Although solar energy harnessing capacity varies considerably based on the employed solar energy technology and the meteorological conditions, accurate direct normal irradiation (DNI) prediction remains crucial for better planning and management of concentrating solar power systems. This work develops hybrid Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) models for assessing hourly DNI using meteorological datasets that include relative humidity, air temperature, and global solar irradiation. The study proposes a unique hybrid model, combining a balance dynamic sine–cosine (BDSCA) algorithm with an LSTM predictor. Combining optimizers and predictors, such hybrid models are rarely developed to estimate DNI, especially in smaller prediction intervals. Therefore, various commonly adopted algorithms in relevant studies have been considered references for evaluating the new hybrid algorithm. The results show that the relative errors of the proposed models do not exceed 2.07%, with a minimum correlation coefficient of 0.99. In addition, the dimensionality of inputs was reduced from four variables to the two most cost-effective variables in DNI prediction. Therefore, these suggested models are reliable for estimating DNI in the arid desert areas of Algeria and other locations with similar climatic features.
In the present climate, thermal insulation is crucial for reducing energy consumption for heating or cooling in buildings, increasing the lifespan of structures, and building elements, and improving human comfort. The wall's composition layer has advanced regularly since the building regulations and established norms. However, calculation methods have remained quite the same, governed by Fourier's law. Therefore, to address this gap, a linearization process, and a correction factor of the optimized insulation thickness for four different insulation materials (i.e., EPS Graphite, EPS, GW, and RW) and five energy carriers (i.e., electricity, diesel, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, and biomass) by removing the boundaries of heating degree days by using Mathcad software is proposed. Other financial parameters (i.e., inflation rate, interest rate, lifespan, and present worth factor) and heating system features that lead to the optimized insulation thickness are considered. The RETScreen Expert model was coupled with a Mathcad script to compute a standardized corrected optimized insulation thickness (COIT) value by applying sensitivity analyses at ±35% of the most influencing parameters to calculate the total overhauling cost for different building types in Albania. A correction of the existing window's heat transfer coefficient for a different glass-to-wall ratio is proposed. Our findings suggest that the overall heat transfer value (U) should be equal to or less than 0.30 (W/m2•K), leading to a range of corrected optimized insulation thickness (COIT) from 0.03 m up to 0.11 m. Moreover, results exhibited encouraging economic and environmental values concerning the unrenovated buildings leading to annual net savings of 23.50–84.50 €/m2, CO2 reduction up to 39.10 kgCO2/m2, and a simple payback period (SPP) of 0.30 maximum up to 1.20 years. The outputs of this study can bring benefits in terms of reduced energy consumption and CO2 footprint, and the proposed COIT value can be applied not only in Albania but in other regions that exhibit similar climate conditions.
Understanding the available resources and the needs of those who use them is necessary for the evaluation and allocation of water resources. The main sectors utilizing the basin water resources are agriculture, drinking water, animal husbandry, and industries, and the efficient and rational management of water resources to be distributed among those different sectors of activity is vital. This study attempts to develop an integrated water resource management system for the Dhasan River Basin (DRB) by employing a scenario analysis approach in conjunction with Water Evaluation and Planning Model (WEAP) to analyze trends in water use and anticipated demand between 2015 and 2050, simulating five possible scenarios (I, II, III, IV, and V) as for external driving factors. For the WEAP modeling framework, 2015 was chosen as a current (base) year for which all available information and input data were given to the model and the future demand situation was analyzed for the period 2016–2050 (forecasting period). From the findings, it was observed that for the forecasting period, total water demand, unmet demand, and streamflow were 185.29 Bm³, 117.35 Bm³, and 58.26 Bm³, respectively, in the case of scenario I; 232.34 Bm³, 162.17 Bm³, and 59.87 Bm³ in case of scenario II; 139.40 Bm³, 84.37 Bm³, and 58.15 Bm³ in case of scenario III; 186.15 Bm³, 118.76 Bm³, and 56.98 Bm³ in case of scenario IV; and 181.89 Bm³, 96.87 Bm³, and 53.11 Bm³ in case of scenario V. Results of the study indicated that by 2050, increasing population growth, industrial development, and an increase in the agricultural area will rise the water demand dramatically, posing threats to the environment and humans. Therefore, implementing improved irrigation technologies, advancing agricultural practices on farms, and constructing water conservation and retaining structures could significantly reduce the unmet demands and shortfalls in DRB. Overall findings reveal that the pressure on the Dhasan water resources would increase in the future, and thus several suggestions have been provided to assist decision-makers in sustainable planning and management of water resources to meet future demands.
A vertical slot fishway (VSF) is among the most effective and commonly used fishway structures to enable fish to pass through artificial barriers such as dams and weirs in the river. Nevertheless, such structures need further improvements in providing better swimming conditions for fish inside the pool and enhancing attraction at the entrance. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the influence of slope and whether integrating some cylinder structures inside the fishway could enhance further attraction and provide better swimming conditions for fish. This study consists of several numerical simulations, first considering the fishway without cylinder elements while testing three different slopes under two different discharges. Then, the same numerical simulations were conducted, considering cylinder elements of different diameters and arrangements inside the fishway. The numerical model was validated by comparing computed velocities with those measured experimentally from the literature. The results show that the maximum velocity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the main jet increase as the discharge increases on the same slope. The flow velocity and TKE decrease in the areas inside the pool and between the two baffles. Introducing cylinder elements inside the fishway reduces the principal flow's maximum velocity. Also, inside the pool, low-velocity regions were expanding. A comparison between the design with a cylinder and the simple VSF indicates that the presence of a cylinder reduced the maximum velocities for the smallest and highest slopes by 6.21% and 9.86% on average, respectively. However, in terms of TKE, cylinders inside the fishway could provide better performance than simple VSF, mainly for low-flow conditions. Finally, this study's solution-oriented findings provide insights that could help design cost-effective fishways by improving particularly fish attraction to the fishway.
The main challenge of water resource management in high-stress regions, especially in developing countries, is in adopting non-traditional methods to obtain safe drinking water in desired quantities. In Egypt, the riverbank filtration (RBF) system is one of the most common solutions to solve rivers' water quality issues. Several sites have been investigated, and the system has demonstrated tremendous potential. The drinking water plant in Embaba, Giza, Egypt, is considered in this study to improve the quality of the abstracted water through the vertical well system. The numerical code of MODFLOW and MT3D is used to simulate the impact of using the emplacement of the gravel-pack filter (GPF). Three different scenarios were investigated: the first consists of vertical GPF; the second is horizontal GPF for different geometries, depths, widths or thicknesses, lengths, and permeability of the filter material; and, the third is drilling a pipe filter through the riverbed for different pipe numbers, depths, and the material's hydraulic conductivity. The results revealed that the riverbank filtration sharing (RBFS) rate was increased by increasing the filter width or thickness at the riverside, the filter pipe numbers, the length of the horizontal filter, and the permeability of filter material. At the same time, the thickness of the river bed decreased by increasing the filter width at the groundwater side. Also, the RBFS was increased by increasing the filter width or the thickness in the two directions and the pipe length. However, it returned to decrease again due to groundwater sharing. Thus, the RBF design should carefully consider the gravel-pack, pipe filter geometry, and permeability impact rate of RBFS. CITATION Abd-Elaty I, Saleh OK, Ghanayem HM, Zeleňáková M and Kuriqi A (2022), Numerical assessment of riverbank filtration using gravel back filter to improve water quality in arid regions.
In the current wave of globalization, considering the need for virtual teams and remote work, organizations are under pressure to respond to changing conditions and be innovative in the way they offer services and products. This requires the organizations to be agile and make frequent strategic, tactical, and operational decisions, which is a complex process. Management of IT infrastructure, business processes, and data enable the organizations to address their current challenges. IT Governance and Information Governance are two concepts that support organizations in this direction. IT governance is part of the enterprise governance that supports the organizations to manage and control IT resources, starting by prioritization and justification of IT investment to the continual service improvement to create value for the organization and to contribute towards achieving their objectives. On the other hand, Information Governance focuses on the needs that organizations should consider to improve the business results, risk management, and compliance with the regulations for information management.Considering that a lot of data are exchanged in a virtual environment, this chapter presents an analysis of IT Governance and Information Governance, their role in virtual teams, and remote working with a focus on higher education institutions. It presents how IT Governance and Information Governance can contribute to information management. Additionally, it focuses on IT infrastructure, IT services, business processes, roles, policies, and standards that enable effective and efficient use of information in a virtual environment to improve and support organizations to achieve their objectives.KeywordsIT governanceInformation governanceInformation managementVirtual teamsRemote work
The purpose of this paper is to articulate the immediate need for review and improvement of Kosovo Building Regulations and Codes in the field of implementation of EE measures and specifically reducing U-values for all building envelope elements, to be comparable to European Standards, and present a specific contribution for EE measures in public building stock in Kosovo as the real potential for huge energy savings. In this paper the results of the several years long research on the impact of implemented energy efficiency measures in the 70 selected public buildings are presented, in light of calculated U-values with a brief description of the constituent elements of the building envelope and their corresponding U-values, such as external walls, windows, doors, floors and roofs, comparing their impact in the phases before and after the implementation of Energy Efficiency measures. A building designed to use the minimum quantity of thermal energy for heating and cooling to achieve a healthy environment and thermal comfort is considered an Energy Efficient building [4,23]. The U-values of the building envelope are the dominant factors in its thermal performance and play an important role in reducing the energy consumption of buildings. Many studies [3,4,5,6] confirm that in cold climates, from the total annual energy consumption for heating and air conditioning of public buildings, approximately 50% of the energy is consumed through the heat transmission of the building envelope. The achieved results after implementation of EE measures have shown significant improvement of U-values for both opaque part of building envelope and belonging fenestration compared with the referent values set in Kosovo Technical Regulation which is actually in use for designers in Kosovo. Depending on wall thickness and installed insulation achieved results of U-values for external walls were 0.31-0.35 W/m2K much lower than recommended in old technical Regulations, lower than recommended by ANA_IAE, but still higher than values from Finish and Norwegian building codes. Calculations have shown that in case of implementation of improved U-values according to the Finish building code the impact of walls on U-values in overall energy savings is around 36.86%. Windows and doors look the sensitive part of the building envelope and show that is more than required strengthening of requirements in future Kosovo Building code reducing the U-values for doors and windows at 0.8 W/m2K. Analysis has shown huge improvement and potential increase of energy savings with 55.25 % for part of fenestration. Detailed analysis of the collected U-values data for roofs has shown that there is sufficient space for improvements in Building codes and it is a highly recommended change of existing criteria and at least application of the values from EU building codes. With this change, potential energy savings in part of roof covers might be 44.24%. Working as an EE expert in Kosovo Energy Efficiency Agency (KEEA) and World Bank (WB) and European Union (EU) projects, the author has identified the necessity of improvement of actual Kosovo legislation in the field of EE policies for public buildings, addressing the importance of the appropriate building envelope’s thermal insulation to reduce its thermal losses and stipulating the impact of the U-values in the evaluation of implemented energy efficiency measures and energy savings in public buildings [1,3,28,29]. The overall energy savings with applied EE measures and potential energy savings in case of improvements of Kosovo Technical Regulation according to recommended standards and EU countries’ experiences are presented in a separate table showing economic net savings, an average payback period and overall potential reductions of CO2 emissions. The presented results indicate a recommendation for further studies which may include other building typologies and may disclose additional differences between the energy performance criteria in the analysed building codes.
New information technologies increasingly allow autocrats to shape public opinion outside their borders. Regimes like Russia and China spend millions on such efforts, raising concerns that they may be swaying foreign publics through their illiberal nationalist appeals. We know little, though, about the actual impact of such endeavors. We ask here: Where such regimes can find foreign audiences who support them and the values they represent, does this translate into an ability to sway public opinion on important foreign policy issues through their endorsements? We focus on the Putin regime’s ability to shape orientations toward US President Donald Trump’s foreign policy through an experiment-bearing survey in two countries that share EU aspirations but have different baseline orientations to the USA and Russia: Serbia and Albania. We first establish that Putin has a considerable number of sympathizers in both countries and that this sympathy is indeed linked to illiberal nationalist ideas. We show, however, that these sympathies do not translate into an ability to move public opinion, and that where pro-American priors are strong, illiberal nationalist endorsement can actually backfire.
Hydraulic jump that frequently occurs downstream of hydraulic structures reduces the excess energy of the incoming flow. This study tested two different heights of discontinuous roughness elements over the horizontal bed and two adverse slopes of -1.5% and -2.5% in the stilling basin. In total, 280 data were collected in laboratory conditions to assess the impact of adverse bed slope with a variation of roughness elements height on hydraulic jump characteristics, with Froude numbers ranging from 4.9 to 12.4. The results showed that the average value of the bed shear coefficient on the adverse slope of -2.5% with relative roughness elements of h/d1 = 1.33 was 12.4 times that in a smooth bed. The observation showed that the bed shear stress caused by the bed roughness reduced the sequent depth ratio and consequently increased the energy dissipation by generating large eddies and more turbulence. The reduction was more prominent when roughness elements and adverse bed slope height increased. On the other side, a semi-theoretical solution was presented based upon momentum analysis to assess the sequent depth ratio by considering upstream Froude number, roughness element height, and bed slope. The computed values were compared with the experimental measurements. Empirical predictive relationships were proposed to estimate hydraulic jump characteristics over adverse-sloped and rough beds.
The age-related decline of muscle strength, mass, and physical performance (sarcopenia) has been raising concerns among the scientific and healthcare communities. This decline may differ between populations, age groups, and sexes. Therefore, we aimed to explore sarcopenia together with the impact of health and socio-economic parameters in mature Kosovans. A cross-sectional study was conducted on community-dwelling adults aged ≥60 years (n = 240, 47.1% female) from the Prishtina region. Sarcopenia was identified using the following criteria: (i) the European Working Group in Sarcopenia for Older People (EWGSOP1), (ii) the revised EWGSOP2 algorithms, and (iii) sex-specific cut-points derived from the Kosovan population. In males, pre-sarcopenia/probable sarcopenia was detected from the EWGSOP1, EWGSOP2 and Kosovan-specific criteria at values of 3.1%, 5.5%, and 28.3%; sarcopenia was detected at 1.6%, 5.5%, and 0.0%, and severe sarcopenia was detected at 4.7%, 2.4%, and 4.7%, respectively. Pre-sarcopenia was lower in females (0.9%, 5.3%, 16.8%), with no cases of sarcopenia or severe sarcopenia detected by either algorithm. Sarcopenic males were older, had a lower weight, BMI, skeletal muscle mass, performance score, nutritional status (p < 0.001), educational level (p = 0.035), and higher malnourishment risk (p = 0.005). It is notable that high overweight and obesity levels were also detected (93.8% of females, 77.1% of males). This study highlights the importance of using population-specific cut-points when diagnosing sarcopenia, as otherwise its occurrence may be underestimated, especially in obese persons. Age, body composition, physical performance, health, and socio-economic conditions can influence the occurrence of sarcopenia.
Water is a vital resource for the existence of mankind and all ecosystems on Earth. Before using it, it must be en�sured that water is of good quality, within the hygienic-sanitary norms for human consumption. In recent decades, the supply of drinking water has been supplemented with the water bottled in glass and plastic bottles, which is found everywhere in the market of the Republic of Kosovo. This paper deals with the content of the label paper and the variation of physico-chemical parameters of bottled water which is extracted, analyzed, processed, filled, packaged and distributed on the market of the Republic of Kosovo and beyond as a product for consumption. i.e. In this paper 20 brands of groundwater (types of water) produced and packaged in the territory of Kosovo.
The novel series of coumarin derivatives have been synthesized, and the chemical structures of the compounds have been elucidated by ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, and LC/MS-IT-TOF spectral data. All compounds were tested on eight bacteria and three fungal species, and for each, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated. Some of the compounds exhibited good activity against microbial strains. Compound 4e was found to be 2-fold and 4-fold more active against C. parapsilopsis (MIC: 0.97 µg/mL) than standard drugs voriconazole and fluconazole, respectively. Compounds 4a and 4i also show good activity against E. faecalis and E. coli, respectively. Compounds 4e and 4a were used in molecular docking and dynamic simulation to examine on 14α-demethylase (LDM) and thymidylate synthase (TS). Furthermore, using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level, the chemical reactivity properties of all molecules were examined.
Considering the cyber-threats landscape over the past few years, the security community has repeatedly advocated the use of encryption for ensuring the privacy and integrity of the user’s data and communications. As a result, we have witnessed a growth in number and usage of secure messaging tools. End-to-end encryption has been adopted by several existing and popular messaging apps. Email service providers have made efforts to integrate encryption as a core feature rather than treating it as optional. Recently, the pandemic situation has only reinforced this belief, causing us to rethink communication on a global scale, therefore put special emphasis on the security aspect of it. Despite the advances in research on usable security, the majority of these software still violates best practices in UI design and uses ineffective design strategies to communicate and let users control the security status of a message. Prior research indicates that many users have difficulty using encryption tools correctly and confidently. They either lack an understanding of encryption or the knowledge of its features. The paper investigates usable security design guidelines and models that lead to a better user experience for message encryption software. The study includes qualitative and quantitative research methods, conducted on a group of users, to discover the different factors that affect the user experience of encryption in everyday life. In the meantime, it also uncovers issues that current users are facing. Several recommendations and practical guidelines are outlined, these can be used by practitioners to make encryption more usable and thus increase the overall user experience of the software.KeywordsInformation security and privacysecurityEmail securityEncryption
The COVID-19 pandemic has had enormous effects on human life and the environment globally. Despite the negative effects of the epidemic on human health, the pandemic has improved the quality of the environment, thus creating an opportunity to restore degraded ecosystems. This study presents the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the water quality and chemical properties of the Lumbardh Stream, which is a very important stream for the city of Prizren, Kosovo. Lumbardh Stream, where industrialization is high in Prizren and industrial wastes are dumped, flows into the White Drin river, which is important for river fishing and agricultural irrigation for both Kosovo and Albania. Therefore, water samples were taken every month in 2020–2021 from the riverbed in the Vlashnje region of Prizren. EC, pH, TDS and Tur were measured in situ in the water samples taken. Major ions, heavy metals, DO, BOD, COD, TSS and TOC amounts were analyzed in the laboratory. The results are evaluated according to “Quality criteria according to the classes of intracontinental surface water resources in terms of general chemical and physicochemical parameters”; It has been determined that the water source has Class I in terms of DO, EC and NO3--N, Class II in terms of COD, Class III in terms of BOD, total P, PO43- and NH4+-N. When comparing the pre-lockdown and lockdown period, DO and TOC level increased 1.1 and 1.1 times, BOD, COD and NH4+-N decreased 1.2, 1.9 and 1.5 times at lockdown period, respectively. Comparing lockdown and no-lockdown period, DO and TOC increased 1.16 and 3.68 times, BOD, COD and NH4+-N decreased 1.1, 3.5 and 1.6 times at lockdown period, respectively. The results obtained showed quality water improvement during the lockdown period. This study confirms that significant recovery of degraded aquatic ecosystems is possible by limiting human activities.
In the Balkan context, the treatment of intelligence services in scientific terms has been addressed in the second half of the1990s by several international authors, while from the aspect of the functioning of these agencies themselves, it has been a taboo topic due to the specifics of the systems of the past. In the democratic system, where the legal norm has established rules of operation and control, many scholars treat this matter in different dimensions within the academic framework and within the framework of national security policies. This research refers to the regional context of intelligence services in the parliamentary system, trying to analyze by comparative method some of the Western Balkan countries. The purpose of this study is to provide important legal elements, systematizing knowledge in aspects specifically related to the competencies, monitoring, control and oversight of state intelligence agencies in the democratic system of operation in the regional context in the Western Balkans.
Due to the highly complex nature of human and ecological systems, soil erosion has increased considerably. Therefore, understanding watersheds and future forecasting circumstances using a watershed approach must be developed significantly on a spatial dimension. It's crucial to understand the watershed's key zones with a lineage of soil erosion as they undergo stream displacement and soil erosion issues. So, there is a need for proper soil and water management treatments to overcome continuous soil loss by runoff and other ecological problems in the Pindar watershed. In this study, an attempt has been made to explore several morphometric characteristics of the Pindar River watershed, which is located in the Uttarakhand districts of Chamoli and Bageshwar, using Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing techniques for prioritizing the sub-watersheds in order to develop a suitable management plan to combat land degradation in order to assist in future management and conservation by four Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques, viz., Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and VIseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR). Finally, the performance of MCDM prioritization techniques was evaluated. For this purpose, 13 morphometric characteristics, including basic, linear, form, and landscape, were extracted and analyzed using an SRTM DEM with a spatial resolution of 30 m. Sub-watersheds' prioritization revealed that, according to the AHP, FAHP, TOPSIS, and VIKOR models, sub-watershed 26 is the most prone to erosion. The findings demonstrated that morphometric criteria are highly effective at identifying erosion-prone locations. The evaluation of the MCDM approaches has been done based on the percentage of changes and the intensity of the changes. The results indicated that the FAHP, with a change percentage of 71.21, has more efficiency and accuracy than the VIKOR, AHP, and TOPSIS methods, with 62.89%, 62.88%, and 62.12%, respectively. The results of the evaluation of the intensity of changes showed that the FAHP model had the highest rate of change (1.22), whereas the AHP, TOPSIS, and VIKOR methods, with the intensity of changes of 1.09, 1.09, and 1.07, placed in the next rank. Concerning the values of the percentage of changes and the intensity, it can be stated that the FAHP model has been more accurate than the other models.
Background: Health professionals and health institutions document their professional activities with patients based on health policy and legal framework. This creates valuable medical records not only for health institutions at the three levels, but also for scientific research purposes and government agencies that design policies, laws and strategies and implement and monitor these policies based on the health statistics that form the basis of these policies, as well as for the health system not only at the national level, but also at the regional and local levels. Objective: To analyze the impact of the legal framework for health statistics in Kosovo on the planning of health system needs, human and financial resources and other components related to the collection, analysis and processing of data and health statistics, and on the basis of these statistics, to develop sectoral strategies, but also other key strategic documents for decision-making in the health system of Kosovo. Methods: Decision-makers and stakeholders, as well as other staff involved in the system of health statistics at the three organization levels of the health system in Kosovo, including inspectors from the Health Inspectorate, were interviewed through specific questionnaires. Results: The analysis of the laws, bylaws and other provisions that regulate and directly influence the data system and health statistics in Kosovo revealed that the institutional role is unclear, the legislation is insufficient and in many cases regulations are missing, which are an essential prerequisite for the implementation of the legislation and consequently influence the insufficient decision-making process. Conclusion: The research and findings provide sufficient evidence that the Kosovo's system for health data and statistics has serious shortcomings, starting with the legal framework, organizational structure, functional organization, segregation of duties and responsibilities, pronounced lack of staff, professional profiles and required technology, which in turn affects unreliable decision-making and health policy.
Water spring are vital to all human activities. The integration of hydrological, geological, hydrogeological and ecological characteristics of resource ecosystems provides a much needed tool for recognizing the characteristics and their distribution. The objective of this study was to identify springs in the study area, in order to evaluate their hydrogeological characteristics and parameters. Eight springs have been identified in the Golesh Massif area. They are mainly of lithological contact. Water flow ranging from 0.03 to 5 l/s, the temperature, pH and total hardness in the water of spring Curreli range within 11.1°C to 15.7°C, 5.51°C to 8.03°C and 18.8 to 21.67ºdH, respectively. Their recharge mainly depends on the amount of precipitations that falls in the area.
SARS-CoV-2 infection involves the phase of viral replication and inflammatory response predicting the severity of COVID-19. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between IL-6 and hematological and inflammatory parameters and outcomes of patients with COVID-19. Plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels and other inflammatory and hematological parameters were analyzed in 86 adult patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Kosovo. The median age of patients was 61.50 (49.75–67.25) years. Over half of patients were categorised as severe (58%) and had comorbidities (69%) with hypertension being the most common. The overall mortality rate was 4.7%. The distribution of biochemical parameters across disease severity groups was significantly different for C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cells (WBC), and granulocytes with higher median values in more severe and critically ill patients whereas lower percentage of lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelet count in severe and critically ill patients. IL-6 levels were increased in 63% of patients with significant differences in the distribution across the following groups; age, disease severity, hospitalisation status, pulmonary infiltrates, oxygen therapy, and hypertension status. IL-6 significantly correlated with CRP, LDH, CK, ESR, and percentages of granulocytes. IL-6 and other inflammatory and hematological parameters were strongly associated with disease severity and may predict the outcome of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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