Objectives: Early access to innovative oncology medicine is crucial to provide better treatment alternatives to patients with cancer. However, innovative oncology medicines often come at higher prices, thus limiting the government’s ability for its universal coverage. Hence an alternative paying mechanism is needed. This study is intended to determine the willingness to pay (WTP) for innovative oncology medicines among Malaysians. Methods: A cross-sectional contingent valuation study on 571 Malaysians was conducted to elicit respondents’ WTP value via bidding game approach. A double-bounded dichotomous choice was used in 3 hypothetical scenarios: innovative diabetes medicine, innovative oncology medicine one-off (IOMO), and innovative oncology medicine insurance. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors affecting respondent’s WTP, whereas the mean WTP value and the factors affecting amount to WTP was determined using a parametric 2-part model. Results: This study received 95% response rate. The mean age of the respondents is 48 years (SD 17) with majority of the respondents female (60.3%) and from ethnic Malay (62%). About 343 (64.7%) of the respondents expressed WTP for IOMO. Those in higher income bracket were willing to pay more for the access of IOMO than the overall WTP mean value (P = .046, coefficient 351.57). Conclusions: More than half of Malaysian are willing to pay for IOMO at mean value of Malaysian Ringgit 279.10 (US dollar 66.77). Collaborative funding mechanisms and appropriate financial screening among the stakeholders could be introduced as methods to expedite the access of innovative oncology medicine among patients with cancer in Malaysia.
Background There is an ongoing controversy surrounding whether tofacitinib increases the risk of infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis using data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to assess the overall risk of infection in these patients. Methods We conducted a comprehensive systematic search in EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CENTRAL from their inception until December 2022 to identify relevant RCTs reporting the occurrence of infections in patients with RA who were treated with the standard clinical therapeutic dosage of tofacitinib (5mg twice daily orally). The primary outcomes of the included studies in this review focused on the incidence of total infections, serious infections, non-serious infections, and opportunistic infections (including herpes zoster and tuberculosis). Additionally, we examined secondary outcomes related to the incidence of various sites of infections, including the upper respiratory tract, lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary system, urinary tract, skin and soft tissue, blood, dental and oral soft tissue, genital, reproductive tract, bone and joint, and central nervous system infections. Due to the expected anticipation of clinical and methodological heterogeneity across studies, the effect estimate was pooled with a random-effects model, to obtain the RRs and 95% CIs, using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. Results Twelve eligible RCTs, involving a total of 6,056 patients, were included in the analysis. In comparison to the control group (placebo and other active treatments), tofacitinib exhibited a significant increase in the risk of total infections (RR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.07-1.37; I2, 28%), serious infections (RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.48; I2, 0%), non-serious infections (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.05-1.36; I2, 29%), and opportunistic infections (RR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.40-1.97; I2, 0%). Secondary outcomes analyses revealed a significant increase in the risk of lower respiratory infections with tofacitinib (RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10–1.47; I2, 0%). Conclusion Compared with placebo and other active treatments, tofacitinib significantly increased the overall risk of infections (total infections, serious infections, non-serious infections, and opportunistic infections). These findings can help clinicians assess the risk of infections in RA patients treated with tofacitinib.
This study provides an in-depth bibliometric assessment of the Library and Information Science (LIS) sector within the ASEAN region from 2018 to 2022, leveraging data from the Scopus core collection. The overarching goal was to uncover current research patterns, collaborations, and productivity, subsequently crafting a strategic blueprint to enhance ASEAN LIS research’s global prominence. Methodologically, the research employed Scopus All Science Journal Classification Codes (ASJC) for LIS to retrieve a comprehensive set of relevant publications. Out of an initial count of 65,822 documents, refined search parameters narrowed this to 2768 outputs, or 4.2% of total LIS documents, for the specified timeframe and region. Key observations from the data depict a significant shift in 2020, likely influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic, underscoring the importance of timely, relevant research. Countries such as Malaysia and Singapore emerged as leading contributors, emphasizing quality research, while Indonesia’s substantial output did not necessarily guarantee citation impact. The study accentuates the increasing importance of interdisciplinary collaborations, as evident from platforms like the International Journal of Information Management. For ASEAN’s sustained growth in the global LIS arena, the emphasis should be on leveraging individual nation strengths, reinforcing international ties, and prioritizing globally relevant research themes.
In this research, a novel eco-friendly green composite is fabricated by combining a biomatrix composed of a biopolymer, date palm fiber, and a filler obtained from discarded eggshell (ES) waste material. This research aims to check the influent of ES filler on thermal and viscoelasticity properties of bio-epoxy composite with incorporation of 40 wt.% date palm (DP) fiber. Various ES filler ratios, specifically 5 wt.%, 10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, and 20 wt.%, are dispersed into the composite. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) approach were employed to investigate the properties of fabricated composites as a function of temperature in terms of storage modulus (E′), loss modulus (E′′), Tan delta (Tan δ), glass transition temperature (Tg), and Cole-Cole plot. Overall, incorporating ES filler into the bio-epoxy/DP fiber composites increased E′, E′′, and Tg significantly. ES-filled composites containing 5 and 10 wt.% exhibited properties comparable to 15 wt.% but less than 20 wt.% ES filler. Thermal tests result show that 20 wt.% ES-filled materials outperform their counterparts in terms of heat resistance or thermal stability. The evidence suggests that the embodiment of ES filler in bio-epoxy/DP fiber composites yields enhancements in both thermal and dynamic mechanical properties. This indicates the potential for utilizing ES filler loading in advanced composite applications that prioritize thermal stability and sustainability
This study aimed to compare the 3D skull models reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images using three different open-source software with a commercial software as a reference. The commercial Mimics v17.0 software was used to reconstruct the 3D skull models from 58 subjects. Next, two open-source software, MITK Workbench 2016.11, 3D Slicer 4.8.1 and InVesalius 3.1 were used to reconstruct the 3D skull models from the same subjects. All four software went through similar steps in 3D reconstruction process. The 3D skull models from the commercial and open-source software were exported in standard tessellation language (STL) format into CloudCompare v2.8 software and superimposed for geometric analyses. Hausdorff distance (HD) analysis demonstrated the average points distance of Mimics versus MITK was 0.25 mm. Meanwhile, for Mimics versus 3D Slicer and Mimics versus InVesalius, there was almost no differences between the two superimposed 3D skull models with average points distance of 0.01 mm. Based on Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) analysis, the similarity between Mimics versus MITK, Mimics versus 3D Slicer and Mimics versus InVesalius were 94.1, 98.8 and 98.3%, respectively. In conclusion, this study confirmed that the alternative open-source software, MITK, 3D Slicer and InVesalius gave comparable results in 3D reconstruction of skull models compared to the commercial gold standard Mimics software. This open-source software could possibly be used for pre-operative planning in cranio-maxillofacial cases and for patient management in the hospitals or institutions with limited budget.
The effect of urea-loaded cellulose hydrogel, a controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) on growth and yield of upland rice were investigated in upland rice. As with the initial research, nitrogen (N) treatments were applied as CRF treatments; T2H (30 kg N ha ⁻¹ ), T3H (60 kg N ha ⁻¹ ), T4H (90 kg N ha ⁻¹ ), T5H (120 kg N ha ⁻¹ ) and recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) at 120 kg N ha ⁻¹ RDF (T6U) in split application and T1 (0 N) as control. Results from this study indicated that applying CRF at the optimum N rate, T4H resulted in maximum grain yield, increasing by 71%. The analysis of yield components revealed that higher grain yield in T4H CRF was associated with an increase in panicle number and number of grains per panicle. Maximum grain N uptake of 0.25 g kg ⁻¹ was also observed in T4H CRF. In addition, T4H CRF recorded the highest harvest index (HI) and N harvest index (NHI) of 45.5% and 67.9%, respectively. Application of T4H CRF also recorded the highest N use efficiency (NUE) and N agronomic efficiency (NAE), 52.6% and 12.8 kg kg ⁻¹ , respectively. Observations show that CRF with only 75% N applied (T4H) in soil improved grain yield when compared to CRF with 100% N and 100% RDF in farmers’ conventional split application. This suggested that CRF with a moderate N application might produce the highest potential yield and improved N efficiencies while enhancing crop production and further increase in N supply did not increase yield and N efficiencies. The results suggest that the application of T4H CRF for upland rice would enhance HI, N efficiencies and improve the yield of upland rice. Also, all growth parameters and yield were positively influenced by the application of CRF as a basal dose compared to split application of conventional urea fertilizers.
Maintaining the abundance of phytoplankton in mangrove areas concerning water quality is essential to sustain fish productivity. However, water quality degradation decreases fish abundance and impacts the fisher’s economy. Thus, it is necessary to preserve and maintain the phytoplankton abundance concerning the water quality of the mangrove area to sustain the demand for protein food and increase fish productivity. This study aimed to (i) assess the water quality and phytoplankton abundance and (ii) determine the appropriate spatial interpolation method to determine the water quality of Tuba Island, Langkawi. Water quality parameters (pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and temperature) and phytoplankton abundance were collected surrounding the Tuba River. Spatial interpolation was applied to interpolate and map the location of water quality parameters. The total abundance of phytoplankton was calculated within 13,718.75–29,822.92 ind/m3 and 17,843.75–27,515.63 ind/m3 in September and December 2020. The regression equation was established to estimate the water quality related to the abundance and pigment based on observed sample data. The results indicate the highest coefficient of determination (R2) of the DO–pH with 94%; for others, the relationship (pH–Temp and DO-Temp) showed less relationship with R2 = 30%. The inverse distance weighted (IDW) showed a better performance with errors of root mean square error (RMSE) (0.060–1.25), mean absolute error (MAE) (0.004–0.128), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) (0.429–15.673) (0.176–2.835), MAE (0.031–8.037), and MAPE (3.39–33.5). The map distribution of water quality and phytoplankton abundance could help increase fisheries’ activities by preserving Tuba Island Langkawi’s water quality and phytoplankton abundance.
Based on observations, there were several problems in terms of student satisfaction with the food service. This study aimed to determine the relationship between food satisfaction with energy and macronutrients intake. The method used was quantitative with a cross sectional study design. The sample in this study consisted 96 female students from the junior high school level and from high school students and the sample selection used simple random sampling. The data analysis technique used the Spearman correlation test. The results obtained from this study indicate that 52.1% of respondents who were satisfied with the organization of food at the Islamic boarding school, while 47.9% were dissatisfied. The energy intake of most of the respondents was in the less category (56.6%), carbohydrate intake was in the more category (80.2%), very less protein intake (56.3%), and less fat intake (75% ). The relationship between the two variables showed that there was no relationship between satisfaction with energy intake and macronutrients. Suggestions that can be given to next research are expected to be able assess satisfaction from the food obtained in the islamic boardong school canteen, because students’ food intake is not only obtained from the islamic boarding school kitchen.
In tubular reactors, fouling issues are caused due to two reasons. One is the heating–cooling prerequisite, and the other is the exothermic nature of the low‐density polyethylene (LDPE) polymerization process. These issues must be considered while optimizing LDPE production to provide maximum productivity and a safe operation. However, it is not a simple process because the conversion of the monomer ( X M ) is generally related to significant profits. This conversion might be performed at high reaction temperatures, resulting in fouling formation. Therefore, in this research, a study of dynamic optimization to find the most efficient production of LDPE in the presence of fouling resistance ( R f ) restrictions is conducted. An R f is employed as a measure of fouling. To establish the highest reactor R f , this study employs variations in the heat transfer coefficient ( U ) calculated from industry data. This dynamic optimization study addresses the optimization challenges using dynopt coded programming based on orthogonal collocation (OC) and sequential quadratic programming methodologies. Beforehand, the LDPE model is validated with industrial data. This study evaluates three possibilities to determine the most optimum reactor performance. The most optimum reactor output is determined from the constrained maximum conversion, which gave 32.15% conversion, while the was effectively met at 47.37cm ² s K/cal.
Background In the competitive health care environment, patient satisfaction and quality of life (QoL) have become the subject of interest to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic interventions as we experience improved breast cancer survival in modern times. The knowledge of the long-term effects of surgery on the QoL in breast cancer patients is currently limited in the Asian setting. The purpose of this longitudinal study is to evaluate the QoL of early-stage breast cancer patients undergoing mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods In this prospective cohort study, the QoL of 208 patients who underwent mastectomy and the BCS treatment were assessed, using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered at the baseline, 6 and 12 months following diagnosis. One-way ANCOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results A total of 208 female survivors of Stage 0–II breast cancer were included, among them 47.1% underwent BCS and 52.9% underwent mastectomy. Older (63.3%), Chinese women (63.6%), and patients with primary education (71.7%) were more likely to undergo mastectomy. At baseline, no significant differences were observed for QoL in both treatment groups. At 6 months, patients who underwent BCS had better social functioning scales( P = 0.006) and worse symptom scales for dyspnoea (P = 0.031), compared to mastectomy patients. One year after diagnosis, the role functioning score of the mastectomy group was significantly higher than the BCS group, specifically among patients who had undergone chemotherapy (P = 0.034). Conclusion Patients who underwent BCS had better social functioning and worse dyspnoea symptoms compared to patients undergoing mastectomy at six months. During one year, there were only significant improvements in the role functioning among the mastectomy groups compared to the BCS groups. After further stratification, only mastectomy patients who received chemotherapy exhibited improved role functioning compared to patients those who did not undergo chemotherapy. Providing social and physical support postoperatively and monitoring patients for cancer worry, or other symptoms in the long-term survivorship period would be important to ensure optimal QoL.
The demand of the world's Muslim community for cosmetic products certified as halal by Halal Malaysia or Foreign Halal Certification Body is very high. This high demand is driven by the strength of the holistic halal ecosystem system that includes material review, management, and several other systems inter alia, the Halal Assurance System, Laboratory Analysis, and Halal Training. These systems have further strengthened consumers’ confidence in Malaysia's halal-certified products. Despite that, in terms of legal provisions, Procedure 6(5) in the Malaysian Halal Certification Procedures Manual (Domestic) 2020 provides that products with negative implications for religion and society such as cigarettes, drugs, hair dyes, and nail dyes are not eligible to apply for the halal certificate. Henna or the scientific name Lawsonia inermis is common ingredient used in hair and nails dye products. Based on the provisions above, hair and nail dye products including those based on henna are not eligible to apply for and obtain Malaysian halal status because they fall under the category of hair and nail dyes. The issues are what is the rule on the usage of henna, and to what extent do henna cosmetic products get Malaysian Halal Certification? The objective of this paper is to analyse the findings of benefit of henna from an Islamic and medical perspective. This paper uses qualitative methods to analyse the data. The findings will analyse the needs for re-evaluation by the Malaysian Halal Certification body for henna-based cosmetic products in order to be given halal certification. This is because the initial findings of the study show that the use of henna as ornamental colour is required by Shariah, especially for women. In fact, scientific evidence shows that henna has several benefits of its own, such as being rich in antioxidant compounds that can treat wounds. Therefore, if henna-based products are produced from natural henna, free from prohibited chemicals, safe to use, clean, and pure, it is submitted that the henna cosmetic products are eligible to be considered and be given Malaysian halal status.
The world halal industry and the domestic market are expected to reach up to RM20.92 trillion and RM473.57 billion, respectively, in 2030. The local halal industry has contributed as much as 7% toward the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country in 2020. It indicates that Malaysia has the potential to be one of the world's halal market hubs that have contributed to local economic growth. As stated in the 12th Malaysia Plan (MP12), the major focus of local economic synergy is to strengthen the local halal industry by creating more opportunities and positive competition among key industrial players to ensure the sustainability of economic growth. The Halal Development Corporation (HDC) has launched the Halal-Integrated Platform (HIP) to introduce Malaysia as a halal digital economy hub. This initiative allows the country to maximize the benefits of multiple aspects of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (IR 4.0). This study will put attention to the overview of HIP adaption as a halal digital economy hub for Small–Medium Enterprises (SMEs) specifically in Malaysia. The existence of HIP enables local halal industry players to connect with global halal players effectively and sustainably as well as helps companies to grow their business capabilities, backed by halal certification.
Background Cyberbullying is a growing public health concern with clear, negative impacts on the mental, physical and social health of targeted victims. Previous research on cyberbullying has largely focused on examining its occurrence among children and adolescents. The present study aims to examine the prevalence of cyberbullying victimisation and its association with family dysfunction, health behaviour and psychological distress among young adults in Selangor, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a locality within Selangor, sampling a total of 1449 young adults. The Cyberbullying and Online Aggression Survey was used to measure cyberbullying victimisation. The Family APGAR scale, General Health Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and single-item measures were used to assess family dysfunction, psychological distress and health behaviour, respectively. Results The 1-month prevalence of cyberbullying victimisation among young adults was 2.4%. The most common cyberbullying act experienced was mean or hurtful comments about participants online (51.7%), whereas the most common online environment for cyberbullying to occur was social media (45.8%). Male participants (adjusted OR (AOR)=3.60, 95% CI=1.58 to 8.23) had at least three times the odds of being cyberbullied compared with female participants. Meanwhile, participants with higher levels of psychological distress had increased probability of being cyberbullied compared with their peers (AOR=1.13, 95% CI=1.05 to 1.21). Conclusions As evident from this study, cyberbullying victimisation prevails among young adults and is significantly related to gender and psychological distress. Given its devastating effects on targeted victims, a multipronged and collaborative approach is warranted to reduce incidences of cyberbullying and safeguard the health and well-being of young adults.
N-Substituted-2-propanamide analogues of 1,3,4-oxadiazole have been synthesized using a multi-step synthetic protocol to explore new therapeutic anti-enzymatic agents. Herein, we have merged sulfonyl, piperidine, oxadiazole and amide into a single unit to synthesize a library of unique compounds, 8a–n. The molecular structures of all synthesized compounds were verified by ¹³C-NMR, ¹H-NMR, HRMS and IR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the compounds were screened for their inhibition potential against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), urease and lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes. A considerable inhibition potential was observed for three compounds against LOX with quercetin as a reference standard, two compounds against urease with thiourea as a reference standard and two compounds against AChE with eserine as a reference standard. Through molecular docking investigations, we were able to correlate the overall impact and inhibition criteria by the structure–activity relationship via the interactions between synthesized compounds and active sites of enzymes. Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and in vivo studies may be investigated further for the most active compounds to substantiate them as potential anti-enzymatic medications.
Background Quality in healthcare is a fundamental pillar of health systems performance, leading to improved health outcomes and reduced waste. The World Health Organization recommends that countries establish a national quality policy and strategy (NQPS) to steer the provision of safe and high-performing healthcare services and foster a quality culture. This paper describes the development process and key content of Malaysia’s new 5-year National Policy for Quality in Healthcare. Methods The development process was managed by a technical working group led by the Institute for Health Systems Research in the Ministry of Health. Situational analysis was conducted through a multi-pronged approach, underpinned by a review of the past and present healthcare sectoral and quality plans and guided by the WHO NQPS framework. This approach involved: (i) review of quality-related policy documents, (ii) online surveys of healthcare providers and the public, (iii) key-informant facilitated discussions and (iv) mapping of existing quality improvement initiatives (QIIs). Data gathered from these approaches informed the content of the new policy. Following thematic analysis, the findings were grouped into specific domains, which were then organized into a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) framework. Results Ten key areas of concern identified were (i) a people-centred holistic approach, (ii) governance for quality, (iii) resources, (iv) quality culture, (v) stakeholder engagement, (vi) health management information system, (vii) workforce competency, (viii) knowledge exchange, (ix) quality indicators and (x) monitoring and evaluation of quality activities. These led to the formulation of seven strategic priorities for the planning of improvements aimed at addressing the key areas of concern. The national definition of quality was affirmed. A total of 40 QIIs were mapped and grouped into three broad categories, namely (i) regulatory, (ii) domain-specific QIIs and (iii) Quality Improvement (QI) method. Conclusions The National Policy for Quality in Healthcare for Malaysia was developed through a comprehensive situational analysis using a multi-method approach that identified priorities across national, state, institutional and community levels. This evidence-informed approach led to meaningful contextual adaptation of the NQPS framework to shape the strategic direction to advance quality and achieve effective and safe outcomes for all Malaysians.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.