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- SourceAvailable from: Fatima Bendella[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this paper we present an Agent-based evaluation approach in a context of Multi-agent simulation learning systems. Our evaluation model is based on a two stage assessment approach: (1) a Distributed skill evaluation combining agents and fuzzy sets theory; and (2) a Negotiation based evaluation of students’ performance during a training simulation or a Problem-solving process in a Computer-assisted learning system. This paper highlights how this approach deals with the problem of subjective evaluation of students, and shows the impact of Negotiated skills evaluation on reducing the students’ rate of dropout. This approach can also compensate the absence of human expert for assessing training results. Applied to training in plant protection, experiments\' results showed first the fuzzy sets based assessment to be similar to the domain expert’s assessment and second the negotiated skills assessment to be effective in assessing students’ abilities and sustaining students’ motivation to continue learning. This evaluation approach allows us to address the problem of subjective assessment and overcome some difficulties encountered in traditional measurement models.
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ABSTRACT: The anatomical and histochemical study of young and adult endocarps of Argania spinosa (sampled from Tindouf; Algeria) shows a general structure that is similar to that of majority of stone fruits. These samples consist of tissues that contain lignified and cellulosic cell walls. The majority of the tissues are composed of sclerenchyma cells; with very thick lignified cell walls and conducting tissues. Coniferyl lignins are abundant in the majority of the lignified tissues. However, the coniferyl lignins appear at the primary xylem during lignification. Syringyl lignins are present in small quantities. The electron microscopy observation of the sclerenchyma cell walls of the young endocarp shows polylamellate strates and, cellular microfibrils in arced patterns. This architecture is observed in the cell walls of the adult endocarp only after the incubation of the tissue in methylamine. These configurations (arcs) are the result of a regular and complete rotation with a 180° variation in the microfibril angle; the complete and symmetrical arcs show a helicoidal mode of construction. The observation of the sclerenchyma cells revealed the capacity of helicoidal morphogenesis to adjust itself under the influence of topological constraints, such as the presence of a large number of pit canals, which maintain symplastic transport.
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, the influence of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and shear rate on rheological properties of bentonite suspensions is studied. The model of Herschel–Bulkley which is used to fit the flow curves of the mixture which based on the bentonite-polyethylene oxide and the Generalized Kelvin–Voigt model has been successfully applied to fit the creep and recovery data and to analyze the viscoelastic properties of mixture. The addition of polyethylene oxide (PEO) in a concentration range between 0 and 2% in 4% of bentonite induces not only an increase of the yield stress and the consistency index of bentonite but also a decrease of the flow index of bentonite. It is also the addition of PEO between 0 and 2% to 4% that may cause an increase in the viscoelastic properties of bentonite. For constant shear rate applied on the 4% bentonite at the 20 °C in which a thixotropic behavior was observed and analyzed by using a modified model of Herschel–Bulkley a structural parameter λ is included in order to account for time dependent effect.
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