Soybean is the most abundant source of plant-derived protein and vegetable oil. Soy cultivation, is environmentally friendly than animal-based protein and the majority of common plant proteins, is associated with environmental damage than any other crop on the planet. This involves clearing forests for soy cultivation, soil erosion, greenhouse gases, water pollution and loss of biodiversity due to scale of production. Soy is a rich source of high-quality proteins, widely used as an important ingredient in preparation of meat products or plant-based meat analogs. Thus, the need to explore soy production sustainable becomes impeccable by improving agricultural practices, yield, proper certification, traceability and labeling of soy and its products, increase consumers awareness for acceptability and provide various financial and technological incentives.
Continuous population growth in Malaysia has drastically increased solid waste production to a new challenging level, raising the need for new and efficient solid waste management solutions. With the advent of artificial intelligence and the internet of things (IoT) into the smart city concept, traditional solid waste management can be upgraded to a cost-efficient, and real-time smart solid waste management (SSWM). Malaysia sets the plan for its most developed state, Selangor, to be a smart state by 2025. SSWM is one of 12 domains drafted to achieve this goal. Considering the perquisites of SSWM, this study aims to provide a general overview of various methods available in the literature, and a comparative assessment is made in terms of IoT focused elements, including identification, sensing, communication, and computation from the perspective of time, cost and efficiency. Finally, the challenges in implementing SSWM in Malaysia are explored.
Blockchain technology is claimed to lead innovations to many business paradigms by reducing fraud and providing safe transactions. This study examined whether the adoption of blockchain technology will impact their internal audit function (IAF) and the role of IAF in blockchain smart contracts in the financial sector. The study referred to the related literature review and followed the international standards for the professional practice of internal auditing (IPPF). The study found that internal audit function and relative associate with the basics of blockchain technology and reached a continuous audit model with blockchain smart contracts. Considering the significant benefits and also potential challenges of applying blockchain technology in the modern accounting system, the study filled a gap in knowledge on the impact of blockchain on internal auditing.
This study elucidates the early stages of developing an assessment instrument, projected to get Homestay coordinators’ feedback related to their members’ behaviour of environmental practices. Nine informants participated in a voluntary semi-structured interview, conducted at different Homestay settings around Malaysia. A five-item semi-structured interview guide was used to record their perception, pursual their personal experience. Thematic analysis with codes was implemented to categorise the responses. Later, 25 questions were included in the preliminary assessment instrument and identified as the Homestay operators’ Environmental Behaviour Assessment Instrument (EBAI). However, the EBAI needs additional research for it to be considered consistent and effective. Nevertheless, the qualitative approach implied to develop the assessment may be beneficial specifically to Homestay researchers and practitioners.
Background Urban air pollution resulting from economic growth as well as urbanization impacts the health of inhabitants. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM 10 ) and the risk of exposure for the population in the Klang Valley, an urban conglomeration centred in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods The inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique in the ArcGIS platform was used to map the air quality from five air monitoring stations. Spatial statistics of the Global Moran’s I Spatial Autocorrelation and Optimized Hot Spot Analysis were used to estimate the spatial clustering of PM 10 . The population-weighted exposure level (PWEL) technique was used to calculate the population density susceptible to PM 10 and the AirQ+ model was applied to estimate the proportion of the adult population at risk of chronic bronchitis due to long-term exposure to PM 10 concentrations in the Klang Valley. Results The highest annual mean PM 10 concentrations at the Klang station ranged between 80 and 100 μg/m ³ from 2000 to 2009 and exceeded the New Malaysia Ambient Air Quality Standard (NMAAQS) and the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines (WHOAQG) levels of 40 and 20 μg/m ³ , respectively. The Moran's I results indicated that the statistically significant clusters of high PM 10 in Klang present a health risk to the local community. The PWEL results showed that levels of PM 10 in Petaling Jaya exceeded the WHOAQG limits, potentially posing a health risk to the high-density population. The AirQ+ model found Klang to be a significantly high-risk area for chronic bronchitis among the adult population with 804,240 people (with a relative risk of 1.85) in 2009. Conclusion These high-risk values are due to rapid urbanization and high motor vehicle usage in the Klang Valley and therefore the impact of PM 10 on the population needs to be reduced. This situation should be taken seriously by the Department of Environment and Kuala Lumpur City Hall in addressing air pollution issues through stricter rules on emissions and implementing low-carbon policies to improve the well-being of residents.
Digital Leadership is relatively a new field of leadership study which focuses on leveraging the technology and Internet in support of one’s leadership practice. Currently, very little is known how Malaysian school principals practice Digital Leadership particularly in support of their communication practice. Therefore, this qualitative study was undertaken with the aim of understanding Digital Leadership among principals from four High Performing Schools (HPS) in Malaysia. Semi structured interviews were employed involving four exemplar school principals as the main respondents and 12 school staff as secondary respondents to the study. Findings of the study indicate that social media have become the contemporary communication conduit among exemplar Malaysian school principals and this medium has become more prominent than face-to-face interaction. Findings have also suggested that it may have a positive relation with job performance and productivity. The aforesaid findings have meaningful implications for all school principals to better integrate social media in their communication practice within members of the schools and those outside the school, including the stakeholders.
Background Vocal fold myxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor with unknown exact etiology. The aim of this report is to review current literature on demographic and clinical features of vocal fold myxomas in order to increase awareness among otorhinolaryngologists on management of this rare vocal fold pathology. Case presentation We report a case of a 46-year-old female teacher presented with 1 year history of progressive dysphonia with no airway obstructive or constitutional symptoms. Flexible laryngoscopy revealed a polypoid mass at the anterior two thirds of the left vocal fold. We proceeded with endolaryngeal microsurgery, where a left vocal fold mass with prominent overlying blood vessels was incompletely excised due to poor plane, in an attempt to prevent injury to vocal ligament. The histopathological findings were consistent with myxoma. No evidence of recurrence was noted at 2 months postoperatively. Conclusions Vocal fold myxoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vocal fold pathology clinically resembling vocal fold polyp, especially in older male adults. Complete excision with removal of a rim of surrounding tissue is the gold-standard treatment to prevent recurrence. If diagnosis is uncertain, intraoperative frozen section can be performed to ensure margins are free from tumor. Life-long follow-up is recommended in incomplete excision of tumor.
The two-dimensional radiating mixed convective flowing in a nanofluid, together with the non-Darcy penetrable material over an inclined wavy surface is examined. The conversion from the wavy surface into a smooth surface is performed, via coordinate transformation. The early stage of a mathematical formulation is converted into a group of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), where these ODEs are resolved applying the bvp4c coding via MATLAB. The comparison of the current findings with the previously published studies proved that the current results are quite consistent , and the numerical bvp4c method is acceptable. The influence of relevant factors on nondi-mensional fluid flowing areas, heat and mass transmission rates is investigated and listed in the table as shown. The wavy surface and tendency angle have an effect of reducing the temperature and * Corresponding authors.
Cerebral intracranial aneurysms are serious problems that can lead to stroke, coma, and even death. The effect of blood flow on cerebral aneurysms and their relationship with rupture are unknown. In addition, postural changes and their relevance to haemodynamics of blood flow are difficult to measure in vivo using clinical imaging alone. Computational simulations investigating the detailed haemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms have been developed in recent times not only to understand the progression and rupture but also for clinical evaluation and treatment. In the present study, the haemodynamics of a patient-specific case of a large aneurysm on the left side internal carotid bifurcation (LICA) and no aneurysm on the right side internal carotid bifurcation (RICA) was investigated. The simulation of these patient-specific models using fluid–structure interaction provides a valuable comparison of flow behavior between normal and aneurysm models. The influences of postural changes were investigated during standing, sleeping, and head-down (HD) position. Significant changes in flow were observed during the HD position and quit high arterial blood pressure in the internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm model was established when compared to the normal ICA model. The velocity increased abruptly during the HD position by more than four times (LICA and RICA) and wall shear stress by four times (LICA) to ten times (RICA). The complex spiral flow and higher pressures prevailing within the dome increase the risk of aneurysm rupture.
Demand for organic electronics has growth tremendously for the past decade, owing to their high flexibility and low processing cost attributes. As part of the important elements in organic electronics, a solution processable organic thin film transistor (OTFT) has been center of discussion among researchers. The OTFT is recognized to bring electrical, mechanical, and industrial benefits to a broad range of new applications such as flexible displays, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, as well as biosensors specifically for healthcare monitoring system. Despite of their great application demand and significant technology advancement, the OTFT devices demonstrate unstable electrical performances especially in their mobilities and threshold voltages. These drawbacks will hold the fully commercialization of the OTFT in the market. Thus, this paper comprehensively reviews the current status of the OTFT technologies, ranging from material, device, process, and integration, including improvement that have been done on mobilities and operating voltages. Besides that, this work discusses on the applicability of the OTFT in the biosensor applications dedicated for real-time healthcare monitoring purposes. This review paper therefore is expected to provide a critical analysis on OTFT developments, as well as recognize their research gaps to allow their fully commercialization in the near future.
Drinking water contains emerging contaminants, i.e., endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). However, the extent to which it is publicly viewed as a potential risk that requires attention (public awareness, political obligation, and regulatory efforts) is substantially underrated. Thus, this study investigated drinking water consumption patterns among consumers of different life stages, evaluated household practices using tap water as daily drinking water, and examined the actual risk as well as consumers’ perception of tap water quality for drinking with the potential EDCs contamination. Collectively, the present study is of great concern for regional database profiling and supporting human health risk assessment in regulating contamination and exposure of EDCs. It also provides an empirical and theoretical contribution to current public risk perception of EDCs in tap water, and promoted the formulation of risk communication and governance strategies for the development of risk behaviors in adopting public participation in the drinking water supply system monitoring and management framework.
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