Effectiveness of the Pelvic Clock and Static Bicycle Exercises on Wisconsin Gait Scale and Trunk Impairment Scale in Chronic Ambulatory Effectiveness of the Pelvic Clock and Static Bicycle Exercises on Wisconsin Gait Scale and Trunk Impairment Scale in Chronic Ambulatory Hemiplegic Patients: A Single Group Pre-Post Design
Background: Most Hemiplegic patients achieve ambulatory function during the sub-acute stage of stroke. Though ambulatory, they still perform an unpleasant awkward gait with remarkable compensations requiring more energy expenditure. Fatigue arises at an early duration as a result of increased energy expenditure. The walking pattern becomes circumduction, featured by asymmetry with an extensor synergy of the lower limb. Each step is rotated away from the body then towards the body, forming a semicircle. This leads to changes in various parameters of gait (spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic) in hemiparetic patients. Purpose: Many studies reveal the effectiveness of various therapeutic techniques in managing hemiplegic circumduction gait. Pelvic clock exercises aid in improving pelvic rotation components and cause dissociation in impaired pelvic mobility due to spasticity. A static bicycle helps in enhancing proper control between the hamstrings and quadriceps. It also helps in improving knee flexion range. As the patient places the foot in the cycle's petals, it helps to enhance dorsiflexion and eversion functions as well. As the lower body is exercised, there could be relative changes in the upper body, i.e., the trunk. Thus, this study aimed to determine the changes in gait functions and trunk performance of chronic ambulatory hemiplegic patients in response to the above therapies for four weeks. Method: Twenty-five subjects (post-stroke duration (2.8 ± 0.6) years) who could walk 10 m independently without assistance or support of aid participated in a pelvic clock and static bicycle exercise intervention. The session duration was 30 min a day, and therapy was delivered six days a week and continued for four weeks. The entire program was carried out in an outpatient neurorehabilitation center. Results: After the intervention with pelvic clock and static bicycle exercises, there was a remarkable change in gait and trunk functions in chronic hemiplegic patients. Conclusion: The exercises comprising pelvic clock and static bicycle showed positive differences in gait and trunk functions in chronic stage hemiplegic patients. Later, randomized controlled studies involving larger sample sizes, advanced activation techniques, and increased intervention duration will explore in-depth information on their effectiveness and clinical significance.
Background: Lately, smoking among adolescents is increasing despite various campaigns to address it being carried out. Previously, this habit was common among men, however, nowadays, smoking has become a habit for women as well. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and its associated factors that influence smoking behavior among women inmates in Kelantan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among women inmates from Pengkalan Chepa Women's Prison, Kota Bharu, Kelantan. A total of 274 respondents were needed to answer a self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed using Multiple Logistic Regression. Results: A total of 183 participants were smokers. Women who were single and divorced had a lower chance of being influenced to smoke compared to married women. Parents with smoking habits were more associated with children who smoked compared to parents who did not smoke. A participant with secondary level education had higher odds of smoking compared to a participant with primary level education. Smoking peers significantly influenced their friends and, therefore, peer practice was a main factor influencing smoking among women inmates. Conclusion: The prevalence of smoking among women inmates in Kelantan was found to be quite high. Religion (majority (90.5%) of women in the study were Muslims; it would be inappropriate to draw conclusion that religion is an influencing factor), marital status, parents' practice, peer practice and education significantly influenced women inmates to smoke.
One of the main goals of this study is to investigate whether politically connected firms have a different tendency toward disclosing CSR information compared to those without political connections. Another purpose of this research is to add to the existing literature by looking into the impact of political connections in moderating the relationship between ownership concentration and CSRD. We collect data on CSR activities undertaken by a group of 94 non-financial Jordanian companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange using the content analysis approach. From 2010 to 2019, 940 yearly reports were evaluated for this study. Also, the study hypotheses are tested using Ordinary Least Squares regression (OLS). In Jordan, politically connected companies are more likely to disclose high-quality CSRD than unconnected companies. Furthermore, the findings revealed that CSRD is likely to be negatively impacted by ownership concentration. However, political ties can moderate the relationship between ownership concentration and the disclosure practice of companies included in our sample. The regression analysis results show that closely held businesses with political ties are more likely to reveal high-quality CSRD than businesses without political ties. The study adds to the debate over CSRD by shedding light on the role of political ties and ownership structure (particularly ownership concentration) in influencing CSRD by businesses. The findings of the study can help managers of Jordanian companies listed on the stock exchange make better decisions about their CSRD and other related disclosure, such as environmental disclosure. This is the first study to look at how political nexuses can moderate the relationship between firm CSRD and political connections in Jordan. As a result, it significantly adds to previous research.
Background Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Occupational sitting accounts for up to 50 h/week for employees. This pilot study assessed the acceptability of stair climbing as an interruption to sitting throughout working hours, and provided preliminary data of the effects on glucose and lipid profiles. Methods A quasi-experimental design was conducted involving 16 sedentary office workers (five females and 11 males) for intervention (n = 8) and control groups (n = 8) with mean age of 36.38 (5.58). For the eight-week intervention, a continuous four-floor stair climb and descent was performed eight times/day spread evenly over the working day. A prompt to climb was presented on the participant’s computer eight times/day. Participants in the experimental group recorded daily floors climbed and steps (measured using pedometers) in a weekly log sheet. Blood samples were collected pre and post intervention to test effects on fasting glucose and 2 h plasma glucose, triglycerides, and total (TC), LDL and HDL cholesterol. Experimental participants were interviewed at the end of the study. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the median changes (pre-post) of the dependent variables. Results On average, the experimental group climbed 121 floors/week when prompted. There were significant reductions in fasting blood glucose, TC and LDL, as well as the derived measures of ‘bad’ cholesterol and the TC/HDL ratio in the experimental group. Post-experimental interviews indicated that the interruption to sitting was well tolerated. Conclusion Prompted stair climbing activity had impacts on health outcomes and was found acceptable to employees at work. Trial registration Ethics for this study was approved by Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Ethical Review Committee, University of Birmingham with ethics reference number ERN_15_0491.
Conjugate gradient (CG) methods embody a category of unconstrained optimization algorithms which are known to be of low memory requirements and possess the global convergence properties. In this chapter, we present a novel three term (CG) method based on the idea of the shifted variable metric approach. Under certain conditions, the global convergence result of the proposed method is demonstrated and numerical result have shown that the new method outperforms other methods in comparison based on some benchmark optimization test functions. However, we present the application of the new method on a problem of inflation rate in Nigeria from 2010 to 2018. The outcome has shown that the new method has relatively less error and can surely surrogate an LSM in regression analysis.
This paper analyses the effect of electricity distribution loos, carbon emissions, growth, and energy consumption nexus in West Africa utilising pooled series data that spans the decades of 1970 to 2019. The paper employs cross sectional auto regressive distributive lag model (CS-ARDL), and Dumitrescu Hurlin Causality Test. The result of unit root test reveals that the variables have mixed stationary. In addition, the empirical analysis revealed a statistically significant negative relationship between electricity distribution losses on energy consumption while electricity intensity level, electricity power consumption and economic growth prevails positive on energy consumption in the log-run. The result established a unidirectional causal relationship running from energy consumption LEC to electricity distribution losses LEDL while a bidirectional relationship was found between electricity intensity level LEIL causing LEPC electric power consumption and carbon emission LCO2.
A persistent 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exposure may disrupt the human body serotonergic system which subsequently leads to physical and psychiatric chaos. Serotonin, a well-known monoamine neurotransmitter which is the main target of MDMA can be found in cerebrospinal (CSF) fluid. Its variation reflects the severity of neuronal damage caused by MDMA exposure. Hence, this article aimed to review the potential of serotonin as biomarker for neuronal damage posed by MDMA. Articles from main databases including PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were analysed and its information about serotonin variation in cerebrospinal fluid in response to MDMA exposure were extracted. MDMA is affine to serotonergic system, and can represents as a change in the level of serotonin in the CSF. It provides critical information about underlying mechanisms of neuronal damage from neurotoxicity, neurodegenerative process, excitotoxicity and hallucination due to MDMA exposure. Since serotonin variation in the CSF reflects the severity of neuronal damages, serotonin is potentially be used as an early indicator to assess neural injury caused by MDMA that plays an important role in intervention purpose. Serotonin variation in the CSF reflects the severity of neuronal damages. Its variation in CSF can be used as a biomarker for assessing neuronal damage following MDMA exposure.
Constitutive activation of Janus tyrosine kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) and Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling pathways plays a crucial role in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Thymoquinone (TQ), one of the main constituents of Nigella sativa, has shown anti-cancer activities in several cancers. However, the inhibitory effect mechanism of TQ on leukemia has not been fully understood. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of TQ on JAK/STAT and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways in MV4-11 AML cells and K562 CML cells. FLT3-ITD positive MV4-11 cells and BCR-ABL positive K562 cells were treated with TQ. Cytotoxicity assay was assessed using WSTs-8 kit. The expression of the target genes was evaluated using RT-qPCR. The phosphorylation status and the levels of proteins involved in JAK/STAT and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways were investigated using Jess western analysis. TQ induced a dose and time dependent inhibition of K562 cells proliferation. TQ significantly downregulated PI3K, Akt, and mTOR and upregulated PTEN expression with a significant inhibition of JAK/STAT and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. In conclusion, TQ reduces the expression of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR genes and enhances the expression of PTEN gene at the mRNA and protein levels. TQ also inhibits JAK/STAT and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways, and consequently inhibits proliferation of myeloid leukemia cells, suggesting that TQ has potential anti-leukemic effects on both AML and CML cells.
In medical dosimetry, the radiation quantity of interest is frequently the dose to tissue. To make direct dosimeters that show the dose absorbed in soft tissue, tissue-equivalent material is preferred. Plastic scintillators (PLSs) are made of materials with a density similar to soft tissue and relatively have energy independent response. Non-proportionality must be taken into account when reproducing the light output spectrum for photons below 200 keV, as it reduces light output significantly. In comparison to a standard PLS, both low and high-energy photons’ pulse height distribution spectra as a result of lead doping were measured and calculated. The effect of a 0.5% lead doping scintillator is sufficient to make up for the loss or difference between soft tissues and PLSs in response to low-energy photons, particularly below 200 keV.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disorder that can cause destructive joint disease, significant disability, and increased mortality. RA is the most frequent of all chronic inflammatory joint diseases, and its prevalence frequency in Pakistan is 1.6 per thousand people. Different cytokines and receptors were involved in the triggering of RA, including interleukin-6 (ILR-6), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen human leukocyte (HLA-DR) receptor, and CD20. Several studies illustrated RA as an inherent immune response and triggered due to the “shared epitope.” Therefore, the involvement of all these receptors (IL-6, HLA-DR, and CD20) leads to the neurological, ocular, respiratory, cardiac, skin, and hematological manifestations that have been considered a potential therapeutic target for drug design. Various herbal, natural, and synthetic source inhibitors of interleukin-6 (IL-6), human leukocyte (HLA-DR), and CD20 were studied and reported previously. Reported inhibitors are compared to elucidate the best inhibitor for clinical trials, leading to the orally active drug. In this study, a computer-aided drug designing approach disclosed the potential inhibitors for all receptors based on their distinct binding affinity. Moreover, drug suitability was carried out using Lipinski’s rule by considering the adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of ligands. Results elucidated “calycosin 7-O-glucoside” and “angeliferulate” as putative ligands for IL-6 and HLA-DR, respectively. However, the pharmacokinetic properties (ADMET) revealed angeliferulate as an effete ligand for the biological system compared to calycosin 7-O-glucoside. Based on docking, drug toxicity profiling or pharmacokinetics, and MD simulation stability, this study highlights orally active therapeutic inhibitors to inhibit the activity of pivotal receptors (IL6, HLA-DR, and CD20) of RA in humans. After clinical trials, the resultant inhibitors could be potential therapeutic agents in the drug development against RA.
This study examines a novel SIR epidemic model that takes into account the impact of environmental white noise. According to the study, white noise has a significant impact on the disease. First, we establish the solution’s existence and uniqueness. Following that, we explain that the stochastic basic production R 0 is a threshold that determines the extinction or persistence of the disease. When noise levels are high, we acquire R 0 < 1 , which causes the sickness to disappear. A sufficient condition for the existence of a stationary distribution is archived when the noise intensity is high, which suggests the infection is prevalent when R 0 > 1 . Finally, numerical simulations are used to explain the key findings.
Nicotine (C10 H14 N2) exists in all parts of the plant but notably in the leaves. Nicotiana tabacum, or cultivated tobacco, is an annually grown herbaceous plant of the Nicotiana genus. In this study a rapid and sensitive evaluation of Nicotine by Thin Layer Chromatography is carried out.
Depression is a debilitating psychiatric disorder impacting an individual’s quality of life. It is the most prevalent mental illness across all age categories, incurring huge socio-economic impacts. Most depression treatments currently focus on the elevation of neurotransmitters according to the monoamine hypothesis. Conventional treatments include tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Despite numerous pharmacological strategies utilising conventional drugs, the discovery of alternative medicines from natural products is a must for safer and beneficial brain supplement. About 30% of patients have been reported to show resistance to drug treatments coupled with functional impairment, poor quality of life, and suicidal ideation with a high relapse rate. Hence, there is an urgency for novel discoveries of safer and highly effective depression treatments. Stingless bee honey (SBH) has been proven to contain a high level of antioxidants compared to other types of honey. This is a comprehensive review of the potential use of SBH as a new candidate for antidepressants from the perspective of the monoamine, inflammatory and neurotrophin hypotheses.
Nerium Odorum is an important medicinal plant in India. It is a cardiac glycoside. All parts of the plant are poisonous. Recent studies have thrown light into the fact that it has pharmacological, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anti-asthmatic and anticancer activities. This study envisages a new developing as well as identification method for Pink/white oleander by Thin Layer Chromatography.
Drug abuse has become more prevalent in India. Smokers mix Ganja (marijuana) along with tobacco in the cigarettes or cigars. Necessity has arisen at this juncture to separately locate Ganja in the admixture of Tobacco and Ganja. The present work envisages a new developing as well as identification method for separating Ganja from Tobacco by Thin Layer chromatography simultaneously in the same plate.
Various new drugs are being introduced in the market. This proves a hectic problem for Toxicologist to identify the exact nature of the drug and its metabolites in the viscera for cases involving death due to drug poisoning. When a case is taken for drug analysis, we have to be more exhaustive in ruling out drugs. For identification of Inderal tablets, a new Thin Layer chromatography system has been developed. After systematic trials, the paper has found out a new solvent system with spray for eluting Inderal tablets.
Introduction There is no consensus regarding the reconstruction method for type 1 resections around the pelvis. Various methods are currently used, such as resection without reconstruction, bone graft (autologous, recycled, allograft) with simple fixation, and pedicle screw-rod fixation with or without bone grafting. We aim to study the outcome of pedicle screw-rod reconstruction without bone grafting in type 1 pelvic resections involving sacroiliac joint to show that pedicle screw-rod construct alone is stable and has low risk of failure. Material and methods This is a retrospective review of eight patients who underwent type 1 resection of malignant pelvic tumours and reconstruction with a pedicle screw-rod system between 2011 and 2018. All patients who underwent type 1 resection and reconstruction with pedicle screw without bone grafting were included into this study. We reported their clinical (complication and radiological outcome), oncological (local recurrence and metastasis), and functional outcome based on Musculoskeletal Tumour Society Score (MSTS) and The Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) at their last follow-up. Results Eight patients were recruited into the study. The mean follow-up period was 58.5 months (range: 40 – 121 months). There were three postoperative complications in three different patients: superficial infection, surgical hernia with ipsilateral femoral avascular necrosis (AVN), and femoral nerve injury. At the end of the study period, one patient passed away due to disease progression, one patient was alive with disease, and the rest were disease-free. Mean MSTS score during last follow-up was 77.1% (range: 66.7% – 93.3%), while mean TESS score was 75.6% range (63.3% - 80.2%). There were no cases of implant failure. Conclusion Type 1 pelvic reconstruction with a pedicle screw-rod system is stable without a concurrent biological reconstruction, and it is feasible, with few complications, and an excellent functional outcome.
Kepentingan memahami fakta (fiqh al-waqi') telah banyak dibincangkan oleh sarjana perundangan Islam dalam kajian mereka mengenai teori perundangan Islam. Dalam ruang lingkup teori perundangan Islam, pemahaman fakta telah diterima sebagai komponen penting bagi amalan ijtihad dan diiktiraf sebagai justifikasi yang sah untuk pembaharuan ijtihad. Bertitik tolak daripada pernyataan di atas, namun dalam konteks yang berbeza, makalah ini membincangkan konsep dakwaan (al-da'wa) dan kepentingan memahami fakta kes dalam prosiding Kehakiman Islam. Kajian perpustakaan bersifat doktrin ini membuktikan bahawa, dalam prosiding kehakiman Islam, pemahaman tentang fakta kes adalah sangat mustahak. Kegagalan dan kelalaian untuk memahami fakta kes akan mempengaruhi ketepatan sesuatu keputusan kehakiman dan boleh membawa kepada ketidakadilan. Selanjutnya, makalah ini menegaskan bahawa jenis fakta yang perlu diambil kira dan difahami oleh hakim perbicaraan tidak terhad pada fakta langsung kes, malah keadaan dan realiti semasa kehidupan masyarakat juga perlu diambil kira. Akhirnya, makalah itu menegaskan bahawa keperluan untuk memahami fakta kes memerlukan usaha ijtihad yang mesti dijalankan oleh semua hakim tanpa mengira status mereka sebagai mujtahid atau muqallid.
This study aimed to determine the association between dietary pattern (DP) and coronary heart disease (CHD) among high-risk adults as determined by metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study involved 365 participants with (CHD = 178; non-CHD = 187) who were recruited from selected health clinics. Dietary intake was measured using a 189-item semi-quantitative foods frequency questionnaire (FFQ) whilst anthropometry and clinical data were measured by trained researcher and biochemical data were obtained from medical records. The reduced rank regression (RRR) method was used to derive DPs scores and binary logistic regression was used to assess the associations between identified DPs and CHD. The main DP found in this study was characterised by “high saturated fatty acid (SFA), high dietary energy density (DED), high sodium”. This DP, which is attributed to high consumption of coconut-based dishes, fast foods and snacks, rice dishes, fat spread, seasoning sauces, salted and processed foods, and low intake of fruits, green leafy vegetables, white rice and other vegetables were associated with CHD (OR:1.32, 95% CI:1.03, 1.69) p value = 0.026 when, adjusted for age, sex, race, education level, household income, family history of CHD, marital status, smoking status, physical activity, stress level and BMI. This study suggests that individuals with a DP of high SFA, high DED, and high sodium have a significantly increased likelihood of having CHD compared to those who do not practice this DP.
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