ABO blood type has been reported as a potential factor influencing SARS-CoV-2 infection, but so far mostly in studies that involved small samples, selected population and/or used PCR test results. In contrast our study aimed to assess the association between ABO blood types and SARS-CoV-2 infection using seroprevalence data (independent of whether or not individuals had symptoms or sought for testing) in a large population-based sample. Our study included 67,340 French participants to the SAPRIS-SERO multi-cohort project. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected using ELISA (targeting the proteins spike (S) and nucleocapsid (NP)) and seroneutralisation (SN) tests on dried blood spots collected in May–November 2020. Non-O individuals (and especially types A and AB) were more likely to bear anti SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (ELISA-S, 2964 positive cases: OR non-Ovs.O = 1.09[1.01–1.17], OR Avs.O = 1.08[1.00–1.17]; ELISA-S/ELISA-NP/SN, 678 triple positive cases: OR non-Ovs.O = 1.19 [1.02–1.39], OR Avs.O = 1.19[1.01–1.41], OR ABvs.O = 1.43[1.01–2.03]). Hence, our results provided additional insights into the dynamic of SARS-CoV-2 infection, highlighting a higher susceptibility of infection for individuals of blood types A and AB and a lesser risk for blood type O.
Formyl peptide receptor-1 (FPR1) is a pathogen recognition receptor involved in the detection of bacteria, in the control of inflammation, as well as in cancer immunosurveillance. A single nucleotide polymorphism in FPR1, rs867228, provokes a loss-of-function phenotype. In a bioinformatic study performed on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we observed that homo-or heterozygosity for rs867228 in FPR1 (which affects approximately one-third of the population across continents) accelerates age at diagnosis of specific carcinomas including luminal B breast cancer by 4.9 years. To validate this finding, we genotyped 215 patients with metastatic luminal B mammary carcinomas from the SNPs To Risk of Metastasis (SToRM) cohort. The first diagnosis of luminal B breast cancer occurred at an age of 49.2 years for individuals bearing the dysfunctional TT or TG alleles (n = 73) and 55.5 years for patients the functional GG alleles (n = 141), meaning that rs867228 accelerated the age of diagnosis by 6.3 years (p=0.0077, Mann & Whitney). These results confirm our original observation in an independent validation cohort. We speculate that it may be useful to include the detection of rs867228 in breast cancer screening campaigns for selectively increasing the frequency and stringency of examinations starting at a relatively young age.
We develop a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the macroeconomic impacts of water scarcity and water (in)security in South Africa. The CGE model which includes a detailed representation of water resources (surface water, groundwater, wastewater, and seawater) has been calibrated with an updated social accounting matrix enabling to conduct policy simulations up to 2030. With the 17% expected increase of water scarcity (population growth, climate change, and poor management of water resources), the CGE model predicts a decrease of South African GDP by −0.44% in 2030. The long-term impact of water scarcity varies from one sector to another, the most negatively impacted sectors being those related to water. Due to water scarcity, unemployment will increase in the short term by 0.76%. In the long term (2030), unemployment is however expected to recover its baseline level. The increase in water scarcity is also predicted to have a negative impact on household welfare, household consumption being reduced by −0.47% in 2030. A particular concern for policy-makers might be that low-income households are expected to be more impacted by water scarcity than high-income households. Some policies may mitigate the negative impacts of water scarcity, the most promising ones being to promote water saving and to decrease non-revenue water.
Background Termites are among the most successful insects on Earth and can feed on a broad range of organic matter at various stages of decomposition. The termite gut system is often referred to as a micro-reactor and is a complex structure consisting of several components. It includes the host, its gut microbiome and fungal gardens, in the case of fungi-growing higher termites. The digestive tract of soil-feeding higher termites is characterised by radial and axial gradients of physicochemical parameters (e.g. pH, O2 and H2 partial pressure), and also differs in the density and structure of residing microbial communities. Although soil-feeding termites account for 60% of the known termite species, their biomass degradation strategies are far less known compared to their wood-feeding counterparts. Results In this work, we applied an integrative multi-omics approach for the first time at the holobiont level to study the highly compartmentalised gut system of the soil-feeding higher termite Labiotermes labralis. We relied on 16S rRNA gene community profiling, metagenomics and (meta)transcriptomics to uncover the distribution of functional roles, in particular those related to carbohydrate hydrolysis, across different gut compartments and among the members of the bacterial community and the host itself. We showed that the Labiotermes gut was dominated by members of the Firmicutes phylum, whose abundance gradually decreased towards the posterior segments of the hindgut, in favour of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Contrary to expectations, we observed that L. labralis gut microbes expressed a high diversity of carbohydrate active enzymes involved in cellulose and hemicelluloses degradation, making the soil-feeding termite gut a unique reservoir of lignocellulolytic enzymes with considerable biotechnological potential. We also evidenced that the host cellulases have different phylogenetic origins and structures, which is possibly translated into their different specificities towards cellulose. From an ecological perspective, we could speculate that the capacity to feed on distinct polymorphs of cellulose retained in soil might have enabled this termite species to widely colonise the different habitats of the Amazon basin. Conclusions Our study provides interesting insights into the distribution of the hydrolytic potential of the highly compartmentalised higher termite gut. The large number of expressed enzymes targeting the different lignocellulose components make the Labiotermes worker gut a relevant lignocellulose-valorising model to mimic by biomass conversion industries.
Background Mechanisms underlying the associations between changes in the urban environment and changes in health-related outcomes are complex and their study requires specific approaches. We describe the protocol of the interdisciplinary UrbASanté study, which aims to explore how urban interventions can modify environmental exposures (built, social, and food environments; air quality; noise), health-related behaviors, and self-reported health using a natural experiment approach. Methods The study is based on a natural experiment design using a before/after protocol with a control group to assess changes in environmental exposures, health-risk behaviors, and self-reported health outcomes of a resident adult population before and after the implementation of a time series of urban interventions in four contiguous neighborhoods in Paris (France). The changes in environmental exposures, health-related behaviors, and self-reported health outcomes of a resident adult population will be concurrently monitored in both intervention and control areas. We will develop a mixed-method framework combining substantial fieldwork with quantitative and qualitative analytical approaches. This study will make use of (i) data relating to exposures and health-related outcomes among all participants and in subsamples and (ii) interviews with residents regarding their perceptions of their neighborhoods and with key stakeholders regarding the urban change processing, and (iii) existing geodatabases and field observations to characterize the built, social, and food environments. The data collected will be analyzed with a focus on interrelationships between environmental exposures and health-related outcomes using appropriate approaches (e.g., interrupted time series, difference–in-differences method). Discussion Relying on a natural experiment approach, the research will provide new insights regarding issues such as close collaboration with urban/local stakeholders, recruitment and follow-up of participants, identification of control and intervention areas, timing of the planned urban interventions, and comparison of subjective and objective measurements. Through the collaborative work of a consortium ensuring complementarity between researchers from different disciplines and stakeholders, the UrbASanté study will provide evidence-based guidance for designing future urban planning and public health policies. Trial registration This research was registered at the ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT05743257).
This paper introduces and discusses Occitan sociolinguistics as it evolved from the 1970s onward as a theory of language contact as conflict. It was developed in conjunction with its Catalan counterpart and as a reaction to Joshua Fishman's allocational model of diglossia, and came as a response to conditions of swift social and linguistic change in Southern France after the Second World War. This model, proposed mainly at first by Robèrt Lafont in Montpelhièr, is strongly materialist in that it focuses on the material conditions of language production and replaces the language movement among other social struggles. This paper first explores the roots of the contemporary Occitan movement and its links with the birth of Occitan sociolinguistics. It then analyzes key concepts in Occitan sociolinguistics such as diglossic ideology as essential to understand processes of minoritization, linguistic alienation, and social domination. Finally, it looks at how this approach conceptualizes language revitalization not as a linguistic issue but as a social one and suggests that Occitan sociolinguistics provides an alternative to models of language loss and revival rooted in cultural and identity politics. Aquest article presenta e discutís la sociolingüistica occitana tala coma fuguèt concebuda despuei leis annadas 1970 coma teoria dau contact lingüistic coma conflict. Se desvolopèt cotria amb la sociolingüistica catalana coma una reaccion au modèl alocacional de Joshua Fishman e venguèt coma una respònsa occitanista ai condicions socialas dei cambiaments sociaus e lingüistics rapids en Occitània après la fin de la seconda guerra mondiala. Aqueu modèl, prepausat mai que mai a l'origina per Robèrt Lafont a Montpelhier, is prefondament materialist en çò que se concentra sus lei condicions materialas dei produccions lengatgieras e plaça lo moviment lingüistic entre leis autrei mobilizacions socialas. Aquest article ramenta primièr lei rasigas dau moviment occitan actuau e sei liames amb la naissença de la sociolingüistica occitana. Passa puei a l'analisi de concèpts claus coma aqueu d'ideologia diglossica coma una part centrala de la comprension dei procès de minorizacion, d'alienacion lingüistica e de dominacion sociala. Acaba amb la question de la revitalizacion de la lenga non coma question lingüistica mai coma problèma sociau, e suggesís que la sociolingüistica occitana porgís d'alternativas ai modèls analitics e explicatius basats sus la cultura e l'identitat.
Rationale: The administration of glucocorticoids (GC) as an adjunct to exposure represents a promising strategy to improve one-session exposure outcome in anxiety disorders. It remains to be determined whether similar effects can be induced with the use of acute stress. Furthermore, the possible modulation of exposure effects by hormonal factors (e.g., use of oral contraceptives (OCs)) was not explored so far. Objectives: We investigated whether acute stress prior to one-session exposure for spider fear affects its efficacy in women using oral contraceptives (OC) relative to free-cycling (FC) women. In addition, effects of stress on generalization of exposure therapy effects towards untreated stimuli were examined. Methods: Women with fears of spiders and cockroaches were randomly assigned to a Stress (n = 24) or No-Stress (n = 24) condition prior to one-session exposure. Of these 48 participants, 19 women used OC (n = 9 in the Stress, and n = 10 in the No-Stress group). All FC women had a regular menstrual cycle and were tested only in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Pre-exposure stress induction was realized with the socially evaluated cold-pressor test. Exposure-induced changes towards treated and untreated fear stimuli were tested with behavioral approach tests for spiders and cockroaches and subjective fear and self-report measures. Results: Acute stress did not influence exposure-induced reduction in fear and avoidance of the treated stimuli (spiders). Similarly, stress had no effect on the generalization of exposure-therapy effects towards untreated stimuli (cockroaches). Exposure-induced reduction in subjective fear and self-report measures for treated stimuli was less evident in women using OC specifically after pre-exposure stress. Women using OC had higher levels of subjective fear and scored higher in self-report measures at post-treatment (24 h after exposure) and follow-up (4 weeks after exposure). Conclusions: OC intake may represent an important confounding factor in augmentation studies using stress or GC.
This paper discusses the problem of control laws for Discrete Event Dynamic Systems (DEDSs) represented by Timed Event Graphs (TEGs) under Generalized Marking Constraints (GMCs). The behaviour of TEGs is described using linear equations while GMCs are expressed by weighted inequalities in Min-Plus algebra. We formulate the problem in terms of control linear Min-Plus models. Hence, an algebraic method to calculate control laws ensuring the respect of GMCs is suggested. And once sufficient conditions are satisfied, we propose casual feedbacks to guarantee these marking specifications. Besides, the proposed control strategy is applied to a dual-armed cluster tool, a well-known industrial application.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis D virus (HDV) coinfection confers a greater risk for accelerated liver disease progression. Full-length characterization of HDV genome is necessary to understand pathogenesis and treatment response. However, owing to its high variability and tight structure, sequencing approaches remain challenging. Herein, we present a workflow to amplify, sequence and analyze the whole HDV genome in a single fragment. Sequencing was based on the Oxford Nanopore Technologies long-read sequencing followed by a turnkey analysis pipeline (VIRiONT, VIRal in-house ONT sequencing analysis pipeline) that we developed and make available online for free. For the first time, HDV genome was successfully amplified and full-length sequenced in a single fragment, allowing accurate subtyping from 30 clinical samples. High variability of edition, a crucial step in viral life cycle, was found among samples (from 0 to 59%). Additionally, a new subtype of HDV genotype 1 was identified. We provide a complete workflow for assessment of HDV genome at full-length quasispecies resolution overcoming genome assembly issues and helping to identify modifications throughout the whole genome. This will help a better understanding of the impact of genotype/subtype, viral dynamics and structural variants on HDV pathogenesis and treatment response. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Purpose We studied to what extent plant-based meat substitutes could improve the nutritional adequacy and healthiness of dietary patterns, depending on their nutrient composition. Methods From diets observed in French adults (INCA3, n = 1125), modeled diets were identified by allowing various dietary changes, between and within food categories, when two plant-based meat substitutes were made available: an average substitute (from 43 market substitutes) and a theoretical nutritionally designed substitute, fortified or not with zinc and iron at 30% or 50% of Nutrient Reference Values. Under each scenario, healthier but acceptable modeled diets were identified using multi-criteria optimization, by maximizing a health criteria related to Dietary Guidelines while minimizing deviation from the observed diets, under constraints for nutrient adequacy. Results Without fortification, the average substitute was hardly introduced into modeled diets, whereas the optimized substitute was preferentially introduced, in large amounts, yet together with a moderate reduction of red meat (− 20%). The comparative advantages of the optimized substitute were its higher contribution to vitamins B6 and C, fiber and α-linolenic acid (ALA) intakes, and its lower contribution to sodium intake. When fortified with iron and zinc, substitutes were introduced in larger amounts into modeled diets, with much higher red meat reductions (down to − 90%). The optimized substitute continued to be preferred, leading to healthier modeled diets that deviated less from the observed. Conclusion Plant-based meat substitutes can be levers for healthy diets only when well nutritionally designed with enough zinc and iron for a substantial red meat reduction.
Among the molecular subgroups of interest in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), innovations are underway for tumors with overexpression of HER2 (Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2). Overexpression of the HER2 protein concerns 2 to 5% of CRC at any stage mainly located in the distal colon and rectum. Diagnosis is based on immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization with appropriate criteria for colorectal localization, and molecular biology (NGS: next-generation sequencing). Overexpression of HER2 is a predictive factor for resistance to treatments targeting EGFR which are indicated in the case where the tumor is wild-type RAS. It seems to be associated with a poor prognosis of mCRC with a higher risk of brain metastasis. Regarding treatments targeting HER2, no randomized controlled phase III has been published to date. However, several combinations have been evaluated in phase II with clinically meaningful objective response rates: trastuzumab-deruxtecan (45%), trastuzumab-tucatinib (46%), trastuzumab-pyrotinib (45%), trastuzumab-pertuzumab (30%) ou trastuzumab-lapatinib (30%). In this literature review, we present here the current state of knowledge on the diagnostic methods of HER2 overexpression in CRC, the main clinical, molecular and prognostic characteristics, and the efficacy results of the different therapeutic combinations for the patients with HER2 overexpressed mCRC. This justifies, despite the lack of marketing authorization in France and in Europe for agents targeting HER2 in CRC, the systematic evaluation of the HER2 status, as recommended in particular by the NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network).
Capricious environments often present wild animals with challenges that coincide or occur in sequence. Conceptual models of the stress response predict that one threat may prime or dampen the response to another. Although evidence has supported this for glucocorticoid responses, much less is known about the effects of previous challenges on energy mobilization. Food limitation may have a particularly important effect, by altering the ability to mobilize energy when faced with a subsequent challenge. We tested the prediction that challenging weather conditions, which reduce food availability, alter the energetic response to a subsequent acute challenge (capture and restraint). Using a three-year dataset from female tree swallows measured during three substages of breeding, we used a model comparison approach to test if weather (temperature, wind speed, and precipitation) over 3- or 72-hour timescales predicted baseline and post-restraint glucose levels, and if so which environmental factors were the strongest predictors. Contrary to our predictions, weather conditions did not affect baseline glucose; however, birds that had experienced lower temperatures over the preceding 72 h tended to have higher stress-induced glucose when faced with an acute stressor. We also saw some support for an effect of rainfall on stress-induced glucose: around the time that eggs hatched, birds that had experienced more rainfall over the preceding 72 h mounted lower responses. Overall, we find support in a wild animal for the idea that the glucose stress response may be primed by exposure to prior challenges.
A higher burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors has been reported in sexual minority populations (SM), such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and non-heterosexual, compared to heterosexual populations. Therefore, primordial prevention, i.e., preventing risk factor onset in the first place, may be a relevant preventative strategy in this population. This study aimed to quantify the associations of SM status in each sex with Life’s Simple 7 (LS7) and Life’s Essential 8 (LE8) cardiovascular health (CVH) scores. The CONSTANCES study is a multicentric study that recruited randomly selected adults in 24 health examination centers in 21 cities in the French European territory. Sexual minority status was based on self-reported lifetime sexual behavior and categorized as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or heterosexual. The study included 169,434 CVD-free participants (53.64% women, mean age: 46.00 years). Among 90879 women, 555 were lesbian, 3149 bisexual, and 84363 heterosexual. Among 78555 men, 2421 were gay, 2748 bisexual, and 70994 heterosexual. Overall, 2812 women and 2392 men declined to answer. In women, the prevalence of high LS7 scores (12-14) ranged from 9.00% (declined to answer) to 12.38% (bisexual), whereas in men, it ranged from 4.06% (declined to answer) to 9.17% (gay). In multivariate analyses (Table 1), lesbian and bisexual women had lower LS7 score compared to heterosexual women. However, this was observed only among those who had never been pregnant (p for interaction <0.05). Conversely, gay and bisexual men living in urban areas had higher LS7 score compared to heterosexual men, while those living in rural areas had lower LS7 score than their heterosexual counterparts (p for interaction <0.05). Findings were consistent when using the LE8 score but with stronger effect sizes (Table 1). This study supports the presence of CVH disparities in sexual minority adults and may help identify vulnerable populations for prioritizing primordial CVD prevention.
Background: The main objective of this study was to assess the association between age and physical fitness and motor fitness components according to BMI levels, in men and women separately, and to test if this association is different between BMI levels. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on a pre-existing database from the DiagnoHealth battery, a French series of physical fitness and motor fitness tests designed by the Institut des Rencontres de la Forme (IRFO; Wattignies, France). Analyses were perfomed on 6830 women (65.8%) and 3356 men (34.2%) aged from 50 to 80 years. In this French series several physical fitness and motor fitness components were measured: cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), speed, upper muscular endurance, lower muscular endurance, lower body muscular strengh, agility, balance, and flexibility. From the results of these tests, a specific score named Quotient of Physical Condition was calculated. Associations between age and physical fitness and motor fitness components according to BMI levels were modelized using linear regression for quantitative components, and ordinal logistic regression for ordinal components. Analyses were performed separately for women and men. Results: A significant association of age with physical fitness and motor fitness performance in each BMI levels were observed in women except for lower muscular endurance, muscular strength and flexibility in obese women. A significant association of age with physical fitness and motor fitness performance in each BMI levels were observed in men except for upper/lower muscular endurance and flexibility in obese men. Conclusions: The present results shown that most of physical fitness and motor fitness decrease with age in women and men. Lower muscular endurance, muscular strength and flexibility did not change in obese women, thereas upper/lower muscular endurance and flexibility did not change in obese men. This finding is particularly revelant for guiding prevention strategies for maintaining physical fitness and motor fitness performance, which is one of the most important component of healthy aging and wellbeing.
This volume provides an innovative approach to the referential process thanks to its focus on the relationship between conventions and discourse pragmatics. It brings together a cross-section of current research on referential conventions and pragmatic strategies, in a number of different fields (formal and theoretical linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, psycholinguistics, interactional linguistics, natural language processing), in a variety of verbal and non-verbal languages (English, German, different varieties of French, Indonesian, Belgian sign language) and in a diversity of contexts (the coining of names, language acquisition, second language learning, and various genres such as news articles, narratives, satire or game playing). The volume is meant as a series of thought-provoking studies which place speakers and addressees at the core of the referential act, thus providing evidence on how they negotiate and adjust, depending on the context.
Politeness and impoliteness are not just expressed by words. People communicate polite and impolite attitudes towards each other through their intonation, tone of voice, their facial expressions, their gestures, the positioning of their bodies towards each other, and so on. This volume brings together eleven empirical studies that investigate these various modalities of im/politeness across signed, spoken and written languages, plus a detailed introductory chapter that establishes a framework for the multimodal investigation of im/politeness. The papers cover a range of languages and cultures, including Swiss German Sign Language, Catalan Sign Language, English (as a native language and as a lingua franca), Korean, Catalan, Persian, Japanese and Spanish. Using a range of data sources and state-of-the art methodologies, the papers reveal that these multimodal features are essential aspects of im/politeness across different languages, cultures and modes of interaction. Put together, the findings from these studies lay the groundwork for a new understanding of im/politeness which is fundamentally multimodal.
The soil-feeding habit is an evolutionary novelty found in some advanced groups of termites. The study of such groups is important to revealing interesting adaptations to this way-of-life. The genus Verrucositermes is one such example, characterized by peculiar outgrowths on the head capsule, antennae and maxillary palps, which are not found in any other termite. These structures have been hypothesized to be linked to the presence of a new exocrine organ, the rostral gland, whose structure has remained unexplored. We have thus studied the ultrastructure of the epidermal layer of the head capsule of Verrucositermes tuberosus soldiers. We describe the ultrastructure of the rostral gland, which consists of class 3 secretory cells only. The dominant secretory organelles comprise rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, which provide secretions delivered to the surface of the head, likely made of peptide-derived components of unclear function. We discuss a possible role of the rostral gland of soldiers as an adaptation to the frequent encounter with soil pathogens during search for new food resources.
Background and purpose: Intracranial aneurysms are frequent in patients with sickle cell anemia, while subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major cause of death and disability in young adult patients. Several characteristics, such as younger age and smaller size at rupture, may incline therapeutic decision towards exclusion treatments. Clinical guidelines on treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in this population are still missing. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysm in patients with sickle cell anemia, using an adapted hematological preparation regimen. Patients and methods: Adult patients with sickle cell anemia and treated unruptured aneurysms by endovascular therapy or neurosurgery were included in this retrospective cohort study. Treatment decision was reached after multi-disciplinary assessment. A pre-operative blood transfusion protocol was undertaken targeting a HbS below 30%. Demographic data, hematological preparation parameters and clinical and radiological outcomes were documented. Results and conclusions: Twenty-five procedures were performed in 18 patients encompassing 19 aneurysms treated by embolization and 6 by surgery. Median age at treatment was 34 years-old and median aneurysm dome size was 4.4 mm. Immediate aneurysm exclusion rate was 85.7% after endovascular therapy and 100% after neurosurgery. Median follow-up was 6 months, with all patients being asymptomatic at last follow-up. Two transitory ischemic neurological deficits, as well as four cases of iodine-induced encephalopathy were identified after embolization. No complication occurred after surgery. Endovascular therapy by coiling and neurosurgical treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms appears to be safe in patients with sickle cell anemia and should be considered given the specific hemorrhagic risk observed in this population. A rigorous hematological preparation, associated with a dedicated peri-operative protocol and an adequate therapeutic strategy are essential prerequisites.
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