This study focuses on green environmental practices on cleanliness city and it was conducted qualitatively and involved four local authorities in Malaysia. The interview method was conducted with the selected four respondents who assigned the tasks to monitor green environment operations in their respective cities. Therefore, the results of the study found that local authorities and NGOs need to work together to improve green environmental practices and awareness campaigns among the community. Local authorities are also advised to take action on any community complaints so that environmental practices remain vigilant. This study found that changes in the behavior and attitudes of the community also need to be enhanced so that they are always concerned about the cleanliness of the respective city. Hence, this study should be continued from time to time covering various aspects and perspectives across districts, states and countries. It is hope that this study could contribute to part and partial achievement of Malaysia's 11th Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), namely sustainable cities and communities.
This article provides a critical examination of the current extensive promotion of ‘financial inclusion for refugees’. The current system largely ignores refugees from the marketplace, and they are not very visible in their host country financial service providers, particularly in the Malaysia narrative. This article establishes financial profiling, examining the possible financial inclusion of unbanked refugees, particularly Rohingyas in Malaysia. Hence, this study distributed questionnaires to 306 Rohingya refugees registered in UNHCR. The findings reveal that some refugees are unaware of financial service providers, especially digital financial services such as E-wallet. However, they were fascinated by having access to affordable and suitable financial services. The paper further explores the possible financial and economic impact of extending financial services to unbanked refugees. This study is amongst the pioneer in Malaysia, exploring challenges in the financial inclusion of refugees. The results are relevant to governments, financial regulators, and central banks to structure the right interventions to counter the challenges of extending financial services to this group.
Airline service quality (AIRQUAL) is an important element for all service providers especially in the airline industry. It derives from the popular service quality (SERVQUAL) model and appear as a medium for gauging customers’ satisfaction towards the services offered to them during the service encounter. Most airlines worldwide, understood the necessity in meeting customer satisfaction with outstanding quality services, and set about toward exploring for proxies to reassure its customers on the grounds of service quality. Hence, the objective of this conceptual study is to develop a modified airline service quality (AIRQUAL) scale in order to gauge the indicators within the dimensions of airline service quality and other expository attributes that can be applied to predict customers’ decision-making in airline choices. Most studies in South East Asian (ASEAN) only focuses on the original element of the airline service quality (AIRQUAL), thus highlighting the need to include airline cultural management as the new element in the airline service quality (AIRQUAL) scale. The final scale can be drawn on to outline a simple matrix for evaluating or tracking process for South East Asia (ASEAN) airlines performance, and it also may be a practical indicator toward determining service quality regionally. This study also presents an opportunity for further studies and will aid the stimulation on the momentum of current research for airline service quality and customers’ decision-making in airline choices.
Database marketing is essential in easing the process and method of identifying customers and storing their data in a digital system only. Customer’s loyalty is crucial to all business including the fashion industry due to its high competitiveness. Customers have strong buying powers and they can decide swiftly whether they want to stay with one brand or switch to other competing brands that can satisfy their product needs and wants. To build strong and long-term relationship with customers, companies today must compete aggressively to achieve competitive advantages and retain loyal customers. This study investigated the importance of database marketing in maintaining customer’s loyalty in fashion industry. Three independent variables and one dependent variable which are customer’s satisfaction, market segmentation and individual customer and customer’s preferences are tested using related software. 100 female respondents are chosen by using convenience sampling. The findings indicated that only customer’s satisfaction is significant towards the dependent variable. Market segmentation and individual customer are not significant as the p-value is higher than 0.05. customer’s satisfaction contributes significantly towards maintaining customer’s loyalty for fashion industry. Also, by maintaining a reliable and efficiently database marketing it would be much easier for companies to keep track on their customer loyalty and level of customer satisfaction.
The lack of maximizing the technology in today’s historical tourism is the main concern for the success in this area. Previous studies have proven the success rate of using the current innovation and trends in general tourism sector in which they help to increase the visibility of the tourist attractions and number of visitors in one tourist spot. Terengganu, one of the states in Malaysia, is one of the best tourist attractions in the country. It is well-known for its popular islands, namely Redang Island, Lang Tengah Island, Kapas Island and Tenggol Island. Yet, many local and international tourists are not aware of the high potential historical island called Bidong Island. Not many tourists go there. Many come due to the informal communication such as from mouth to mouth with little formal promotions and marketing activities. Bidong Island was used as Vietnamese Boat People (VBP) refugee camp facilities from 1978 to 1991. Currently, this lonely island has started to show her visibility. This is a good sign of the state’s domestic tourism activity that will contribute towards the Gross Domestic Profits in tourism sector. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to provide an overview of database development on the Bidong Island for the Vietnamese Boat People former campsite facilities. A field observation study is proposed for the actual study.
Several data-driven investigations studies examined the association between cultural intelligence and job outcomes (intention to stay, Work performance and organisational citizenship behaviour). It is, however, surprising that the moderating role of psychological capital hasn’t been previously examined concerning cultural intelligence and job outcomes. This relationship is therefore currently under-researched due to sparse contributions. This research investigates psychological capital potential moderating role in the relationship between cultural intelligence and job outcomes to address this gap in the organisation’s literature. Due to this context, the study’s purpose is to support this hypothesis in the data collected from a sample of 246 self-initiated studies on expatriates in 20 Malaysian public universities. Relying on a quantitative method and using Partial Least Squares structural equation modelling to analyse the data, the results reveal that cultural intelligence predicted all three components of job outcomes. Additionally, psychological capital moderates the relationship between cultural intelligence and work performance so that when positive psychological capital is high, the association is more robust. The study has contributed by offering a context-bound approach to refine and integrate the social exchange theory with self-initiated academic expatriates’ cognitive, affective and behavioral processes in the Malaysian situation. Unlike previous studies of working abroad, this study indicates that cultural intelligence can be a salient personal resource for self-initiated expatriates’ academics working in a foreign environment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed based on the findings of this research.
Electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) refers to the process of generating hydrogen by splitting water molecules with applied external voltage on the active catalysts. HER reaction in the acidic medium can be studied by different mechanisms such as Volmer reaction (adsorption), Heyrovsky reaction (electrochemical desorption) or Tafel reaction (recombination). In this paper, facile hydrothermal methods are utilized to synthesis a high-performance metal-inorganic composite electrocatalyst, consisting of platinum nanoparticles (Pt) and molybdenum disulfide nanosheets (MoS 2 ) with different platinum loading. The as-synthesized composite is further used as an electrocatalyst for HER. The as-synthesized Pt/Mo-90-modified glassy carbon electrode shows the best electrocatalytic performance than pure MoS 2 nanosheets. It exhibits Pt-like performance with the lowest Tafel slope of 41 mV dec ⁻¹ and superior electrocatalytic stability in an acidic medium. According to this, the HER mechanism is related to the Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism, where hydrogen adsorption and desorption occur in the two-step process. According to electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis, the presence of Pt nanoparticles enhanced the HER performance of the MoS 2 nanosheets because of the increased number of charge carriers transport.
Background Many conservation management interventions have been set up to bring win–win outcomes for both biodiversity conservation and the well-being of the local communities. Nevertheless, the implementation process of marine protected areas (MPAs) can generate unexpected outcomes and fail to reach its objectives in addressing communities’ challenges. Therefore, it is crucial to have a better understanding of how MPAs influence the socioeconomic aspects of the coastal communities. This paper describes the protocol to conduct a systematic review which aims to explore and review the evidence that reflects the outcomes of marine site protection on poverty reduction in terms of economic and material living standards among the coastal communities in Southeast Asia. The review question is “What are the outcomes of marine site protection implementation on poverty in terms of material and economic living standards of coastal communities in Southeast Asia?”. Methods The systematic review uses rigorous search strategies and selection methods based on pre-defined eligibility criteria to identify and examine published journal articles and grey literature that are available on the review topic. Relevant studies and grey literature will be extracted from a recent systematic map of the evidence documenting the effect of marine or coastal nature conservation or natural resource management activities on human well-being in Southeast Asia. We will search online databases including Web of Science Core Collection, Ovid Medline ® , Environmental Complete, Scopus, as well as Google Scholar and sources of grey literature for any additional literature available since the evidence map was created. For this review, the populations of interest are from coastal communities in the Southeast Asia region. Comparators to marine site protection will be no intervention and/or pre-MPA implementation. The economic and material living standards, which are the poverty domains, will be evaluated as outcomes. Once we have identified relevant literature, we will perform a critical appraisal, data extraction, and synthesis appropriate to the type of literature found, to investigate the effect of marine site protection on poverty reduction.
Marine gravity anomalies are crucial parameters and elements for determining coastal and ocean geoid, tectonics and crustal structures, as well as offshore studies. This study aims to derive and develop a marine gravity anomaly model over Malaysian seas from multi-mission altimetry data. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 2020 Mean Sea Surface Model is computed based on along-track data from nine satellite missions, incorporating TOPEX, Jason-1, Jason-2, ERS-2, Geosat Follow on (GFO), Envisat-1, CryoSat-2, SARAL/AltiKa, and Sentinel-3A. The data exploited are from 1993 to 2019 (27 years). Residual gravity anomaly is computed using Gravity Software, and two-dimensional planar Fast Fourier Transformation method is applied. The evaluation, selection, blunder detection, combination, and re-gridding of the altimetry-derived gravity anomalies and Global Geopotential Model data are demonstrated. Cross-validation procedure is employed for data cleaning and quality control using the Kriging interpolation method. Then, cross-validation procedure is applied to the tapering window width 200, which adopting the GECO model denotes the optimum gravity anomaly with root mean square errors in the range of ± 4.2472 mGal to ± 6.0202 mGal. The findings suggest that the estimated marine gravity anomaly is acceptable to be implemented in the marine geoid determination and bathymetry estimation over Malaysian seas. In addition, the results of this study are valuable for geodetic and geophysical applications in marine areas. Along-track altimetry data are used for mean sea surface derivation.Mean sea surface model is utilised in the estimation of marine gravity anomalies.Global Geopotential Model is crucial in the marine gravity estimation of a region. Along-track altimetry data are used for mean sea surface derivation. Mean sea surface model is utilised in the estimation of marine gravity anomalies. Global Geopotential Model is crucial in the marine gravity estimation of a region.
Background Climate is one of the most important driving factors of future changes in terrestrial, coastal, and marine ecosystems. Any changes in these environments can significantly influence physiological and behavioural responses in aquatic animals, such as crustacea. Crustacea play an integral role as subsistence predators, prey, or debris feeders in complex food chains, and are often referred to as good indicators of polluted or stressed conditions. They also frequently have high production, consumption, and commercial significance. However, crustacean’s responses to climate change are likely to vary by species, life-history stage, reproduction status and geographical distribution. This map is undertaken as part of the Long-Term Research Grant project which aims to identify any interactive effect on physiological compensation and behavioural strategy of how marine organisms, especially crustaceans, deal with stress from environmental change. Our proposed map will aim to outline the evidence currently existing for the impacts of climate change on the physiology and behaviour of important aquaculture crustacean species within Asia. Methods We will document peer-reviewed articles in English using published journal articles and grey literature. Two bibliographic databases (Scopus and Web of Science) and multiple organizational websites with Google scholars will be searched. The systematic map protocol will follow in accordance with the Collaboration for Environmental Evidence Guidelines and Standards. Literature will be screened at the title, abstract, and full-text level using pre-defined inclusion criteria. The map will highlight marine crustacea physiological compensation and behavioural strategies to cope with climate change. It will also improve our knowledge of the available evidence and current gaps for future research recommendations.
Supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO 2 ) is an alternative tool to extract lipid for the production of fish oil and enzyme from fish by-products (FBPs). In the application of Sc-CO 2 , this review covers sample preparation, lipid extraction operation, and characterization of fish oil and enzyme as final products. Generally, the fish samples with moisture content less than 20% and particle size less than 5 mm are considered before lipid extraction with Sc-CO 2 . Sc-CO 2 parameters, such as pressure (P), temperature (T), extraction time (t ext ), and flow rate (F), for simultaneous recovery of fish oil, protein, and enzyme were found to be less severe ( P : 10.3–25 MPa; T : 25–45 °C, t ext : 20–150 min; F : 3–50 g/min) than the extraction of fish oil alone ( P : 10–40 Mpa; T : 35–80 °C; t ext : 30–360 min; F : 1–3000 g/min). The enzyme from the Sc-CO 2 defatted sample showed higher activity up to 45 U/mg due to lower denaturation of protein as compared to the organic solvent treated sample albeit both samples having similar pH (6–10) and temperature stability (20–60 °C). Overall, mild extraction of lipid from FBPs using Sc-CO 2 is effective for the production of enzymes suitable in various industrial applications. Also, fish oil as a result of extraction can be produced as a health product with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and low contamination of heavy metals.
Objectives To evaluate the association between ultrasound assessment of gallbladder wall thickness (GBWT) among severe dengue patients and dengue patients with warning signs to their clinical outcomes. Methods A prospective, cross-sectional study involving adult dengue patients presented to our emergency department between March until September 2018. The patients were classified based on WHO classification. A gallbladder wall scan was performed on all patients. Results A total of 44 patients were enrolled into the study; majority of the patients with GBWT had severe dengue, significantly more than the dengue patients with warning signs (90.5% sensitivity; 69.6% specificity). The sensitivity of GBWT in determining admission to critical care areas or general ward was 100% with a specificity of 62.1%. Our analysis showed that the two variables significant in determining the severity of dengue were age ( p = 0.045) and GBWT ( p < 0.001). Both factors together gave 81.0% sensitivity and 78.3% specificity in predicting patients for severe dengue. The receiver operator characteristic curve revealed that using variable GBWT status can discriminate 87.1% (95%CI 66.3, 93.7%) of having severe dengue or dengue with warning signs. Conclusion The finding of GBWT when consolidated with other clinical parameters may assist clinicians to perform risk stratification in the emergency department and become another adjunct to the assessment of severe dengue.
Natural sand is a major ingredient in the production of concrete and mortar. Increased urbanization and industry have led to sand depletion and the accumulation of industrial waste. Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) is constantly dumped to open fields, which creates traffic dangers, health risks, and pollutes the environment. Hence, the abundance production of POFA can be used as an alternative construction material, partially replacing POFA in producing mortar and concrete to minimize dependency on the sand, avoid negative environmental impacts, and reduce construction costs. The use of POFA in mortar has been found to be limited. Therefore, this paper presents the performance of POFA used as a partially replacement of sand. The performance of mortar mixture containing 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% of POFA inclusion by weight of sand was analyzed in terms of workability and mechanical properties. Slump tests were conducted for workability, while compressive, tensile, and flexural strength tests were conducted on hardened mortar cubes at 3,7, and 28 days to determine the mechanical properties. Workability of mortar mixture containing 2.5% of POFA inclusion was 40 mm, which recorded as the highest workability compared to other mixtures. Meanwhile, the mortar compressive strength of 2.5% POFA increased the strength to 37.7 MPa at its matured age of curing which exceeds the targeted strength of 30 MPa. The finding also shows that the inclusion of 10% POFA contributes to the enhancement of splitting tensile and flexural strength of mortar. From the result, POFA has been discovered to be an effective pozzolanic material that may be utilized as a replacement material in mortar.
Bacterial endotoxin contamination in dialysate may pass through haemodialysis membrane and cause a silent chronic microinflammation to kidney patients. Dual-layer hollow fibre (DLHF) membranes with dual function, biocompatible adsorptive and antibacterial effects were developed to solve the problem of incompatible membrane and endotoxin contamination. All membranes were fabricated via the co-extrusion dry-wet phase inversion technique. In this study, silica/α-mangostin nanoparticle was incorporated into the inner layer of membrane to enhance the biocompatibility of the membrane while maintaining its adsorption capacity. Activated carbon (AC) was incorporated in the outer layer of membrane for improved antibacterial property. The DLHF membranes were characterised based on its morphology and surface hydrophilicity. The performance of the DLHF membranes was evaluated in terms of permeability, urea, and creatinine removal capabilities, bovine serum albumin (BSA) rejection and antibacterial properties. The dense and small pore size on the outer layer of AC created a smoother surface for the DLHF membrane. The BSA rejection of the DLHF membranes was enhanced by 6–8% compared to that of unmodified single layer hollow fibre membrane. Silica/α-mangostin nanoparticle in the inner layer of membrane enhanced the removal of urea and creatinine by chemisorption. Result also showed that the incorporation of AC in the outer layer of DLHF membrane successfully filtered bacteria by bacteria entrapment. DLHF membrane with the combination of silica/α-mangostin nanoparticle in the inner layer and AC in the outer layer possessed the higher bacteria inhibition into blood compartment against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with removal rate of 68% and 75%, respectively, and better urea and creatinine removal by 60.57% and 75.18%, respectively, compared to single-layer PSf based membrane. The development of co-adsorptive biocompatible DLHF membrane can play an important role in improvement of kidney patient life.
Acoustic Emission (AE) application for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has undergone a swift advance through research and innovation in recent times. The AE monitoring is widely exploited as a tool for damage detection in materials research and structure monitoring. Various advantages of the AE, such as the potential use in large and complex structures, high-sensitivity, real-time monitoring capability, and potential application across a wide range of field study, has given the technique an edge over other approaches. Nevertheless, most of the reported studies had focused on the interpretation of the results in both quantitative and qualitative perspectives to extend the capabilities and application of AE for damage detection strategy. Eventually, the quantification of the damage level of the concrete structure relative to fatigue loading remained unanswered. Therefore, this study presented the experimental investigation of four types of plain concrete beams with a fixed dimension of 100 × 200 × 600 mm in the different notch-to-depth ratios under cyclic loading. A setup of the instrument consisting of four AE sensors type R6I was employed on each concrete beam sample to ensure a precise measurement for the three-point bending test. The b -value, improved b -value (Ib-value), severity, and intensity analysis methods were applied to quantify the damage level of the concrete structure under fatigue loading. Based on the results, the AE analysis successfully classified the damage levels following the observation made during the increasing cyclic loading on the notched concrete beams, the initiation of cracks, the steady growth of cracks, and beam failure. Valuable insights were recorded throughout the observation, including the progression of the fatigue failure mechanism from the Ib-value results, the intensity chart patterns from the intensity analysis, and the increased severity due to the increased loading cycles from the severity analysis. Conclusively, this study would enable researchers to understand the trend in monitoring the damage level under fatigue loading using the AE technique as well as providing fresh insights for further research.
As part of city planning and urban studies, it is customary to use the phrase urban density to describe people and other human activity and development throughout a certain area of land. Urban regions in affluent nations are not only more densely populated (DPUA), but they also have a greater population density per unit of land area than rural areas do as well. In densely populated urban areas, public transportation is more plentiful, reducing travel times making them more efficient. Greater affluent residents in metropolitan areas can also benefit from modern high-rise structures, which offer more breathing room. An energy-efficient design and features provide great living standards and comfort while using little energy and releasing minimal carbon dioxide in this sort of housing. In the absence of or rare usage of conventional active and passive heating and cooling systems, Smart sensors and other IoT devices make up the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT presents cities with new potential for using data from sensors in their infrastructure to improve traffic flow and reduce pollution. The more crowded and congested a city is, the more dissatisfied its residents are. There are numerous negatives to urban life, including high living costs, congestion, pollution, crime, and traffic, yet the benefits exceed the risks. Clean up the air by reducing the amount of energy used and using alternate modes of transportation. Provide services like garbage disposal and housing through private–public partnerships. Urban planning should include planting trees and the maintenance of municipal green areas. There are many advantages to living in densely populated places, such as better healthcare, better amenities, and faster emergency response times. The innovative DPUA-IoT approach proposed in this study is only one example of these advantages. Rapid population expansion is harmful to achieving economic and social progress and sustainably managing the natural resource base. However, there is still a large disparity between the interests of the commercial and public sectors when it comes to reducing fertility.
In this paper, an intelligent method for fault detection and classification for a microgrid (MG) was proposed. The idea was based on the combination of three computational tools: signal processing using the maximal overlap discrete wavelet packet transform (MODWPT), parameter optimization by the augmented Lagrangian particle swarm optimization (ALPSO), and machine learning using the support vector machine (SVM). The MODWPT was applied to preprocess half cycle of the post-fault current samples measured at both ends of feeders. The wavelet coefficients derived from the MODWPT were statistically evaluated using the mean, standard deviation, energy, skewness, kurtosis, logarithmic energy entropy, max, min, and Shannon entropy. These were the input feature datasets and were used to train the SVM classifier. The ALPSO was utilized to reduce the feature subsets and select the sensitive parameters of the SVM (i.e., penalty factor and the slack variable) to further improve the performance of the SVM. The intelligent relaying scheme was executed on a real-time digital simulator (RTDS) which is integrated with Matlab. The performance of SVM-based protection method is compared to several different protection models in terms of signal processing tools, optimization techniques used for selecting datasets and sensitive parameters, and classifiers under different operating conditions. Numerous operating conditions, including islanded or non-islanded operation modes and radial and or loop topologies introducing different characteristics of fault were included as the case studies for the proposed technique. A comprehensive evaluation study of the consortium for electric reliability technology solutions (CERTS) MG system and IEEE 34-bus confirms that the proposed protection scheme is accurate, fast, and robust to noisy measurements. In addition, the obtained results illustrate that the proposed method is superior to the recently published works in the literature.
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