University of Al-Ameed
Recent publications
Background: Although radiotherapy is one of the main cancer treatment modalities, exposing healthy organs/tissues to ionizing radiation during treatment can lead to different adverse effects. In this regard, it has been shown that the use of radioprotective agents may alleviate the ionizing radiation-induced toxicities. Objective: The present study aims to review the radioprotective potentials of silymarin/silibinin in the prevention/reduction of ionizing radiation-induced adverse effects on healthy cells/tissues. Methods: Based on PRISMA guideline, a comprehensive and systematic search was performed for identifying relevant literature on the “potential protective role of silymarin/silibinin in the treatment of radiotherapy-induced toxicities” in the different electronic databases of Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus up to April 2022. Four hundred and fifty-five articles were obtained and screened in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the current study. Finally, 19 papers were included in this systematic review. Results: The findings revealed that the ionizing radiation-treated groups had reduced survival rate and body weight in comparison with the control groups. It was also found that radiation can induce mild to severe adverse effects on skin, digestive, hematologic, lymphatic, respiratory, reproductive, and urinary systems. Nevertheless, the administration of silymarin/silibinin could mitigate the ionizing radiation-induced adverse effects in most cases. This herbal agent exerts its radioprotective effects through anti-oxidant, anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammatory activities, and other mechanisms. Conclusion: The results of the current systematic review showed that co-treatment of silymarin/silibinin with radiotherapy alleviates the radiotherapy-induced adverse effects in healthy cells/tissues.
Cholesterol is an essential lipid that serves several important functions, including maintaining the homeostasis of cells, acting as a precursor to bile acid and steroid hormones and preserving the stability of membrane lipid rafts. 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) is a cholesterol derivative that may be formed from cholesterol. 25-HC is a crucial component in various biological activities, including cholesterol metabolism. In recent years, growing evidence has shown that 25-HC performs a critical function in the etiology of cancer, infectious diseases and autoimmune disorders. This review will summarize the latest findings regarding 25-HC, including its biogenesis, immunomodulatory properties and role in innate/adaptive immunity, inflammation and the development of various types of cancer.
Introduction . The work presents the results of studying the effects of three new azoloazine derivatives on oxidative glucose metabolism in order to select substances with the most acceptable characteristics for further preclinical study as potential antitumor agents, including for breast cancer chemotherapy. Aim. The aim of the work is to identify the metabolic properties of new azoloazine derivatives in terms of their effect on glucose metabolism using a culture of MCF-7 tumor cells and Vero non-tumor cells. Material and Methods. The testing on cell cultures was the main method used in the work, and all tested compounds were applied in final concentrations from 2.5 μmol/L. The comparison drug was epirubicin in the same concentration. The biochemical techniques included the determination of lactate production using commercial Olvex Diagnosticum kits and the determination of oxygen consumption by cells using the Seahorse XFe24 Analyzer for cellular metabolism. The results were processed statistically. Results. Lactate production in MCF-7 and Vero cell cultures decreased by more than half in the presence of 3-Cyclohexyl4-oxoimidazo[5,1-d]-[1,2,3,5]tetrazine-8-N-piperidinyl-carboxamide, and oxygen consumption decreased by 19-40%, which was the maximum effect among the studied azoloazine derivatives. Diethyl ether of 4-aminoimidazo[5,1-c][1,2,4]triazine-3,8dicarboxylic acid and 4-Amino-8-ethoxycarbonyl-imidazo[5,1-c][1,2,4]triazine-3-N-(p-toluyl)carboxamide were similar in their metabolic effects to the comparison drug epirubicin. They reduced lactate production in MCF-7 and Vero cell culture by a third and by 21–22%, respectively. Oxygen consumption in MCF-7 cell culture decreased by 14–17%, in Vero cell culture it decreased by 18–24%. Conclusion. The data obtained allow us to consider the (3-Cyclohexyl-4-oxoimidazo[5,1-d]-[1,2,3,5]tetrazine-8-N-piperidinylcarboxamide as the leader among new azoloazine derivatives and recommend it for further preclinical study as a potential antitumor agent.
Over the past decade, metallic drug-eluting implants have gained significance in orthopedic and dental applications for controlled drug release, specifically for preventing infection associated with implants. Recent studies showed that metallic implants loaded with drugs were substituted for conventional bare metal implants to achieve sustained and controlled drug release, resulting in a desired local therapeutic concentration. A number of secondary features can be provided by the incorporated active molecules, including the promotion of osteoconduction and angiogenesis, the inhibition of bacterial invasion, and the modulation of host body reaction. This paper reviews recent trends in the development of the metallic drug-eluting implants with various drug delivery systems in the past three years. There are various types of drug-eluting implants that have been developed to meet this purpose, depending on the drug or agents that have been loaded on them. These include anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics agents, growth factors, and anti-resorptive drugs.
Cirrhosis is an end‐stage liver disease resulting from prolonged and widespread liver fibrosis, in which the fibrotic tissues replace the functional hepatic cells. Any chronic liver disease due to various viral, chemical, or metabolic reasons initiates hepatic fibrogenesis. Cirrhosis is associated with an array of clinical complications and has a poor prognosis; therefore, developing novel antifibrotic therapies to prevent cirrhosis is of high priority. Mounting evidence point to the key role of serum response factor (SRF) and myocardin‐related transcription factors A (MRTF‐A) in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. SRF is a transcription factor and MRTF‐A is the co‐activator of SRF which normally resides in cytoplasm. Upon the induction of fibrotic pathways, MRTF‐A translocates into the nucleus and forms the active SRF/MRTF‐A complex, leading to the expression of a multitude of fibrotic proteins and components of extracellular matrix. Silencing or inhibiting MRTF‐A impedes hepatic stellate cells trans‐differentiation into myofibroblasts and slows down the deposition of extracellular matrix in the liver, making it a potential therapeutic target. Here, we have reviewed the most recent findings regarding the role of SRF/MRTF‐A complex in liver fibrosis and its therapeutic potential for the management of cirrhosis.
Previous studies have shown that resilience could play an important role in enhancing the quality of life in women with breast cancer; however, the mediating role of self-care behaviors have not been studied. This study aims to explore the mediating role of self-care behaviors in the relationship between resilience and quality of life in breast cancer patients. A sample of 195 women with breast cancer (aged from 21 to 60 years; M = 45.32 ± 8.2) from three hospitals in Tehran, Iran completed online questionnaires measuring resilience, self-care and quality of life. The results of structural equation modeling showed that resilience (β = 0.546, p < .01) and self-care behaviors (β = 0.621, p < .01) positively predicted the quality of life in breast cancer patients. The bootstrapping analysis showed that self-care behaviors acted as a partial mediator between resilience and quality of life. The present study brings to light an underlying mechanism of the relationship between resilience and quality of life via the mediating variable of self-care behaviors for patients with breast cancer.
Systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease reflecting an imbalance between effector and regulatory immune responses. Dendritic cells (DC) are a link between innate and adaptive immunity. Inflammatory DCs (inflDC) can initiate and trigger lymphocyte responses in SLE with over-expression of surface molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokine, including Interferon (IFN) α, Interleukin (IL) 1α, IL-1β, and IL-6, resulting in the overreaction of T helper cells (Th), and B cells immune responses. On the opposite side, tolerogenic DCs (tolDC) express inhibitory interacting surface molecules and repressive mediators, such as IL-10, Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), which can maintain self-tolerance in SLE by induction of regulatory T cells (Treg), T cells deletion and anergy. Hence, tolDCs can be a therapeutic candidate for patients with SLE to suppress their systematic inflammation. Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies showed the efficacy of tolDCs therapy in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we provide a wide perspective on the effect of inflDCs in promoting inflammation and the role of tolDC in the suppression of immune cells' overreaction in SLE. Furthermore, we reviewed the finding of clinical trials and experimental studies related to autoimmune diseases, particularly SLE.
Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are widely used as dental implant materials because of their high mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and corrosion resistance. This research was undertaken to study the effect of polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) sealing layer on the corrosion performance of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)-coated titanium-based dental implants in pure saliva and fluoride-containing saliva solutions. The phase structure, chemical composition, and microstructure of coatings were investigated via X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The corrosion behavior of the samples was evaluated by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. The deposition of the PMMA layer on the PEO-coated Ti dental implants was found to effectively seal the micropores and microcracks of the TiO2 coatings and block corrosive ions' penetration routes through the coating. Thereby, the results indicated that better corrosion performance was observed when the PMMA layer is applied on PEO-coated Ti dental implants than on the simple PEO coatings.
Correction for 'Recent advances on the electrochemical and optical biosensing strategies for monitoring microRNA-21: a review' by Amir Abbas Esmaeilzadeh et al., Anal. Methods, 2022, 14, 4449-4459,
In this work, optical properties including absorption coefficient (α), linear refractive index (n) as well as the energy gap (Eg) of crystal violet dye was estimated in two phases. The first phase: when the dye was dissolved in water at different concentrations (1 × 10⁻¹, 1 × 10⁻², 1 × 10⁻³, 1 × 10⁻⁴, 1 × 10-5ml). The second phase is the deposition of polyvinyl alcohol for different thicknesses (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 µm) and with fixed concentration (1 × 10⁻³ ml) as thin films. It was found that the linear optical properties increased with increasing thicknesses while the energy gap is increasing from 3.9 to around 4.1 eV with increasing CV concentrations resulting from the indirect transitions.
Background Infertility is very common condition and almost 50% of cases are due to male factors. Several genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the poor quality and reduced number of sperms in several cases of infertility. The present study was designed to investigate the association between semen parameters, homocysteine, and the risk of C677T polymorphism of MTHFR gene in infertile males of Iraqi population. Methods This Case–control study has been conducted from February 2019 to July 2021 at a molecular laboratory in the Anatomy and Histology Department/college of Medicine/University of Kufa/Najaf/Iraq. It was composed of 353 infertile male patients. They were divided into five groups: 90 azoospermic, 84 oligospermia, 64 asthenospermic, 50 oligoasthenospermic, and 65 teratospermic with an age range 20–46 years compared with 100 fertile males as control with age range 21–49 years. In order to detect homocysteine levels, we used Hcy ELISA Kit. C677T mutation of MTHFR gene was employed by PCR–RFLP technique. Results Our data revealed three genotypes of MTHFR C677T, 167 (47.3%) subjects had CC genotype, 116 (32.9%) subjects had CT genotype and 70 (21.1%) subjects had TT genotype. Furthermore, T allele was associated with higher risk of infertility in all patients groups for any genetic model. In total infertile subjects (codominant model: CT vs. CC, OR = 2.0, 95% C.I = 1.2–3.3, P = 0.011; TT vs. CC, OR = 4.8, 95% C.I = 3.3–8.2, P = 0.0003; dominant model: CT + TT vs. CC, OR = 2.8, 95% C.I = 1.7–4.5, P = 0.0001). Oligoasthenospermic patients associated with higher risk in CT heterozygous genotype (OR = 2.8, 95% C.I = 1.0–4.9, P = 0.03) and TT homozygous of mutant allele (OR = 6.3, 95% C.I = 1.9–9.2, P = 0.002). Homocystein level was elevated in all infertile groups when compared with control group ( P < 0.01), but the elevation was marked in oligoasthenospermia group. As well as, the level of Serum Hcy exhibited the highest value in TT mutant genotype (39.7 µmol/ml) followed by CT genotype (28.5 µmol/ml) while the lowest level of Hcy recorded in CC genotype (14.6 µmol/ml) for oligoasthenospermia group. Conclusions By relating the MTHFR C677T gene mutation with a higher homocystein level, the results showed that Iraqi males with this mutation are more likely to suffer from infertility.
In recent decades, the advent of immune-based therapies, most notably Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy has revolutionized cancer treatment. The promising results of numerous studies indicate that CAR-T cell therapy has had a remarkable ability and successful performance in treating blood cancers. However, the heterogeneity and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) of solid tumors have challenged the effectiveness of these anti-tumor fighters by creating various barriers. Despite the promising results of this therapeutic approach, including tumor degradation and patient improvement, there are some concerns about the efficacy and safety of the widespread use of this treatment in the clinic. Complex and suppressing tumor microenvironment, tumor antigen heterogeneity, the difficulty of cell trafficking, CAR-T cell exhaustion, and reduced cytotoxicity in the tumor site limit the applicability of CAR-T cell therapy and highlights the requiring to improve the performance of this treatment. With this in mind, in the last decade, many efforts have been made to use other treatments for cancer in combination with tuberculosis to increase the effectiveness of CAR-T cell therapy, especially in solid tumors. The combination therapy results have promising consequences for tumor regression and better cancer control compared to single therapies. Therefore, this study aimed to comprehensively discuss different cancer treatment methods in combination with CAR-T cell therapy and their therapeutic outcomes, which can be a helpful perspective for improving cancer treatment in the near future.
The current work introduces a new nanostructure of Ce³⁺-doped NiO nanodisks fabricated by a facile hydrothermal protocol, whose characteristics were determined using XRD, SEM and EDX techniques. The results confirmed the presence of nanodisk structures, huge surface area and large pore size. Then, the surface of a screen-printed electrode was modified with the as-fabricated nanostructure to achieve a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor (Ce³⁺-NiO ND/SPE) for determination of Plavix, a cardiovascular drug. Differential pulse voltammetry chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry were utilized to monitor the electrochemical behaviors of drug on the surface of modified electrode. The synergetic impact of Ce-doped NiO nanodisks on the Plavix oxidation was due to increased oxidation peak current and decreased oxidation over-potential. Our novel sensor under the optimized experimental and instrumental circumstances could electrochemically determine the study analyte in the range as wide as 0.01 to 700.0 µM and a limit of detection as narrow as 8.3 nM. The practical capability and sensitivity of the proposed sensor were validated by determining the Plavix in real pharmaceutical preparations, with commendable obtains. Graphical abstract
Oxidative stress is implicated in many forms of cancer, and catalase is one of the most critical enzymes involved in the organic body's defensive mechanism against stress on antioxidation. Catalase shows a vital role in the body's primary defense versus oxidative stress. Several studies have indicated that CAT gene polymorphism plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of cancer. This study aimed to recognize the influence of the CAT (rs7943316) gene polymorphism on breast cancer progress in patients using a collection of blood samples from each subject. After the extraction of genomic DNA, the SNP rs7943316 analysis was performed using PCR, RFLP, and electrophoresis on agarose. finally visualized under UV light and analyzed with SPSS software (version 23). This study revealed that the higher genotype in the control subjects was AT genotype 19 (63.3%), followed by TT genotype 11 (36.7%), and AA genotype (0%). In the BC group, AT genotype was the higher 39 (55.7%), followed by TT genotype 24 (34.3%), and AA genotype 7 (10.0%). Individual carriers of the A/T and T/T type of genotype were less expected to develop BC [OR = 0.135, 95% CI = 0.0073-2.4882, P value = 0.178] and [OR = 0.1420, 95% CI = 0.0075-2.70, P value = 0.1943], respectively. In addition, there are no significant differences in frequencies of the T allele of the CAT gene (rs7943316) between breast cancer patients and control groups [OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.4002-1.4459, P value = 0.4039]. In brief, the current study’s results suggest no correlation between rs7943316 polymorphisms of CAT genes and the development of BC; the genotypes AA, AT, and TT have no potential risk for breast cancer in patient women.
The small non-coding RNA, microRNA-21 (miR-21), is dysregulated in various cancers and can be considered an appropriate target for therapeutic approaches. Therefore, the detection of miR-21 concentration is important in the diagnosis of diseases. Low specificity and the cost of materials are two necessary limitations in the traditional diagnosis method such as RT-PCR, northern blotting and microarray analysis. Biosensor technology can play an effective role in improving the quality of human life due to its capacity of rapid diagnosis, monitoring different markers, suitable sensitivity, and specificity. Moreover, bioanalytical systems have an essential role in the detection of biomolecules or miRNAs due to their critical features, including easy usage, portability, low cost and real-time analysis. Electrochemical biosensors based on novel nanomaterials and oligonucleotides can hybridize with miR-21 in different ranges. Moreover, optical biosensors and piezoelectric devices have been developed for miR-21 detection. In this study, we have evaluated different materials used in bioanalytical systems for miR-21 detection as well as various nanomaterials that offer improved electrodes for its detection.
Objective Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a group of drugs widely used around the world for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effect, but still have many limitations due to their side effects. So, these lead to the development of a new approach to search for a new product from natural plants that have similar therapeutic effects without common side effects like gastrointestinal ulcers. Method The anti-inflammatory effect of β-amyrin palmitate (1) as triterpene and 1,7-bis (4- hydroxyphenyl) hept-4-en-3-one (2) as diarylheptanoid, isolated from Pellacalyx axillaris was studied by molecular docking to find the probability of binding position and binding strength of new compounds with particular Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (PDB ID: 1CX2). In vivo acute anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds (1 and 2) was evaluated in rats using the egg-white induced edema model of inflammation in a dose correspondent to 3 mg/Kg of Diclofenac Sodium. Result The tested isolated compounds showed a high activity to inhibit the swelling in paw edema and their anti-inflammatory effect began shortly after the injection of the egg white and continued to the end of the experiment in comparison to the reference and control. Conclusion The isolated compounds show a long period of activity with a very potent effect, this may be related to their suitable acidity and may have perfect hydrophilic –lipophilic balance. This is the first study of anti-inflammatory effect using Paw edema model and molecular docking.
Dormant cancer stem cells (CSCs) are generated during primary cancer, metastasis, and in response to therapies or host immunologic responses. Dormancy determines the time gap between the organotropism of invasive CSCs and the occurrence of macrometastasis. Dormancy arms CSCs to evade the immune system and therapeutic agents while supporting their survival and tumor recurrence in defined metastatic sites. This review discussed the molecular mechanisms involved in cancer dormancy and then presented potent treatments targeting quiescence in CSCs according to their environmental dynamics for improving cancer therapy outcomes.
Concanavalin A (ConA), the most studied plant lectin, has been known as a potent anti-neoplastic agent for a long time. Since initial reports on its capacity to kill cancer cells, much attention has been devoted to unveiling the lectin's exact molecular mechanism. It has been revealed that ConA can bind to several receptors on cancerous and normal cells and modulate the related signaling cascades. The most studied host receptor for ConA is MT1-MMP, responsible for most of the lectin's modulations, ranging from activating immune cells to killing tumor cells. In this study, in addition to studying the effect of ConA on signaling and immune cell function, we will focus on the most up-to-date advancements that unraveled the molecular mechanisms by which ConA can induce autophagy and apoptosis in various cancer cell types, where it has been found that P73 and JAK/STAT3 are the leading players. Moreover, we further discuss the main signaling molecules causing liver injury as the most significant side effect of the lectin injection. Altogether, these findings may shed light on the complex signaling pathways controlling the diverse responses created via ConA treatment, thereby modulating these complex networks to create more potent lectin-based cancer therapy.
Detection of DNA molecules and possible chemotherapy-induced changes in its structure has been the goal of researchers using rapid, sensitive and inexpensive approaches. Therefore, the aim of this study was to fabricate a new electrochemical DNA biosensor using pencil graphite electrodes modified with polypyrrole/Ce doped hexagonal nickel oxide nanodisks or PP/Ce-doped H-NiO-ND composites for determination of Abemaciclib (AMC) and ds-DNA molecules. The DNA biosensor was prepared by immobilizing ds-DNA on the surface of PP/Ce-doped H-NiO-ND/PGE. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to electrochemically detect AMC. The results elucidate the extremely high sensitivity of the ds-DNA/PP/Ce-doped H-NiO-ND/PGE biosensor to AMC, with a narrow detection limit of 2.7 nM and a lengthy linear range of 0.01-600.0 μM. The admirable performance of as-fabricated biosensor could be related to the active reaction sites and the unique electrochemical response related to the nanocomposites by enhancing ds-DNA stabilization and accelerating electron transfer on the surface of electrode. KEYWORDS abemaciclib, DNA biosensor, anti-breast cancer agent, voltammetry, modified electrode
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116 members
Saad Ibrahim Al-Ghabban
  • Faculty of Medicine
Zainab Mussa
  • College of Pharmacy
Moaed E. Algazally
  • Faculty of Medicine
Hussein A. Ghanimi
  • Faculty of Nursing
Najaf Highway Front of Pole (1238), 198, Karbala, Iraq