Universiteti Politeknik i Tiranës
Recent publications
This study deals with the issue of beach litter pollution in the context of the Descriptor 10 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive Good Environmental Status of EU waters and Ecological objective 10, Common indicator 22 of IMAP. Analyses of the amount, distribution and categorization of beach litter were conducted on nine beaches during 108 surveys covering the area of 206.620 m 2 in Albania, Italy, and Montenegro. Our findings showed that the level of beach litter pollution on south Adriatic beaches is significantly above the adopted threshold values, with median item numbers of 327, 258, and 234 per 100 m of beach stretch for Albania, Italy, and Montenegro, respectively. It can be concluded that, when it comes to beach litter pollution, GES has not been achieved. Given the defined baseline and threshold values at the EU level, the process of reducing the total amount of marine litter in the southern Adriatic Sea will be very challenging and needs urgent and specific actions.
Balkan rivers are described as hotspots of biodiversity due to the limited glaciation to a few high-altitude cirques during the last ice age. Although many studies have examined local-scale highlights in biota and biodiversity, an overall hydro-morphological characterization and development assessment of these rivers during the Holocene are missing. Aim of the presented study is to put together the present and recent river dynamics and Quaternary landscape development for a comprehensive understanding of geomorphic processes and the current river morphological characteristics of the Vjosa river. This was done by linking satellite imagery and hydro-dynamic modelling to read the landscape, i.e., to determine the development of landscape units, and (i) the active channel, (ii) the active floodplain and (iii) the morphological floodplain. The digital terrain of the Vjosa River catchment, as an example of the Balkan rivers, was based on a 25 m × 25 m digital elevation model, and hydrodynamic numerical analysis was conducted with a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The application of this assessment approach enabled a clear differentiation of four different sections along the longitudinal profile of the Vjosa—mainly differentiated by the slope and partially corresponding with the confluence of tributaries. We also found that periods of glaciation imposed a strong impact on the hydro-morphological characteristics of the Vjosa River. In particular, the delineation of the active channel and the active floodplain exhibited two different morphological reaches. The first reach exhibits a clear incision of the river into fluvial deposits when the historical sediment supply was high, and the second reach occurs downstream where the current sediment supply is equal or higher than that during the Pleistocene or earlier periods. These differences in hydro-morphological development exert a strong impact on the floodplain development and the human use of these reaches. Thus, despite the given uncertainties due to the lack of bathymetric accuracy, the hybrid assessment approach is useful for the hydro-morphological characterization of the Vjosa river and the identification of landscape forming processes on the catchment scale.
The combustion chamber is ought to be perfectly sealed, however, part of the air and fuel mixture can escape from it. Among the several losses there is the gas flow from the inter-ring crevices, which is always present. This leakage is known as blow-by, and affects efficiency, correct lubrication and emissions. The amount of leakage is dependent on many factors, and among the most important are the engine speed and load, which are able to affect the system through the forces applied on it. The aim of this paper was to understand in a more detailed way how the engine speed and load could affect the sealing efficiency of a ring-pack. For this purpose, a complete range of speeds and loads were used in the simulations. The equations of the ring motions and gas dynamics has been implemented and solved in ©Ricardo RINGPAK solver. The results showed that inertia and inter-ring gas pressures drives the sealing behavior of the rings. The blow-by trend showed to decrease with the speed and increase with the load, exception made for the idle condition where the values were different to the other cases, especially at higher speeds. Among the two parameters, the engine speed resulted to affect more significantly the blow-by trend.
The seismic sequence of November 2019 in Albania culminating with the Mw = 6.4 event of 26 November 2019 was examined from the geodetic (InSAR and GNSS), structural, and historical viewpoints, with some ideas on possible areas of greater hazard. We present accurate estimates of the coseismic displacements using permanent GNSS stations active before and after the sequence, as well as SAR interferograms with Sentinel-1 in ascending and descending mode. When compared with the displacements predicted by a dislocation model on an elastic half space using the moment tensor information of a reverse fault mechanism, the InSAR and GNSS data fit at the mm level provided the hypocentral depth is set to 8 ± 2 km. Next, we examined the elastic stress generated by the Mw = 7.2 Montenegro earthquake of 1979, with the Albania 2019 event as receiver fault, to conclude that the Coulomb stress transfer, at least for the elastic component, was too small to have influenced the 2019 Albania event. A somewhat different picture emerges from the combined elastic deformation resulting after the two (1979 and 2019) events: we investigated the fault geometries where the Coulomb stress is maximized and concluded that the geometry with highest induced Coulomb stress, of the order of ca. 2–3 bar (0.2–0.3 MPa), is that of a vertical, dextral strike slip fault, striking SW to NE. This optimal receiver fault is located between the faults activated in 1979 and 2019, and very closely resembles the Lezhe fault, which marks the transition between the Dinarides and the Albanides.
The increase of waste from electric and electronic equipment has pushed the research towards the development of high sustainability treatments for their exploitation. The end-of-life printed circuit boards (PCBs) represent one of the most significant waste in this class. The interest for these scraps is due to the high Cu and Zn content, with concentrations around 25% and 2% respectively, combined with further precious metals (e.g. Au, Ag, Pd). Currently, the most common approaches developed for PCBs recycling include pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical treatments. On the other hand, biohydrometallurgical strategies are gaining increasing prominence, for the possibility to decrease both the environmental and the economic costs. Nevertheless, these techniques show the main limit due to the possibility to treat low quantities of waste, which makes unsustainable the further scale-up. To overcome this criticality, the present paper introduces an innovative bioleaching process carried out by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (At. ferrooxidans) and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans (L. ferrooxidans). The developed technology allows to reach high PCB concentration, up to 5% (w/v), thanks to a high efficiency two-step design, able to reduce the metal toxicity on the bacteria metabolism. The treatment uses the ferric iron generated by bacterial oxidation, as oxidant, to leach Cu and Zn from PCBs. The possibility to overcome the solid concentration criticality is combined with high yield of 94% and 70% for Cu and Zn, respectively. The best selected conditions involve the At. ferrooxidans bacteria use at: 30 °C, solid concentration of 5% (w/v), 10 g/L of Fe²⁺, time of treatment 9 days. The experimental results are further enhanced by the carbon footprint assessment which proved the environmental advantage, compared to both the reference chemical treatment through ferric iron and literature processes (hydrometallurgical and bioleaching approaches). The analysis explained as the PCBs concentration in the solution allows to decrease the bioreactor size with the consequent reduction of energy and raw material demand. This benefit can be translated into a 4 times reduction of the CO2-eq./kg treated PCB emissions, compared to the best bioleaching processes, reported in the literature.
One of the several losses of a combustion chamber is the gas leakage toward the crankcase due to imperfect sealing of the rings, it is commonly known as blow-by and it affects efficiency and emissions. One important factor affecting it is the distorted cylinder bore. The paper describes the equations that rule the blow-by phenomenon in terms of ring and gas dynamics, subsequently, the bore distortion of the cylinder was obtained and its orders calculated through Fourier series. The ringpack capacity in the distorted bore cylinder was then analysed using ©Ricardo RINGPAK Solver. Order zero distortion resulted to be the most important order due to the highest amount of gas lost in the crankcase. Orders one and two didn’t showed significant differences from the non-distorted bore case, while orders three and four resulted in high blow-by values, even if their magnitude of distortion was lower in comparison to other orders. The ring pack behavior showed to be affected by bore distortion and its magnitude, however, the blow by phenomenon showed to depend also on other factors in a complex manner.
Internal combustion engines are the generators of energy for many transportation applications, but they still have an overall low efficiency due to mechanical and thermal losses. The combustion chamber is the core element of the engine and it ought to be perfectly sealed; however, some of the gas leaks toward the crankcase due to imperfect sealing of the rings. This leakage is known as blow-by and affects efficiency, correct lubrication and emissions. The aim of this paper was to understand, in a more detailed way, how some parameters could affect the sealing efficiency of a ring pack. In particular, ring gaps, ring masses and elastic properties, and ring static twists, were varied from the original and investigated for their influence on the inter-ring dynamics and sealing efficiency. The problem, referred to a turbo diesel engine, was formulated in terms of motion equations for the rings and gas equations for the inter-ring crevices, and solved in ©Ricardo RINGPAK solver. The results were compared with the original design and with the reference literature. These results confirm that ring gaps and ring unstable motion have an important role in the phenomenon of gas blow-by. In addition, the second ring emerged to have a more important role on the blow-by reduction with respect to the top ring. However, this phenomenon is complex due to the interaction of several parameters, not all of which were included in this study. Nevertheless, these findings can already be taken into account for further studies or experimental investigations.
One of the several losses of a combustion chamber is the gas leakage toward the crankcase due to imperfect sealing of the rings. It is commonly known as blow by and it affects efficiency and emissions. The paper initially describes a bibliographic review of the phenomenon, together with the equations of the system. A typical piston ring pack for internal combustion engine is proposed to be analysed and solved using © Ricardo RINGPAK Solver. A specific issue such as Bore distortion orders were used to investigate the sealing capacity of the ring-pack in terms of ring dynamics, inter-ring pressures and mass flows. Bore distortion orders and their magnitude showed to affect the ring pack behavior. Order zero distortion resulted to be the most important order due to the highest amount of gas lost in the crankcase, while orders three and four resulted to generate high blow-by values, even if their magnitude of distortion is lower in comparison to other orders.
Purpose The purpose of this work is to implement an Ambient Intelligence (AmI) testbed in order to improve human sleeping conditions. Design/methodology/approach The implemented testbed is composed of Sensor Node, Sink Node and Actor Node. As Sensor Node, we use Microwave Sensor Module (MSM) called DC6M4JN3000, which emits microwaves in the direction of a human or animal subject. These microwaves reflect back off the surface of the subject and change slightly in accordance with movements of the subject’s heart and lungs. As Sink Node, we use Raspberry Pi 3 Model B computers. In the sink node the data are processed and then clustered by k-means clustering algorithm. Then, the result is sent to Actor Node (Reidan Shiki PAD module), which can be used for cooling and heating the bed. Findings We carried out simulations and experiments. From the simulations results, we found that the room lighting, humidity and temperature have different effects to human during sleeping. The best performance is shown when LIG parameter is 10 units, HUM parameter is 50 and TEM parameter is 25. From experimental results, we found that the implemented AmI testbed gives a good effect to human during sleeping. Research limitations/implications For simulations, we considered three input parameters. It is needed also to investigate new parameters which effect human sleeping conditions. Also, the experiments were carried out for one person. More extensive experiments with many people are needed to have a better evaluation. Originality/value In this research work, we implemented a new fuzzy based system to improve the human sleeping conditions. We presented three new input parameters to evaluate the output (sleeping condition). We implemented and evaluated a testbed and have shown that the implemented AmI testbed gives a good effect to human during sleeping. Thus improving Quality of Life (QoL).
Sulfide-rich tailings are a well-known environmental threat due to their production of acid drainage (AD) and release of potential toxic elements (PTE) to the local environment. The presence of heterogeneous materials produces complex environmental signatures and complicates the quantitative prediction of contamination. The present work provides a method of quantifying such heterogeneities, starting from mineral processing data of the Reps, Mirdita (Albania) site. A quantitative flow sheet (QF) method was applied to a selected dump site of the Mirdita copper mining district where secondary pyrite separation had been used in the past. The site is subject to long-lasting (10³ years) AD processes with significant release of PTE into the local environment. The tailings at the Reps site are divided into two classes based on the sulfide S content, respectively, represented by high-sulfide-content (S > 10 wt%) materials (hS) and low-sulfide-content (S < 3 wt%) material (lS). The reconstruction of the QF allowed us to identify the hS tailings as the discharge of single-flotation processing lines. This material accounts for about 82% of the total potential H2SO4 production, even though it represents < 20% of the entire tailing discard. The QF is a useful tool for the evaluation of heterogeneity and consequently for the modeling of waste management within abandoned sites and in working plants. Given a good quantification, heterogeneity can in fact support the setting of pyrite separation lines or the separate management of pyrite-rich tailing dumps.
This paper is focused on the development, implementation and testing of a semi-automated low cost motorized active 3D slit laser scanning system. The scanner is based on the software platform of the DAVID LaserScanner Vision Systems GmbH's. The authors implemented motorized movements on a CNC milling machine, controlling the systems by the Mach3 CNC software. The authors have combined and personalized different software, mainly low cost or open-source: a specific program was written and compiled for processing; establishing communication between the scanning software (David-Laserscan) and control software/hardware of the milling machine (Mach3) throw two double virtual communication ports.
Nowadays, creating better fitting clothing is a critical issue for garment production industry. More and more people are having problems with garment sizing because of their non-standard clothing sizes. With advancement in technology, automated 3D body scanners can capture the shape and size of a human body in few seconds and further produce its true-to-scale 3D body model. As shown by many authors, this technology is helping solving fit problems, by generating accurate anthropometric data from 3D body scanning. There are various methods used for the 3D measurement of the human body, depicting their differences and characteristics. This paper aims to assess the application of 3D body scanning technology using 2 different scanning systems, Konica Minolta Vivid 910 and David Laser scanner, to human measurement. The qualitative analyses of 3D body models are done using the software packages of Geomagic platform, in way to establish the differences in the scanning techniques. A custom made suit-wear is designed in order to take the perfect garment fit, using the anthropometric measurements taken by 3D body model. Designing the patterns of the suit was done using CAD software Lectra Modaris. The patterns of the garment are sewn together and are viewed in the 3D model for checking garment fit. Accessing 3D scanning technologies will help Albanian garment companies creating competitive advantages by taking accurate body measurements and producing garment with perfect fit for their special target groups.
This paper is focused on the development, implementation and testing of a semi-automated low cost motorized active 3D slit laser scanning system. The scanner is based on the software platform of the DAVID LaserScanner Vision Systems GmbH's. The authors implemented motorized movements on a CNC milling machine, controlling the systems by the Mach3 CNC software. The authors have combined and personalized different software, mainly low cost or open-source: a specific program was written and compiled for processing; establishing communication between the scanning software (David-Laserscan) and control software/hardware of the milling machine (Mach3) throw two double virtual communication ports.
Carbonate turbidite systems are not as well studied as their siliciclastic counterparts, resulting in a lack of knowledge on their vertical and lateral organisation. Thus, a preliminary detailed sedimentological study was undertaken in the upper Cretaceous limestones of Albania, which have been described as brecciated limestones and, more recently, as calciturbidites. The sedimentological study of three outcrops (Piluri, Vanister and Muzina) allows the definition of different lithologies grading from fine- to coarse-grained sequences representing the calciturbidites, intercalated with debris flow deposits and thick slumped levels. The thin-section examination of several facies defined in the field shows a dominance of mud-rich microfacies with variable granulometry, texture (mainly wackestone to packstone and floatstone), and the mixing of bioclastic and lithoclastic grains from both shallow-water (intertidal/infratidal) and deep-water settings (slope/basin). The microfacies description and fauna determination support the gravity origin of these calciclastic limestones. According to previous studies of the Ionian Basin and the surrounding platforms, the upper Cretaceous calciturbidite system could be reasonably linked to regional tectonic instabilities in relation to the beginning of the convergence between the Africa and Eurasian plates. The lateral and vertical organisation of these carbonate gravity deposits favours a depositional model over the apron model and that these deposits were fed by material derived from either the Apulian or the Kruja platform, through faulted shelf breaks.
The Stravaj ophiolite compex, part of the western Mirdita ophiolite belt in Albania, is located east of the Shpati massif, and west of the Shebenik massif. The Stravaj ophiolite sequence itself consist of MOR-related and subduction-related volcanic rocks (Hoeck et al. 2007) formed by pillow lavas and various dykes. The deeper units are formed by gabbros and plagioclase-bearing peridotites. The pillow lavas are intersected by basaltic dykes with a rather primitive composition. The studied basaltic dyke contains former relics of olivine, fresh spinel and clinopyroxene phenocrysts in a glassy groundmass. The silicate phases are strongly altered. The spinets appear as fresh, opaque grains preserved in totally altered olivine phenocrysts. The spinels host negative crystal shaped, multiphase silicate melt inclusions. The inclusions consist commonly of clinopyroxene daughter minerals, glass and rare sulphide blebs. A series of heating experiments were conducted, using the furnace technique to homogenize the silicate melt, in order to obtain homogenized silicate melt inclusions for major and trace element composition analysis and to determine their homogenization temperatures. Therefore, samples were heated to and quenched from 1200 +/- 20 degrees C to 1240 degrees C. The melt inclusions homogenized between 1220-124 +/- 020 degrees C. The major element composition of the homogenized melt inclusions is 48.3-51.2 wt% SiO2, 5.4-6.7 wt% FeO, 9.9-12.6 wt% MgO, 14.5-17.3 wt% Al2O3, 1.9-2.4 wt% Na2O and 12.1-13.0 wt% CaO. This result is highly comparable with the host mafic rock composition. The trace element composition of the homogenized silicate melt shows characteristic LREE-depleted patterns (La: 0.24-0.35 ppm), while the MREF and HREE patterns are generally flat: average PM-normalized La/Lu is 0.094. The average contents of compatible trace elements such as Cr, Ni, V, Co are up to 621 ppm, 825 ppm, 235 ppm and 80 ppm, respectively. Based on the major composition, trace element characteristics and the calculated oxygen fugacity, the studied silicate melt inclusions show strong similarities to MOR-related volcanic rocks found commonly in the Stravaj Massif. These chromite-bearing basalt dykes define extreme primitive MORB related melts in the upper part of the pillow lava section.
The world’s distribution of income, was been an ongoing concern for economists and scholars worldwide. Global income inequalities have also increased. Income inequalities exist for many reasons. Nowadays exist the big gap between the rich and the poor people. What is the definition of poverty? How many people in the world live in poverty? How poverty rates have changed over the last few decades? What is the situation of the poverty in Albania? Because of the global crises the number of the people that live with less than 2$ in days is growing faster than before. The population that are living with the less than 2 $ in day are identify as the bottom of the pyramid. The company cannot ignore the segment of the people that live with the less than 2 $ in day. This segment is becoming to be day by day bigger and to grow fast. For many international companies is important to adapt their strategies and their products to that segment. There are many businesses that do not truly understand the concept of the bottom of the pyramid. Though this market is mistakenly overlooked by many companies, the BOP segment is one that holds great potential for expansion and profits. How companies can be successful in the bottom of the pyramid? The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature on the BOP and put forth a set of principles that distinguish the BOP perspective from other poverty alleviation approaches. Key words: distribution of income, poverty, BOP, marketing
Though capillary sensor networks have the advantage of reporting punctual estimations of their sensed quantity, it is often useful for the nodes to know the overall average value of the same quantity. This is required, for example, when the network can make autonomous decisions. Several algorithms exist for solving the averaging problem in a distributed manner. Their efficiency can be measured by the number of iterations needed to converge to the average sensed value. In this paper, we consider two point-to-point and one point-to-multipoint distributed averaging algorithms that can be seen as variants of the same averaging solution. We define a set of analytical tools to evaluate the performance of these algorithms and to optimize their parameters in such a way to accelerate convergence. We also provide a performance assessment, based on numerical simulations, aimed at verifying the results of the analytical treatment and at comparing the considered schemes.
We examined peridotite massifs in the eastern part of the Mirdita ophiolite (EMO), Albania, where arc-related magmas are abundant in the upper volcanic sequences. Structurally, clinopyroxene porphyroclast-bearing harzburgites (Cpx-harzburgite hereafter) occur in the lower parts of the peridotite massifs, whereas harzburgites and dunites are more abundant towards the upper parts. Dunite is commonly associated with chromitite layers. Orthopyroxenite occurs as dikes and/or networks at all structural levels, although it is more abundant in the uppermost sections. Orthopyroxenite commonly crosscuts the foliation of peridotites and the lithological boundaries between dunites (chromitite) and harzburgites, suggesting that it was formed in the late stage. Major and trace element compositions of minerals in the Cpx-harzburgites indicate that they were formed as the residue of less-flux partial melting, and are similar to those in abyssal peridotites from mid-ocean ridge systems. Harzburgites have more depleted major element compositions than the Cpx-harzburgites. Light rare earth element (LREE)-enrichment in clinopyroxene coupled with hydrous silicate mineral inclusions in spinels in harzburgites indicate that harzburgites were produced as a result of enhanced partial melting of depleted peridotites due to infiltration of hydrous LREE-enriched fluids/melts. Based on olivine and spinel chemistries, dunites are classified into two types: high-Cr# (= Cr/(Cr + Al) atomic ratio) spinel-bearing dunite and medium-Cr# spinel-bearing dunite. Orthopyroxenites formed at the expense of the pre-existing peridotite by reaction with hydrous orthopyroxene-saturated melts, which were produced by assimilation of dissolved pyroxene during the formation of the dunite. Refractory harzburgite, high-Cr# spinel-bearing dunite, and orthopyroxenite may have a genetic link to the late stage boninitic magmas in the crustal section of the EMO. In contrast, the Cpx-harzburgite was a residue related to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) or the “MORB-like” fore-arc basalt recently proposed by Reagan et al. (2010) from the Izu–Bonin–Mariana fore-arc. The medium-Cr# spinel-bearing dunite can be caused by interaction with a melt transitional between MORB-like and boninitic melts. The lithological variations and their relationships in the upper mantle section of the EMO were caused by changes in magmatic compositions from mid-ocean ridge signatures to boninitic magmas, due to an increasing contribution of slab-derived fluids in an island arc setting.
The goal of this chapter is to evaluate the efficiency of three versions of the well known gossip algorithm, namely: basic gossip, push-sum and broadcast, for the distributed solution of averaging problems. The main focus is on the impact of link failures that, reducing the network connectivity, decrease the convergence speed. As a similar effect occurs in non-fully-meshed networks, because of a limited coverage radius of the nodes, a comparison is made between these two scenarios. The considered algorithms can require optimization of some share factors; to this purpose, we resort to simulations, but the conclusions achieved are confirmed through analytical arguments, exploiting the concept of potential function.
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815 members
Bashkim Mal Lushaj
  • Department of Hydrology
Nevton Kodhelaj
  • Department of Energy Resources
Elson Agastra
  • Department of Electronics and Telecommunications
Altin Dorri
  • Department of Energy
Shkelzen Cakaj
  • Faculty of Information Technology
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Prof. Andrea Maliqari
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