Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • George Town, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Recent publications
Virtual reality (VR) for industry training has recently received much attention. In VR, a simulation environment of the actual process and situation is provided. In this study, the effectiveness of the VR-based industry training for operators to acquire a process skill was examined. Selected operators from a medical manufacturing plant were divided into two groups and separately undertook the training of the same process either via VR or real-life demonstration (conventional training). Their related skill levels were measured and compared in terms of knowledge retention and knowledge interpretation. Results showed that no significant difference exists between the two groups. Theoretical knowledge should be enhanced in VR demonstration. The survey and observations also showed several advantages of VR over real-life demonstrations.
As of 8 October 2021, the COVID-19 pandemic had caused over 236.6 million confirmed cases and 4.83 million deaths globally. The pandemic has quickly spread across the world, with only five countries being COVID-free. The outbreak has also had a significant impact on people’s lifestyles and daily interactions in Malaysia. Malaysian cities have been tremendously affected, with social distancing transforming people’s way of life and impacting their wellbeing. This study investigated the extent to which city inhabitants, particularly those who are more vulnerable, are adapting to these changes. In particular, it sought to identify the psychosocial impact of COVID-19 on the older adult population in George Town (Penang), and Kuala Lumpur with a focus on behavioural changes, anxiety, and adaptation. A total of 100 older adult respondents were recruited to complete the questionnaire survey using purposive sampling, with five respondents also participating in telephone interviews. The findings revealed that despite the social distancing rules that were in place, the participants’ adaptive responses, access to their surrounding environment, and maintenance of social networks had reduced the psychosocial impact of the pandemic. Thus, measures that ensure access to the environment and strengthen social support should be sustained, in parallel with actions to enhance community resilience and wellbeing.
The study aims to review the challenges of implementing big data by Malaysian small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs)as well as to figure out the relationship between architecture, social, law and market. Currently, there is limited research and literature examining the challenges of big data analysis in Malaysia SMEs. This paper has opted for a thorough analysis of the complexities of implementing big data at SMEs in Malaysia by applying a comprehensive literature search from different databases, journals, Google scholar, IEEE and content review. This research offers practical insights into the complexities of taking Big Data in SMEs in Malaysia. It is proposed that law, architecture, social and market can be applied by Malaysian SMEs to adopt big data analytic. The authors used quantitative survey. This is done by soliciting criteria from general managers/managing directors/CEOs or data analysts from LinkedIn group. Data wereanalysed by partial least square. This research makes contribution to academics and practitioners to the emerge of predictive model to suit the challenges of big data adoption in Malaysia SMES.
Negative disconfirmation will usually lead to switching behaviour and attenuate customers’ repurchase intentions, a behaviour that will undercut businesses’ profitability. Limited research discussed post-purchase behaviour, in general, and how to retain aggrieved customers during the online shopping experience, in particular. This study investigates the observed behavioural outcome of Malaysian customers in online shopping with regard to customers’ future buying decisions who faced disconfirmation during the pandemic. Specifically, this study aims to examine service recovery as a moderator that can potentially alleviate the adverse effect of negative disconfirmation on repurchase intention and switching intention. Online questionnaires were distributed. 331 valid data were collected from customers using Smart PLS 3.2. The results showed that negative disconfirmation is negatively associated with repurchase intention and positively affects the switching intention. The moderating effect of service recovery demonstrated a significant positive impact on switching and repurchase intention. The empirical findings will enrich the literature on service recovery, consumer behaviour, and service management, and provide suggestions for webstores in terms of customers’ engagement that can apt recovery response process after customers’ complaints. Lastly, limitations and future directions are discussed for scholarly attention.
Background Although Guiera senegalensis is used as a dewormer in ethnoveterinary health care in Nigeria, its anthelmintic potential has not been validated. Hence, this work investigated the in vitro anthelmintic potential of G. senegalensis extracts on two Caenorhabditis elegans strains: Bristol N2 (wild type/ivermectin susceptible) and DA1316 (ivermectin resistant). Results Aqueous and methanol extracts of G. senegalensis were tested against the motility of the L4 larvae at two exposure periods of 24 and 48 h and found to be active against the C. elegans strains. Motility of C. elegans DA1316 was reduced to 18.6% and 8.3% by aqueous and methanol extracts, respectively, at 2.0 mg/ml after 48 h, whereas that of C. elegans DA1316 treated with ivermectin (0.02 µg/ml) remained above 95%. The motility of C. elegans Bristol N2 was reduced to 16.6% and 7.2% by aqueous and methanol extracts, respectively, at 2.0 mg/ml after 48 h and ≤ 2.7% by ivermectin (0.02 µg/ml). Activity of the plant extracts was concentration and time dependent. Conclusions This work confirms the anthelmintic activity of G. senegalensis and its effectiveness against ivermectin-resistant nematodes, thus validating its ethnoveterinary use as an animal dewormer in Nigeria and pharmacological potential as a source of anthelmintic compounds against ivermectin-resistant nematodes. There is, however, the need for in vivo studies to confirm the in vitro efficacy of the extracts.
Radiomics analysis quantifies the interpolation of multiple and invisible molecular features present in diagnostic and therapeutic images. Implementation of 18-fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( ¹⁸ F-FDG PET/CT) radiomics captures various disorders in non-invasive and high-throughput manner. ¹⁸ F-FDG PET/CT accurately identifies the metabolic and anatomical changes during cancer progression. Therefore, the application of ¹⁸ F-FDG PET/CT in the field of oncology is well established. Clinical application of ¹⁸ F-FDG PET/CT radiomics in lung infection and inflammation is also an emerging field. Combination of bioinformatics approaches or textual analysis allows radiomics to extract additional information to predict cell biology at the micro-level. However, radiomics texture analysis is affected by several factors associated with image acquisition and processing. At present, researchers are working on mitigating these interrupters and developing standardised workflow for texture biomarker establishment. This review article focuses on the application of ¹⁸ F-FDG PET/CT in detecting lung diseases specifically on cancer, infection and inflammation. An overview of different approaches and challenges encountered on standardisation of ¹⁸ F-FDG PET/CT technique has also been highlighted. The review article provides insights about radiomics standardisation and application of ¹⁸ F-FDG PET/CT in lung disease management.
Penjom deposit is an orogenic gold deposit located in the Central Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. Gold mineralization is associated with various styles and textures of quartz‐carbonate veins hosted within the metasedimentary as the main host rock and felsic igneous rock including minor volcanic rock. Vein textural features and morphologies have been investigated based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to understand the process of veins formation, and the relationship with gold mineralization. At the hand specimen scale, veins show a variety of textures that are either primary or superimposed. Primary textures are comb, massive anhedral buck quartz veins, and laminae veins or vein septa representing early vein introduction without vein modification. Extension veins that are normally concordant to maximum compressive stress direction show either a common comb texture within these veins or buck texture inside thick veins. Secondary textures are ribbon, stylolites, breccias, and late spider veinlets that overprint early veins formed during repeated structural episodes. Later stage deformation events superimposed on the existing veins texture results in intensely deformed veins. The interrelationship of structure, vein‐type and texture, gold and sulfide mineralogy have been correlated to constrain the episodes of gold mineralization in the Penjom deposit. Characteristics of vein textures indicate physio‐environment under confining lithostatic pressure where fluids filled the space through crack and sealing mechanism. Vein systems and gold mineralization events that have been correlated with the D2D3 (fold‐fault) deformation events and inferred to be temporally related to the late‐stage regional orogenic event dated Late Triassic‐Early Jurassic that affected Peninsular Malaysia. Several style of vein textures reflect different structural control. Folding and thrust activity related to the shear vein and associated extension vein. Faulting reactivate and produce breccia vein and later fault displace the early vein system.
Background People with weakened immune systems may not develop adequate protection after taking two doses of the mRNA-combined COVID-19 vaccine. The additional dose may improve the level of protection against Covid-19. Objectives Current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and determents of third COVID-19 vaccine booster dose acceptance among population in the UAE. Methods and materials This is online descriptive cross-sectional community-based study conducted among the students and faculty of Ajman University from 25 August to 20 October 2021. The questionnaire, which was in the English language, encompassed two sections containing 22 items. Section one gathered the demographic details of the respondents, while Section two used 13 questions to evaluate the respondents’ knowledge of and attitude to the third COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. Results 614 respondents participated in this study. The average knowledge score was 44.6% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of [41%, 49%]. Better knowledge scores were observed in postgraduates (OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.28–8.11), employees in the healthcare sector (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.05–2.51), participants who had relatives infected with the Covid-19 (OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.05–2.02), participants who had infected with Covid-19 (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.43–3.43) and participants who had received first two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine (OR 2.08; 95% CI 1.40–3.11). The average attitude score was 70.2% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of [69.2%, 71.2%]. Conclusion Necessary steps should be taken by the government and public health authorities, in line with the local culture, to increase vaccination acceptance and foster positive attitudes towards the vaccine. A suitable approach to this would be to develop an educational framework that could demonstrate the risks of vaccine avoidance or delay to the general population. Moreover, health authorities should pay more attention to the false information being disseminated across the internet, especially social media. Also, healthcare workers should be trained in vaccinology and virology to make sure that they are able to understand important developments in these fields and convey the findings to their patients.
Cerebral intracranial aneurysms are serious problems that can lead to stroke, coma, and even death. The effect of blood flow on cerebral aneurysms and their relationship with rupture are unknown. In addition, postural changes and their relevance to haemodynamics of blood flow are difficult to measure in vivo using clinical imaging alone. Computational simulations investigating the detailed haemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms have been developed in recent times not only to understand the progression and rupture but also for clinical evaluation and treatment. In the present study, the haemodynamics of a patient-specific case of a large aneurysm on the left side internal carotid bifurcation (LICA) and no aneurysm on the right side internal carotid bifurcation (RICA) was investigated. The simulation of these patient-specific models using fluid–structure interaction provides a valuable comparison of flow behavior between normal and aneurysm models. The influences of postural changes were investigated during standing, sleeping, and head-down (HD) position. Significant changes in flow were observed during the HD position and quit high arterial blood pressure in the internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm model was established when compared to the normal ICA model. The velocity increased abruptly during the HD position by more than four times (LICA and RICA) and wall shear stress by four times (LICA) to ten times (RICA). The complex spiral flow and higher pressures prevailing within the dome increase the risk of aneurysm rupture.
Background Bacteriocins are generally defined as ribosomally synthesized peptides, which are produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that affect the growth of related or unrelated microorganisms. Conventionally, the extracted bacteriocins are purified by precipitation, where ammonium sulphate is added to precipitate out the protein from the solution. Main text To achieve the high purity of bacteriocins, a combination with chromatography is used where the hydrophobicity and cationic properties of bacteriocins are employed. The complexity column inside the chromatography can afford to resolve the loss of bacteriocins during the ammonium sulphate precipitation. Recently, an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) has been widely used in bacteriocins purification due to the several advantages of its operational simplicity, mild process conditions and versatility. It reduces the operation steps and processing time yet provides high recovery products which provide alternative ways to conventional methods in downstream processing. Bacteriocins are widely approached in the food and medical industry. In food application, nisin, which is produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. has been introduced as food preservative due to its natural, toxicology safe and effective against the gram-positive bacteria. Besides, bacteriocins provide a board range in medical industries where they are used as antibiotics and probiotics. Short conclusion In summary, this review focuses on the downstream separation of bacteriocins from various sources using both conventional and recent ATPS techniques. Finally, recommendations for future interesting areas of research that need to be pursued are highlighted.
Relationships between growth increments of internal shell and age was studied in three neritic decapod cephalopods cultured in laboratory through their entire life cycles. The studied cephalopods were the nektic Sepioteuthis lessoniana d’Orbigny, 1826, Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831 and Sepiella inermis Van Hasselt, 1835. Most of the relationship models are in cubic parabolic, except when numbers of increments were estimated from age in S. pharaonis . Differences of numbers of increments from the real age were higher in the pelagic S. lessoniana when compared to the benthic sepiids . The differences were higher in juvenile stages (< 60 days after hatching) than adult stages (> 60 days) in the three species. The increment rate is close to the “one day one increment” assumption. The differences of numbers of increments from the ages and the rate of increment apposition revealed the transition point of the life cycle from 60 days of age, corresponding to the sexual maturity or adult stages. Numbers of increments with higher accuracy are reevaluated to be reliable for age determination at least for the neritic species in the tropical zone, where environmental conditions are more stable, regarding the life styles and stages in life cycles of each species.
Many genetic disorders are a result of single or multiple genome abnormalities. A possible approach to circumvent genetic disorders is to use gene editing agents to correct these mistakes, but a major challenge remains in the mode of delivery of gene editing agents to different regions of the body. Banskota et al. present the use of engineered DNA-free virus-like particles (eVLPs) to deliver base editors to different organs in a mice model for improved outcomes, highlighting the potential of eVLPS to deliver base editors and as an efficient delivery mechanism, leveraging the advantages of viral and nonviral delivery methods.
In this article, the problem of fault estimation is addressed for the class of discrete-time linear systems subject to mixed uncertainties (norm bounded and stochastic uncertainty) and unknown input disturbances. A robust proportional integral (PI) observer is proposed based on H∞ norm minimization for dealing with uncertainties and disturbances. An augmented observer is constructed first where the sensor fault is treated as a state variable and then, H∞ norm is minimized in the linear matrix inequalities (LMI) framework with the application of the Lyapunov function and Young inequalities. The application of the DC motor system and well-known three tank system is given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed observer. Through simulation results, a proposed PI observer has shown the precise estimation of a sensor fault.
In this paper, a fractional-order Hantavirus infection model incorporating harvesting is formulated and investigated. The populations are divided into susceptible mice, infected mice and alien species. Mathematical analysis and numerical simulations are performed to clarify the characteristics of the proposed fractional-order Hantavirus infection model. The existence, uniqueness, non-negativity and boundedness of the solutions are examined. The local stability of the equilibrium points of the fractional-order model is studied. The mathematical proof of the existence of transcritical bifurcation is given by using Sotomayor’s theorem. The theoretical findings are illustrated by numerical simulations. The impact of fractional-order, competitive effect of alien species on mice, competitive effect of mice on alien species, carrying capacity and harvesting efforts on the stability of the Hantavirus infection model are studied. The basin of attraction regions is also illustrated.
Demand for organic electronics has growth tremendously for the past decade, owing to their high flexibility and low processing cost attributes. As part of the important elements in organic electronics, a solution processable organic thin film transistor (OTFT) has been center of discussion among researchers. The OTFT is recognized to bring electrical, mechanical, and industrial benefits to a broad range of new applications such as flexible displays, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, as well as biosensors specifically for healthcare monitoring system. Despite of their great application demand and significant technology advancement, the OTFT devices demonstrate unstable electrical performances especially in their mobilities and threshold voltages. These drawbacks will hold the fully commercialization of the OTFT in the market. Thus, this paper comprehensively reviews the current status of the OTFT technologies, ranging from material, device, process, and integration, including improvement that have been done on mobilities and operating voltages. Besides that, this work discusses on the applicability of the OTFT in the biosensor applications dedicated for real-time healthcare monitoring purposes. This review paper therefore is expected to provide a critical analysis on OTFT developments, as well as recognize their research gaps to allow their fully commercialization in the near future.
Background Identification of sex plays a vital role in forensic and medicolegal investigations. Although several studies were conducted in the past to assess sexual dimorphism in friction ridge skin characteristics, a similar study has not been attempted using creases characteristics. The present study was carried out to determine the sex differences based on creases density among the Malaysian population. A novel method was proposed by measuring creases density in 2 cm × 2 cm square at the hypothenar region on the right palmprints to evaluate its feasibility for sex discrimination purposes. A total of 150 subjects were investigated in this study. Results Results revealed that significant differences were observed in the creases density for males and females. Palmprint mean creases density of 3.46 creases/cm ² and 5.73 creases/cm ² were calculated in male and female subjects, respectively. Results indicated that females tended to have a significantly higher creases density than males in the selected region. Analysis using the independent sample t -test demonstrated that the creases density of males and females was significantly different ( p < 0.001), with mean differences ranging between −2.90 and −1.65. Conclusions It is evident that palmprint creases density is a potential indicator for sex determination.
Background Environmental concerns are growing globally. The world has suffered severe environmental deterioration over the years. Undeniably, the impact of environmental degradation on the earth’s geographical space is alarming, making environmental stakeholders to be worried. Existing literature has examined several factors affecting the environment, but the focus has now shifted to education and the need to maximize its potentials. Although studies have examined the direct impacts of education on the environment, those investigating its moderating role are relatively new and scarce, particularly across income groups. Understanding the channel through which education might affect the environment requires the knowledge of its moderating role. Therefore, this study employs FMOLS, DOLS, ARDL-PMG, CCEMG and heterogeneous panel causality test methodologies to investigate the direct and moderating effects of education in the growth-energy-environment linkages in heterogeneous income groups of 92 countries from 1985 to 2018. Results The findings of this study indicate that economic growth is a long-term solution to environmental deterioration in high and upper-middle-income countries, while the opposite holds for lower-middle-income and low-income countries. In addition, energy consumption is linked with environmental degradation across all income groups. Also, the study finds that education’s direct effects aggravate environmental degradation across all income groups. Moreover, its moderating role ameliorates the adverse effects of energy consumption on environmental degradation in high and upper-middle-income groups but worsens it in the lower-middle-income and low-income groups. Conclusion This study examines the role of education in economic growth, energy consumption and environmental degradation nexus. The study concludes that education is important for environmental sustainability as it encourages pro-environmental behaviors and attitudes and supports energy-efficient products and investments in green technologies. However, education may also aid energy-intensive activities and dirty technology by supporting lifestyles that are not eco-friendly. It is important, therefore, to provide education that promotes better environmental quality.
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24,065 members
Tiem Leong Yoon
  • School of Physics
Zhari Ismail
  • Discipline of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Mohd Rizal Arshad
  • School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Hasni Arsad
  • Advanced Medical and Dental Institute (AMDI)
Arman Zaharil Mat Saad
  • Reconstructive Sciences Unit
Jalan Sungai Dua, 11800, George Town, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Head of institution
Professor Dr. Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan