuous-flow conditions in purpose-designed reactors. Successful examples of pre-industrial applications have subsequently been realized. Likewise, photocalytic materials can be easily incorporated into reactor channels, thus further advancing the potential of flow-photochemistry. This special issue comprises of four submissions and highlights recent achievements in photochemical research.
With an increasing use of work-related technologies after hours and mobile working, boundaries between work and personal life domains blur more and more, impairing recovery. Qualitative studies have shown that individuals use various boundary work tactics to actively manage their work–nonwork boundaries. However, it remains largely unknown how the use of such tactics contributes to recovery. This research differentiates types of availability-related boundary work tactics and organizes them according to their underlying motives: preventive, restrictive, and rejecting tactics. The results of a cross-sectional study ( N = 249) and a validation study ( N = 175) support the proposed motive-oriented structure of tactics and show differential prediction of psychological detachment and relaxation. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
An evidence-based consensus meeting was held with urologists, a pharmacist and a cardiologist to perform a structured benefit-risk analysis of reclassifying tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), to be available without prescription in Germany. As per the Brass process endorsed by regulatory authorities, an evidence-based Brass value tree was developed, which identified the incremental benefits and risks that should be considered above the safety and efficacy evidence required for prescription medicines. During the Group Delphi consensus meeting, the expert panel rated the likelihood and clinical impact of each benefit and risk on a scale of 0 (none) to 3 (high). Overall attribute scores were calculated from the product of the mean likelihood and mean clinical impact scores giving a possible score of 0–9. The overall benefit attribute scores ranged from 2.8 to 5.4. The overall risk attribute scores ranged from 0.2 to 2.2 though most were 1.0 or less (3 or more is generally considered to be of concern). On balance, the independent meeting scored the benefits of reclassification of tadalafil higher than the risks and considered the risk mitigation strategies of the packaging label and patient information leaflet (PIL) sufficient.
Application of oil toxicity modelling for assessing the risk of spills to coral reefs remains uncertain due to a lack of data for key tropical species and environmental conditions. In this study, larvae of the coral Acropora millepora were exposed to six aromatic hydrocarbons individually to generate critical target lipid body burdens (CTLBBs). Larval metamorphosis was inhibited by all six aromatic hydrocarbons, while larval survival was only affected at concentrations >2000 μg L − 1. The derived metamorphosis CTLBB of 9.7 μmol g − 1 octanol indicates larvae are more sensitive than adult corals, and places A. millepora larvae among the most sensitive organisms in the target lipid model (TLM) databases. Larvae were also more sensitive to anthracene and pyrene when co-exposed to ecologically relevant levels of ultraviolet radiation. The results suggest that the application of the phototoxic TLM would be protective of A. millepora larvae, provided adequate chemical and light data are available.
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