Background: African pangolins are currently experiencing unprecedented levels of harvesting, feeding both local demands and the illegal international trade. So far, the lack of knowledge on the population genetics of African pangolins has hampered any attempts at assessing their demographic status and tracing their trade at the local scale. We conducted a pioneer study on the genetic tracing of the African pangolin trade in the Dahomey Gap (DG). We sequenced and genotyped 189 white-bellied pangolins from 18 forests and 12 wildlife markets using one mitochondrial fragment and 20 microsatellite loci. Results: Tree-based assignment procedure showed that the pangolin trade is endemic to the DG region, as it was strictly fed by the the Dahomey Gap lineage (DGL). DGL populations were characterized by low levels of genetic diversity, an overall absence of equilibrium, important inbreeding levels, and lack of geographic structure. We identified a 92-98% decline in DGL effective population size 200-500 ya-concomitant with major political transformations along the 'Slave Coast'-leading to contemporaneous estimates being inferior to minimum viable population size (< 500). Genetic tracing suggested that wildlife markets from the DG sourced pangolins through the entire DGL range. Our loci provided the necessary power to distinguish among all the genotyped pangolins, tracing the dispatch of a same individual on the markets and within local communities. We developed an approach combining rarefaction analysis of private allele frequencies with cross-validation of observed data that traced five traded pangolins to their forest origin, c. 200-300 km away from the markets. Conclusions: Although the genetic toolkit that we designed from traditional markers can prove helpful to trace the illegal trade in pangolins, our tracing ability was limited by the lack of population structure within the DGL. Given the deleterious combination of genetic, demographic, and trade-related factors affecting DGL populations, the conservation status of white-bellied pangolins in the DG should be urgently re-evaluated.
Background While malaria morbidity and mortality have declined since 2000, viral central nervous system infections appear to be an important, underestimated cause of coma in malaria-endemic Eastern Africa. We aimed to describe the etiology of non-traumatic comas in young children in Benin, as well as their management and early outcomes, and to identify factors associated with death. Methods From March to November 2018, we enrolled all HIV-negative children aged between 2 and 6 years, with a Blantyre Coma Score ≤ 2, in this prospective observational study. Children were screened for malaria severity signs and assessed using a systematic diagnostic protocol, including blood cultures, malaria diagnostics, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis using multiplex PCR. To determine factors associated with death, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results From 3244 admissions, 84 children were included: malaria was diagnosed in 78, eight of whom had a viral or bacterial co-infection. Six children had a non-malarial infection or no identified cause. The mortality rate was 29.8% (25/84), with 20 children dying in the first 24 h. Co-infected children appeared to have a poorer prognosis. Of the 76 children who consulted a healthcare professional before admission, only 5 were prescribed adequate antimalarial oral therapy. Predictors of early death were jaundice or increased bilirubin [odd ratio ( OR )= 8.6; 95% confidential interval ( CI ): 2.03–36.1] and lactate > 5 mmol/L ( OR = 5.1; 95% CI : 1.49–17.30). Antibiotic use before admission ( OR = 0.1; 95% CI : 0.02–0.85) and vaccination against yellow fever ( OR = 0.2, 95% CI : 0.05–0.79) protected against mortality. Conclusions Infections were found in all children who died, and cerebral malaria was by far the most common cause of non-traumatic coma. Missed opportunities to receive early effective antimalarial treatment were common. Other central nervous system infections must be considered in their management. Some factors that proved to be protective against early death were unexpected.
We study the large-time behavior of a two-species competition model in a spatially heterogeneous environment and investigate the influence of dispersal strategy on the competition. In particular, we allow one species to exhibit a random dispersal movement while the second species is constrained to a non-spatial movement dynamic. We show that there is a nonnegative threshold number (possibly equal to infinity and determined by both species' local intrinsic growth rates) such that the species adopting the random dispersal strategy persists uniformly in space if its diffusion rate is kept below this number while it goes extinct if its diffusion rate is greater than this number. Furthermore, in the critical case that the diffusing species' movement rate equals this number, exactly two scenarios are possible: the non-diffusing species wins the competition if it has a sink area; otherwise, both species coexist.
Most African women spend a lot of time on housework unpaid works, such as collecting fuel, cooking at home, and looking after children. They spend around 3.5–8 h a day collecting firewood from a long distance, sometimes coming back very tired. New technologies are using to reduce women time spent for unpaid working including solar cookers that also contribute to sustainable environment and health. With a view to reducing women's daily workload and contributing to sustainable development, this review aims to highlight the importance of solar cookers in women's daily lives. A total of 73 papers from Africa (39.73 %), Asia (17.81 %), America (6.85 %), Europe (4.10 %), and the rest of the world (31.51 %) were considered. Three types of solar cookers (SCs), namely box cookers, panel cookers, and parabolic cookers, were identified. Each had different performance and design parameters. SCs can save 1 to 5 h per day of time spent on fuelwood collection and between 18 and 48 h per month on cooking. Moreover, SCs can save about 9.1 USD (for home use), 136 USD (in snack bar), 600.6 USD (in hotels), 910 USD (in restaurants) and 391,667 USD (in city) monthly. In addition, each SC can save between 850 kg and 1 ton of wood monthly. The reduction in CO2 emitted per month by using SCs was up to 60.55 kg (at home), 6055.2 kg (in restaurants), 3996.43 kg (in hotels), and 908.28 kg (in snack). SCs reduce or eliminate eye disease, respiratory disease, headaches, cardiovascular disease, cancer and nutritional deficiencies. The adoption rate of SCs remains low in Africa and ranges from 0.8 % (in Kenya) to 38 % (in South Africa). Economic, social, cultural, environmental, political, and technical barriers are factors limiting the adoption of SCs in developing countries.
Paradoxical reactions (PR) during tuberculosis treatment are rare in HIV negative subjects and result in polymorphic clinical presentations which could sometimes lead to confusion. We report the case of a postpartum mother, HIV negative who was placed on treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. She experienced transient clinical improvement and developed PR which mimicked lung malignancy. This is a rare phenomenon and may result in diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma in resource poor settings.
This paper aims to present an end to end bilingual TTS system for Yoruba and Fongbe based on Fastspeech 2, a non-autoregressive model. From this baseline, a simple concatenation of speaker, language and phoneme embeddings was used as input for the encoder and the decoder. The training was done on a multi-speaker dataset collected for both languages. Two types of input were used: a shared representation of phoneme between both languages and a language specific representation of phonemes. Then some experimentations were made to test both input representations showing that results are smoother for the shared representation of phoneme. But with all input sets, the proposed model was able to synthesize speech in each language with voice cloning ability. The model produces good speech quality waveform with great fidelity and naturalness and shows its ability to generate speech waveforms for both languages. A comparison was also made between the proposed bilingual system and the same model trained on monolingual dataset to show that the bilingual dataset allows more accurate result. KeywordsBilingual text-to-speechAfrican languageTonal language
Certain aspects of Vodoun, Benin’s primary indigenous religious tradition, have been perceived by some of that nation’s Christian believers as a menacing occult reality. Many Christians report states of acute psychological distress due to fears of the forces of Vodoun. This study analyzes the strategies employed by applied psychotherapeutic science professionals to diagnose and treat such cases, with an eye toward presenting a framework for the possible amelioration of clinical outcomes in comparable instances elsewhere.
This paper deals with the existence of bursting, mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs) and horseshoe chaos in a mixed Rayleigh-Liénard oscillator with asymmetric double well potential driven by parametric periodic damping and external excitations. The dynamical behaviours of the considered model, when the exciting frequency is much smaller than the natural frequency, are studied using bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponent diagrams, time histories and phase portraits. It is found that our model displays various bursting and mixed-mode oscillations. Moreover, various mixed-mode oscillation routes to chaos occur in the system. It is also found that the system exhibits two or three coexisting behaviours of attractors when the parametric damping coefficient evolves. On the other hand, the analytical criterion for the appearance of horseshoes chaos is derived using the Melnikov method. A convenient demonstration of the accuracy of the method is obtained from the fractal basin boundary. It is noted that the increase of the impure quadratic damping coefficient, cubic damping coefficient, asymmetric term and the amplitude of the external excitation accentuates the chaotic behaviour of the system. However, the behaviour of the system becomes regular as the parametric damping coefficient increases.
Tick and tick-borne pathogens constitute a growing veterinary and public health concern around the world. Ticks are considered natural reservoirs for tick-borne related pathogens and are equally responsible for the spread of infections in animals as well as humans. In this study, the presence of Rickettsia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was investigated in hard ticks collected from reptiles, birds, and wild mammalian animals. The sample collection was carried out between December 2020 and September 2021. Adult ticks (male and female) were collected from wild animals in six districts of southern Benin. Molecular analysis was used to verify the presence of pathogens in all the ticks collected from wild animals. A total of 504 ticks were collected and grouped into 115 different tick pools. The PCR analysis detected 19 out of 115 tick pools which turn out positive for Rickettsia spp. and 9/115 tick pools positive for Bartonella spp., while Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was not detected in any tick. Several of the tick species collected from our studied reptiles/wild mammalian animals could be potential sources of zoonotic pathogens when subjected to further investigation. Therefore, stringent attention should be established for tick infestation of reptiles/wild mammalian animals in order to put in place proper control and prevention measures for tick-borne diseases in the wild, which could serve as reservoirs in the infestation of domestic animals/humans in the event of any possible contact.
Background: Despite a global decrease in malaria burden worldwide, malaria remains a major public health concern, especially in Benin children, the most vulnerable group. A better understanding of malaria's spatial and age-dependent characteristics can help provide durable disease control and elimination. This study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and disease among children under five years of age in Benin, West Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological and clinical survey was conducted using parasitological examination and rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) in Benin. Interviews were done with 10,367 children from 72 villages across two health districts in Benin. The prevalence of infection and clinical cases was estimated according to age. A Bayesian spatial binomial model was used to estimate the prevalence of malaria infection, and clinical cases were adjusted for environmental and demographic covariates. It was implemented in R using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations (INLA) and Stochastic Partial Differentiation Equations (SPDE) techniques. Results: The prevalence of P. falciparum infection was moderate in the south (34.6%) of Benin and high in the northern region (77.5%). In the south, the prevalence of P. falciparum infection and clinical malaria cases were similar according to age. In northern Benin children under six months of age were less frequently infected than children aged 6-11, 12-23, 24-60 months, (p < 0.0001) and had the lowest risk of malaria cases compared to the other age groups (6-12), (13-23) and (24-60): OR = 3.66 [2.21-6.05], OR = 3.66 [2.21-6.04], and OR = 2.83 [1.77-4.54] respectively (p < 0.0001). Spatial model prediction showed more heterogeneity in the south than in the north but a higher risk of malaria infection and clinical cases in the north than in the south. Conclusion: Integrated and periodic risk mapping of Plasmodium falciparum infection and clinical cases will make interventions more evidence-based by showing progress or a lack in malaria control.
Given the burgeoning prevalence of Type-2 Diabetes (T2D) in Benin and other sub-Saharan countries, tailored diabetes self-management interventions are urgently needed. Human-centered designs can be useful for identifying beneficiaries’ needs while keeping in mind feasibility and viability in a given context. Therefore, this study examined the acceptability and community perceptions of a self-directed lifestyle program for T2D patients in Cotonou, southern Benin. Data were collected using focus group discussions (FDGs) with T2D patients (n = 3; 32 participants), academic partners (n = 2; 16 participants), and community partners (n = 2; 12 participants). All FDG sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed from French into English verbatim, and analyzed using MAXQDA 2020. Most participants found the program to be useful and feasible. However, they preferred pictorial brochures as training materials and suggested community health workers as facilitators, assisted by clinicians or dietitians. They recommended community-based delivery mechanisms and mobile applications like WhatsApp to enhance patient adherence. Participants’ characteristics, tangible health benefits, incentives, and simple curriculums were cited as critical to program feasibility, effectiveness, and acceptability. This study provides a deeper understanding of potential diabetes self-management participants’ needs and concerns. Moreover, it highlights the need to consider key stakeholders’ needs and voices for effective intervention.
The indigenous chicken production has become an integral part of smallholder farming systems in Africa. Their products are preferred due to their taste and flavor; crossbreeding using exotic breeds can improve the productivity of these chickens without sacrificing their genetic merits. This study was aimed at improving the Wassache chicken. F 1 generations of the crosses between the Wassache and Sasso chickens were simultaneously evaluated for growth traits, mortality, and carcass yield in a pure and reciprocal cross design. Data on body weight, performance, and mortality were collected on 451 birds (Sasso × Sasso [SS] = 110; Wassache × Wassache [WW] = 113; Sasso × Wassache [SW] = 113 and Wassache × Sasso [WS] = 115) for 12 weeks. On the 12th week of the study, 20 birds from each genotype were dissected to determine carcass yield. All data collected were analyzed using Minitab 19. The results showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) values reported for the SS genotype in all parameters studied. Likewise, the reciprocal crosses showed higher performance in growth and carcass traits next to pure Sasso. However, the feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage of the hybrids did not differ (P < 0.05) from those of the SS and WW genotypes. Within the reciprocal crosses, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in all parameters measured except for hatch weight where the WS showed a higher (P < 0.05) hatch weight compared to the SW cross. The study encourages the crossbreeding of the Wassache and Sasso chickens for improved meat production in this region.
Background Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue , is a skin neglected tropical disease. It is targeted for eradication by 2030, primarily using mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin. Traditionally, diagnosis of yaws has relied on clinical examination and serological testing. However, these approaches have poor diagnostic performance. To achieve eradication, more accurate diagnostics are required to determine whether MDA should be initiated or continued as well as for post-elimination surveillance. Molecular tools will be crucial for detecting antimicrobial resistant cases, which have the potential to derail eradication efforts. In order to determine the feasibility of introducing novel, more accurate, diagnostics for yaws surveillance purposes, it is necessary to understand current in-country diagnostic capacity. This study therefore aimed to understand the current capacity of, and challenges to, improving diagnostics for yaws in all yaws-endemic countries worldwide. Methodology/principal findings An online survey was sent to all 15 yaws-endemic countries in July 2021. The survey asked about past prevalence estimates, the availability of different diagnostic tools, and perceived barriers to enhancing capacity. Fourteen countries responded to the survey, four of which did not have a current National Policy for yaws eradication in place. Over 95% of reported that yaws cases from the past five years had not been confirmed with serological or molecular tools, largely due to the limited supply of rapid serological tests. Only four countries reported having operational laboratories for molecular yaws diagnosis, with only one of these having a validated assay to detect azithromycin resistance. Conclusions and significance This study highlights the diagnostic capacity constraints across all respondent countries. Countries are in need of access to a sustainable supply of serological tests, and development of molecular testing facilities. Sufficient sustainable funding should be made available to ensure that appropriate diagnostic tools are available and utilised.
Greenhouse gas from rice production has become a great concern and the focus of a lot of research in recent years. The main aim of the study was to explore the research trend of GHG emissions from rice production by exploring the research hotspots and providing suggestions for future research directions over the period 1991 to 2020. A bibliometric analysis was conducted using the Scopus database, and the sample included 2535 articles. The methodology was based on descriptive analysis, co-occurrence analysis, factorial analysis, word dynamic over time, and the author’s keyword analysis over time. The results indicate a remarkable increase in the number of articles published on this topic, mainly in the journals of “Agriculture,” “Ecosystems,” and “Environment.” The main authors were Conrad R. and Wassmann R. Relating to the number of published articles, very few were contributed by African countries, whereas China, Japan, and India were the main contributors. The co-occurrence analysis showed that rice, methane, and nitrous oxide are the core keywords of the network. The multiple factorial analysis pointed out that greenhouse gas emissions from rice production depend on the farming practices, the environmental factors, and the plant growth as well. The evolutionary path showed that the current author’s keywords are more related to global warming potential, climate change, and biochar. The findings of this review can help researchers and scholars by providing a better overview of development trends that have emerged over the past 30 years and suggestions for the future direction in this field.
In sub-Saharan Africa, rapid population growth, urbanization, increasing incomes, and changing dietary preferences are the main drivers of the rising demand for livestock products, especially fresh milk and derived products. To meet this demand, there is an increasing number of dairy cattle farms in the densely populated coastal zone of Benin, where the country's largest city and commercial capital Cotonou is located. To identify and characterize the peri-urban dairy production systems in this region, 190 cattle keepers were surveyed, using the snowball sampling method, in four municipalities neighboring Cotonou. Information on their socio-economic characteristics, cattle herd sizes, and herd management practices were collected through questionnaire-based face-to-face interviews. Factor analysis of mixed data followed by hierarchical clustering on principal components, implemented in R statistical software, were applied to classify the surveyed farms into homogeneous groups. Results revealed six types of peri-urban dairy cattle farms differing mainly in their cows' breeds, herd sizes, and daily amount of milk produced. Most herds (88%) were owned by urban dwellers, mainly civil servants and traders, who entrusted the management of their cattle to hired professional herders. Irrespective of farm type, cows were of local taurine (65%) or Sahelian zebu (35%) breeds and were exclusively fed on communal natural pasture. Mineral supplementation was provided to the animals on 42% of farms, with significant variation across farm types. About 45% of the farms integrated cattle production with other agricultural activities, including coconut plantations (22%), where cow manure was used as fertilizer. The herd structure was similar across farm types, with average proportions of cows and heifers ranging from 37.6 to 47.5% and from 13.1 to 19.7%, respectively. With significant differences across farm types, the produced milk was either transformed into traditional cheese (32% of farms) or sold raw (85%). Milk and cheese sales represented 84% of the total farm income for three out of the six farm types. In the current context of rapid urbanization, communal grazing lands alone cannot provide sufficient feed to support increased milk production. In addition to improved feeding strategies, herd structure should be balanced in terms of the ratio between milk-producing and non-producing animals.
Rivers are dynamic systems in complex interactions with their surrounding environments. Reliable and fast interpretation of water quality is therefore needed for sustainable river management. Unfortunately, water quality and environmental status interactions have not yet been documented sufficiently in West–Africa. This study explored the spatial–latitudinal and seasonal features of water quality along the Sô River Basin (SRB, West Africa) using self-organizing map (SOM) and principal component analysis. Twenty-two water quality variables were measured in the surface layer at 12 different sampling sites during a twenty-four-month period from July 2016 to June 2018. The results revealed three water quality groups, following an upstream-downstream pollution gradient: (1) upstream and middle reach sites with high dissolved oxygen and Secchi disk depth values, which are more suitable for the aquatic biota; (2) downstream sites with high concentrations of ammonium, biochemical oxygen demand, and heavy metals especially in flood period, reflecting both high organic and heavy metal pollution; and (3) brackish downstream sites characterized by less heavy metal and organic pollutions. No significant variation was observed between seasons. However, the SRB relatively suffered from higher risks of heavy metal contamination and organic pollution in wet seasons. Although hydroclimatic processes affect the water quality, anthropogenic inputs of point and non-point sources were identified and discussed as a more prominent factor contributing to variation in the water quality condition. These results offer insights into the water quality dynamics in river–estuary system as well as potential pollution sources, crucial for defining sanitation, and management measures.
The agricultural sector play important role in the development of Houeyogbe municipality. This study aims to analyze the production and marketing of palm oil in Houeyogbe. The methodological approach is based on data collection, processing, analysis and interpretation. A total of 294 farmers were interviewed and, the data collected was processed using Excel software. Finally, the SWOT analysis was used. The results reveal that, oil palm exploitation is an activity carried out primarily by women. 30 % of the earnings from the sale of palm oil are intended for home-consumption and the remaining 70 % for sale and export. In addition, for a production of 15 liters of palm oil in the dry season, the producers make a revenue from 135000 FCFA (245.45 $) to 330000 FCFA (600 $) with an estimated expense of 80000 FCFA (145.45 $). The profit margin varies from 55000 FCFA (100 $) to 250000 FCFA (454.54 $) in the dry season. In the rainy season, the processing of 200 measures of palm nuts yields a quantity of 150 liters of red oil, the selling price is 9000 FCFA (16.36 $) per 25 liter can, which gives a revenue of 135000 FCFA (245.45 $) with an estimated expense of 60000 FCFA (109.9 $). The profit margin is 75000 FCFA (136.36 $). Retail marketing of palm oil is not developed in Houeyogbe’s municipality. Most retail marketing is directly linked to consumption. Most of the wholesalers are beginners who come from urban areas with trucks to buy palm oil in bulk. They sell for the most part in the markets of Lokossa, Azovè, Dogbo, Athiémè, and sometimes in Cotonou. It is recommended that actors at various levels take into account the various constraints that constitute bottlenecks so that appropriate solutions are provided to improve the performance of the various actors in the palm oil sector in the commune of Houéyogbé.
Literature on conservation science has documented the increasing use of the co-management approach to effectively conserve natural resources. Although some studies found the co-management approach as highly effective, others also reported some uncertainties associated with the use of this conservation approach. Using the mono transboundary biosphere reserve (MTBR) as a case study, this work assessed the effectiveness of the co-management approach for mangrove conservation in West Africa. Data was collected in two protected sites of the reserve (one in Togo and the other in Benin). Exploratory sequential mixed method via in-depth interviews ( n = 17), focus group discussions ( n = 14), household surveys ( n = 274) and expert-based surveys ( n = 10) were carried out, and data was analyzed using the InVEST-based Habitat Risk Assessment (HRA) model, chi-square tests and simple probability of likelihood. Findings showed that the co-management approach has lowered anthropogenic stressors to mangroves in the reserve. Under the co-management approach, all the mangroves located in the Benin side of the reserve are identified as under low risk whereas 42% of the mangrove cover are considered under low risk and 58% under medium risk in Togo. Local perception also portrayed the reduction of mangrove degradation in the study sites following the adoption of the co-management approach in the two countries. However, there are some challenges such as the financial support provision and regular community engagement which need to be thoroughly researched and addressed to achieve the sustainability of the positive impacts of the co-management in the MTBR.
Climate change has severe impacts on the livelihoods of West-African communities with the floods of the late 2000s and early 2010s serving as factual evidence. Focusing on the assessment of observed and future vulnerability to extreme rainfall in the tropical Ouémé River Basin, this study aims to provide scientific evidence to inform national adaptation plans. Observed climate variables, historical and future outputs from regional climate models, topographic, land cover, and socioeconomic data were used in the vulnerability assessment. This assessment was based on four indicator normalization methods (min–max, z-scores, distance to target, and ranking), two aggregation techniques (linear and geometric), four classification methods (quantile, standard deviation, equal intervals, natural breaks), and three robustness evaluation approaches (spearman correlation, Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), and average shift in ranks). Based on the AIC, it was found that “equal intervals” is the overall best classification method and the min–max normalization with linear aggregation (MM.LA) outperformed other methods. The median scenario indicates that the population of the Ouémé Basin is vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change for the historical (1970–2015) and future periods (2020–2050) as a result of low adaptive capacity. By 2050, the southern part of the Ouémé Basin will be highly vulnerable to pluvial flooding under RCP 4.5. Vulnerable municipalities will continue to suffer from flooding if adequate adaptation measures including water control infrastructure (development and expansion of rainwater and wastewater drainage systems) and appropriate early warning systems to strengthen community members’ resilience are not taken.
In drylands groundwater is often the only perennial source of freshwater to sustain domestic water supplies and irrigation. Knowledge of the pathways and dynamics of groundwater discharge and recharge is essential to inform sustainable and rational management of limited water resources. The lower valley of the Dallol Maouri in Niger represents a large fossil tributary (i.e. paleochannel) of the River Niger and drains groundwater regionally from the Iullemmeden Basin through coarse-grained Quaternary sediments. The objective of this paper is to quantify groundwater discharge within this paleochannel using piezometry and surface geophysics (TDEM : Time Domain Electromagnetic, MRS : Magnetic Resonance Sounding). TDEM and MRS experiments were conducted at 21 sites along 3 transects show respectively the mean thickness of Quaternary alluvium varies from 11 m to 18 m with the effective porosities ranging from 20% to 33% and hydraulic conductivity of 2 × 10-3 m/s. Dense piezometric surveys along drainage channel reveal hydraulic gradients of 0.2 ‰ to 0.3 ‰ that indicate Darcy fluxes of 1,000 to 2,000 m3/day (dry season, i.e. minimum value). Paleochannel discharge, which currently provides baseflow to the River Niger is the focus local demand to increase access to water for drinking, livestock watering, and irrigation.
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