With the recent advancement in e-commerce technology and IoT-enabled smart devices, where every bit of information passing through unsecured channel, it became mandatory to secure the information from unethical use. Cryptography and steganography are two significant approaches that have been applied strenuously in various algorithms to prevent the information from unauthorized use. However, every scientific terminology has some deficiencies due to time and advancements in mechanization; it needs to rebound with recent advancements in technology. This paper presents an efficient secure communication framework by using steganography technique. In the proposed framework, information in the form of images, hyperlinks, and text have been concealed using heuristic approach. This framework further has been improved by applying machine learning tools. The significance of proposed framework has been verified by MATLAB tools.
The study analyzed the relationships between the terminal and instrumental values on attitude and behavioral intentions for organic food products in the context of Behavioral Reasoning Theory and Cognitive Hierarchical Model, i.e., Value-Attitude-Behavior. The conceptual model is based on a comprehensive review of the past research. A two-step approach was employed to evaluate the measurement and structural models with SmartPLS software for partial least square structural equation modeling. The findings revealed that for organic food products, both terminal and instrumental values influence attitude and consecutively, attitude influences behavioral intentions. However, the instrumental value exhibited greater influence on both attitude and behavioral intentions in comparison to the terminal value. The research findings may help organic food marketers to develop strategies by promotions that are aligned to the terminal and instrumental values.
The aim of the study is to understand the role of insurance company reputation, performance, and positive/negative affect on health insurance policy customer retention and the moderating influence of customer inertia. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Covariance-based structural equation modeling was employed to assess the hypothesized relationships between the variables. The findings revealed that reputation, performance, and affect influenced customer retention in insurance sector. Positive affect had greater impact on customer retention in comparison to other constructs. Further, customer inertia was an important moderating influence on the negative affect for health insurance policy customer retention. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first of its kind that attempts to investigate customer inertia in the health insurance sector in an emerging market context, i.e., India. Customer inertia has not been much studied in light of company reputation, performance, and positive and negative affect in the health insurance milieu. The research findings may help health insurance companies understand the importance of reputation, performance, customer retention, and inertia while marketing insurance services.
Iron is an essential micronutrient for plants as it involves in several important physiological processes. Understanding iron homeostasis in plants is pivotal, not only for improving their growth and development but also for enhancing human nutrition as plants are the principal dietary source of iron. This calls for the need to enrich bioavailable iron in crops to resolve iron starvation issue especially in low income and rural populations who have limited access to food markets and proper health facilities. The uptake of iron from rhizosphere, its transporters and transcription factors that regulate iron acquisition are well characterized. Here, the present review emphasizes on the role of signalling molecules particularly phytohormones and nitric oxide and their interactive co-ordination in iron homeostasis in agriculturally important crops that grow at pH 6.0-7.5 and have limited access to Fe²⁺. The involvement of these signalling molecules in up-regulating iron acquisition genes (FRO2 and IRT1), iron translocation to the cellular compartments and accessibility of iron storage which are important for proper iron homeostasis hence can be considered as vital biofortification strategy for crop plants to address hidden hunger.
Sharing a file that contains multimedia data among the different peers of wireless Internet of Things (IoT) networks has several challenges. One of the main challenges is their centralized system, which leads to high‐security risk and low user reachability. One solution could be to simply change the system to a decentralized network by using the blockchain network to store these files. However, it may solve the low user reachability and security problem at the cost of low latency, longer response time, scalability and privacy issues. Therefore, this article uses the advanced blockchain scheme and distributes InterPlanetary File System. We also presented the system framework and its working. Finally, we do the security analysis of our proposed system and found that it has strong potential to solve most of the security challenges that traditional system faces. Moreover, our proposed approach can be applied to any file‐changing wireless IoT network that needs to exchange multimedia data such as healthcare data, IoT data in wearable devices, traffic data in smart cities, etc.
The plethora of existing methods in the streaming environment is sensitive to extensive and high-dimensional data. The distribution of these streaming data may change concerning time, known as concept drift. Several drift detectors are built to identify the drift near its occurrence point. Still, they lack proper attention to determine the feature relevance change over time, known as feature drift. Over time, the distribution change of the relevant features subset or the change in the relevant features subset itself may cause feature drift in the data stream. The paper proposes an adaptive principal component analysis based feature drift detection method (PCA-FDD) using the statistical measure to determine the feature drift. The proposed work presents a framework for identifying the most important features subset, feature drift, and incremental adaptation of the prediction model. The proposed method finds the relevant features subset by utilizing the incremental PCA and detects feature drift by observing the change in the percentage similarities among the most important features subset with respect to time. It also helps to forecast the prediction error of the base learning model. The proposed method is compared with state-of-the-art methods using synthetic and real-time datasets. The evaluation results exhibit that the proposed work performs better than the existing compared methods in terms of classification accuracy.
Background An altered lipid profile may lead to the development of inflammation and NAFLD (Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). Although statins have a positive effect on blood lipid levels their long-term use is known to cause adverse effects, in this backdrop there is an interest in natural compounds which may affect lipid metabolism and prevent NAFLD. We have examined the effect of Chitosan on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Methods and results Male Wistar middle aged rats (12–16 months) were treated with high-fat diet orally for two months for creating a NAFLD model. Rats were also supplemented with Chitosan (2% chitosan daily) for 2 months. We assessed the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the histopathological profile of the liver. Inflammatory cytokines and adiponectin levels were also measured in serum. HFD induced significant changes in liver tissue and inflammatory markers (Il-6, TNF- alpha, NF-KB). Chitosan treatment protected rats from HFD induced alterations. Conclusions The findings suggest that Chitosan can effectively improve liver lipid metabolism by normalizing cholesterol, triglyceride, lowering NF-KB expression, and protecting the liver from oxidative stress by improving hepatic function. Chitosan also regulates genes related to lipidemic stress i,e leptin and adiponectin.
At present, the cloud computing environment (CCE) has emerged as one of the significant technologies in communication, computing, and the Internet. It facilitates on-demand services of different types based on pay-per-use access such as platforms, applications and infrastructure. Because of its growing reputation, the massive requests need to be served in an efficient way which gives the researcher a challenging problem known as task scheduling. These requests are handled by method of efficient allocation of resources. In the process of resource allocation, task scheduling is accomplished where there is a dependency between tasks, which is a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) scheduling. DAG is one of the most important scheduling due to wide range of its applicable in different areas such as environmental technology, resources, and energy optimization. NP-complete is a renowned concern, so various models deals with NP-complete that have been suggested in the literature. However, as the Quality of Service (QoS)-aware services in the CCEplatform have turned into an attractive and prevalent way to provide computing resources emerges as a novel critical issue. Therefore, the key aim of this manuscript is to develop a novel DAG scheduling model for optimizing the QoS parameters in the CCEplatform and validation of this can be done with the help of extensive simulation technique. Each simulated result is compared with the existing results, and it is found that newly developed algorithm performs better in comparison to the state-of-the-art algorithms.
Consensus-based algorithm for estimating the current intensity (CI) of tropical cyclones (TCs) combining infrared and microwave-based intensity estimates is used by the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) to generate a satellite-based consensus (SATCON) on TC intensity. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the performance of the SATCON method for estimation of TC intensity over the North Indian Ocean during 2016-2020 (5 years). For this purpose, the SATCON based algorithm has been evaluated for 22 TCs over the NIO, including 12 TCs over the Bay of Bengal (BOB) and 10 TCs over the Arabian Sea (AS), and the estimates have been compared with best-track estimates of the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC), New Delhi. Both the maximum sustained surface winds (V max) and estimated central pressure (ECP) have been compared for the different 'T' numbers and different categories of the storm during the year as a whole and during the pre-monsoon (March-May) and post-monsoon (October-December) seasons. The SATCON algorithm performance is found to be reasonably good in estimating the intensity of stronger TCs (T C 4.0). It overestimates the intensity of weaker TCs (T B 3.5) and also for very strong TCs (T6.0 or more). Its performance is found to be better in the post-monsoon season over the BOB and the AS.
The need for secure communication in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is increasing as more and more complex sensors are being developed and deployed for a variety of purposes. Secure communication in WSN can be made possible by using secret group key. However, securely distributing group key among sensor nodes is a difficult task and requires very complex mathematical calculations. The schemes presented so far are either vulnerable to various security attacks or have high computational and storage complexity. This paper presents a new Group Key Distribution scheme with Mutual Healing (GKDMH) which is based on Chinese Remainder theorem. The proposed scheme has better performance than existing schemes in terms of computational and storage complexity, and provides mutual healing in case of missed transmissions.
One of the most important issues along the Iran-Iraq border (Kurdistan) is the Kulbari phenomenon. The phenomena have forced the inhabitants of these border regions, whether old or young, men or women, to some extent be involved. Problems of life and finances of this phenomenon cannot be ignored by any viewer. The present paper is an attempt to study the economic position of Kulbari’s in the north-western border villages of Iran more specifically the border villages of Paveh. For the same purpose the library documentary and field study methods have been used. A questionnaire was prepared keeping the statistical population in mind, of which 113 questionnaires were answered. Results thus obtained shows that the most important parameter affecting the political dimension of the Kulbari phenomenon in the border villages is the communication policy between the two border states, the ideology, and strategies of the two border states, and the border policy. In the economic dimension, the most important parameter includes the supply of necessities of life, employment and unemployment in the border region, the absence of agricultural and pasture land; and in the geographical dimension the most important parameters affecting the stability of the Kulbari phenomenon is the development level of the border region relative to the center. Finally, the paper also provides some suggestions to solve the Kulbari issue in the study area.
While the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) relationship is weak in recent years, a strong correlation between May Southern Annular Mode Index (SAMI) and June–July (JJ) ISMR is a southern hemispheric source of ISMR predictability. Here, using observed and reanalysis data, we find that the SAMI–ISMR relationship is non-stationary with a potential multi-decadal variability. Both during high/low correlation periods (1980–2010)/(1949–1979), a Southern Indian Ocean Dipole (SIOD) pattern of JJ sea surface temperature anomaly is found to reverse sign during strong and weak SAMI years. The changes in the strength and location of the northern pole of SIOD during the two time blocks are consistent with corresponding changes in the cross equatorial flow and monsoon south-westerlies together with change in SAMI–ISMR correlations. Our analysis indicates teleconnection pathways through which the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) may be responsible for the multi-decadal swings of SAMI–ISMR correlations through modulation of the SIOD.
In this experimental study on self-compacting concrete (SCC), the Manufactured sand (M-sand) and Fly ash (FA) were utilised for partial replacement of Natural sand (N-sand) and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), respectively. N-sand was partially replaced by M-sand at various percentage levels, after the dose of FA in the mix was optimised. In terms of compressive strength, the optimum replacement level of OPC by FA was 20%, whilst for replacement of N-sand by M-sand it was 50%. Two types of mixes were prepared to compare the macro and micro level properties of SCC, i.e., SCC-I (100%OPC + 100%N-sand) and SCC-II (80%OPC + 20%FA + 50%N-sand + 50%M-sand). The characteristics of fresh concrete mixes were determined using Slump flow, T50 time, V-funnel, L-box, U-box, and J-ring tests. After 28 days of curing in tap water, both types of specimens were exposed to a solution of ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4] containing sulphate salt concentration of 2.0 g/l for 360 days to test their durability. Loss in compressive strength, weight change, sorptivity, and micro-structural changes (XRD, SEM, and EDS) all were evaluated for up to 360 days. It was found that the use of FA and M-sand in concrete makes it more environmental-friendly and durable, as well as have better performance in a sulphate environment.
The present research aims to find the groundwater prospective areas by using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing based frequency ratio technique. The data sets that affect groundwater such as geomorphology, lithology, slope, soil, rainfall, drainage density, lineament density and land use/ land cover were taken under consideration for finding the groundwater prospective areas in the Bundelkhand region, India. Thematic maps of all the above-mentioned factors have been prepared from the remotely sensed data, data taken from the different organizations and departments. The weights of each attribute class of each thematic layer are assigned according to the frequency ratio technique. A total, 799 numbers of spring locations and discharge rate data of 108 numbers of well locations have been taken under consideration for obtaining the frequency ratio of each attribute class of every parameter used and testing the obtained result, respectively. Finally, all layers were combined by raster calculator command in ArcGIS software to develop the map of groundwater prospective zones in the Bundelkhand region. The produced groundwater prospective areas were classified into five different zones such as very high, high, moderate, low and very low prospective zones and verified by actual well yield data.
The way we represent and perceive time has crucial implications for studying temporality in conscious experience. Contrasting positions posit that temporal information is separately abstracted out like any other perceptual property through specialized mechanisms or that time is represented through the temporality of experiences themselves. To add to this debate, we investigate alterations in felt time in conditions where only conscious visual experience is altered through perceptual switches while a bistable figure remains physically unchanged. We predicted that if perceived time is a function of temporally evolving conscious content, then a break in it (here via a perceptual switch) would also lead to a break in felt time. In three experiments, we showed participants a Necker cube that was manipulated to induce a perceptual switch (experiments 1(a) and 1(b)) or left to switch on its own (experiment 2). We asked participants to report both perceptual switches and felt durations (experiments 1(a) and 2) or only estimate time (experiment 1(b)). Over these three experiments, we find evidence of contraction of felt time in trials with a perceptual switch, consistent with the idea that perceived time is a function of temporally evolving conscious experience. Additionally, we present a phenomenological demonstration to support our empirical data. Overall, the study provides evidence for temporal mirroring and isomorphism in visual experience, arguing for a link between the timing of experience and time perception.
The current study explored the role of ionic copper (CuCl2; 0.2 µM and 1 µM) and synthesized copper nanoparticles (CuNPs; 0.2 mM and 1 mM) in the two paddy field cyanobacteria (Nostoc muscorum ATCC 27893 and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120) with respect to growth, photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic efficiency (O2 evolution and photochemistry of photosystem II; PS II), oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidant system. The low doses of ionic Cu (0.2 µM) and CuNPs (0.2 mM) showed stimulating effects on growth, pigment content (chlorophyll a, phycobiliproteins, and carotenoids), oxygen evolution, and PS II photochemistry. High doses of Cu/CuNPs (1 µM Cu and 1 mM CuNPs) caused a decline in the above-mentioned parameters. The values of fluorescence kinetics parameters: ϕP0, FV/F0, ϕE0, Ψ0, and PIABS, except for F0/FV, associated with PS II photochemistry in tested cyanobacteria and subjected to the high doses of ionic Cu and CuNPs, were decreased, while energy fluxes, ABS/RC, TR0/RC, ET0/RC, and DI0/RC, were increased. Conversely, treatment with low doses of Cu and CuNPs caused a reverse trend, indicating normalization of PS II performance. Although the activity of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase SOD; peroxidase POD; catalase CAT and glutathione-S-transferase GST) in both cyanobacteria exposed to high doses of ionic Cu and CuNPs was accelerated considerably, the oxidative stress remained high. Conversely, at low doses of ionic Cu and CuNPs, a significant enhancement in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants decreased the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Nevertheless, in Anabaena sp., the levels of biomarkers were greater than those of the control. The current study concluded that compared to synthesized CuNPs, ionic Cu at elevated concentration had a damaging effect on growth, photosynthetic pigments, and PS II photochemistry via increased oxidative stress, and this effect was enhanced in Anabaena sp. than N. muscorum.
Green chemistry is considered as a significant device for achieving sustainability which includes the synthesis of chemical products with less or remediates the toxicity of hazardous substances. Green nanotechnology affords solutions to several global challenges. Green nanotechnology is being considered as an imperative tool in achieving sustainability in agriculture, food industries, and animal feed. In green nanotechnology, nanomaterials (NMs) are synthesized via biological methods and have numerous applications in the sustainable agriculture sector and allied sectors. Different tissues of plants such as leaf, stem, bark, seed, root, fruits, and flower have been used for nanoparticles (NPs) biosynthesis. A variety of NMs are being used to sustain the agricultural sectors. Since the potential of this newly emerged field of medicine and research is beyond the scope of this book chapter, we will be focusing on a brief overview of green nanotechnology and the research efforts on its potential applications in sustainable agriculture and allied sectors. Various engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have different impacts, mechanisms, and behaviors on plants. Therefore, this book chapter also comprehensively reviews various ENM’s uptake, translocation, interactions mechanisms, and their phytotoxicity in plant species in order to develop systems for sustainable agriculture is provided in this chapter. The advantage and importance offered by NMs utilization are highlighted in this chapter, in concert with the main technological confronts prospect implementation of the systems for sustainable agriculture.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.