Seaweed surface provides a suitable substratum for the settlement of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, and plankton). These microbial partners may have either beneficial or detrimental effects on the host since surface microbiota can act either as a protective layer to the macroalgae (symbiotic beneficial relations) or, under changing environmental conditions, the microbial equilibrium may shift to a detrimental, pathogenic state thus inducing diseases in the host. In commercial aquaculture, seaweed diseases feature a growing concern. Pathogenicity of microorganisms that infect algal hosts is closely related to the release of virulence factors and the formation of biofilms, both of which are regulated by Quorum Sensing (QS). The main focus of this study is to determine the pathogenicity of the surface-associated bacteria of Halymenia floresii, a carrageenophyte that originated from distinct habitats. Twenty-five bacterial species isolated from the surface of H. floresii were individually tested for tip bleaching assay to evaluate their potential pathogenicity. Ten isolates significantly reduced the risk of tip bleaching in H. floresii and were designated as ‘significantly non-pathogenic’. Vibrio owensii was identified as a ‘significant pathogen’ inducing bleaching disease in H. floresii. By using LC-MS, we here identified its HomoSerine Lactones (HSL) QS signal, as a C4-HSL (short-chain). This study thus suggests a possible involvement of QS signal (short-chain) in the disease-inducing bacterium from the aquaculture ponds (an integrated multitrophic aquaculture system). This study firstly reports on the surface-associated bacteria of a lambda-carrageenophyte. This study must contribute to the development of dedicated strategies for disease control based on HSL disruption in aquaculture. Keywords: Halymenia floresii, lambda-carrageenophyte, Vibrio owensii, bleaching, Quorum Sensing, homoserine lactones, LC-MS
The use of digital technology is increasing rapidly across surgical specialities, yet there is no consensus for the term ‘digital surgery’. This is critical as digital health technologies present technical, governance, and legal challenges which are unique to the surgeon and surgical patient. We aim to define the term digital surgery and the ethical issues surrounding its clinical application, and to identify barriers and research goals for future practice. 38 international experts, across the fields of surgery, AI, industry, law, ethics and policy, participated in a four-round Delphi exercise. Issues were generated by an expert panel and public panel through a scoping questionnaire around key themes identified from the literature and voted upon in two subsequent questionnaire rounds. Consensus was defined if >70% of the panel deemed the statement important and <30% unimportant. A final online meeting was held to discuss consensus statements. The definition of digital surgery as the use of technology for the enhancement of preoperative planning, surgical performance, therapeutic support, or training, to improve outcomes and reduce harm achieved 100% consensus agreement. We highlight key ethical issues concerning data, privacy, confidentiality and public trust, consent, law, litigation and liability, and commercial partnerships within digital surgery and identify barriers and research goals for future practice. Developers and users of digital surgery must not only have an awareness of the ethical issues surrounding digital applications in healthcare, but also the ethical considerations unique to digital surgery. Future research into these issues must involve all digital surgery stakeholders including patients.
Background A bedside screening tool of swallowing dysfunction (SD) (BSSD) after extubation would be useful to identify patients who are at risk of SD. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of our BSSD in comparison with fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in critically ill patients after extubation. Methods We conducted a 1-year prospective monocentric study to evaluate the accuracy of our BSSD to diagnose SD following endotracheal intubation in comparison with FEES (gold standard). Patients intubated for longer than 48 h were included. Both tests were assessed within 24 h after extubation. Primary endpoint was the accuracy of the BSSD. Secondary endpoint was to assess risk factors of SD. Results Seventy-nine patients were included in the study. Thirty-three patients (42%) presented with a SD. The BSSD showed a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI 0.72–0.97) and a specificity of 91% (95% CI 0.79–0.98), a positive predictive value of 88% (95% CI 0.72–0.97) and a negative predictive value of 91% (95% CI 0.79–0.97). The AUC reached 0.83 (95% CI 0.74–0.92). Conclusion Our study describes an accurate clinical screening tool to detect SD after extubation in critically ill patients. Screening-positive cases should be confirmed by instrumental tests, ideally using FEES.
Dilemmas related to the use of environmental resources concern diverse populations at local or global scales. Frequently, individuals are unable to visualize the consequences of their actions, where they belong in the decision-making line, and have no information about past choices or the time horizon. We design a new one-shot extraction game to capture these dynamic decisions. We present results from a nationwide common pool resource experiment, conducted simultaneously in eleven French cities, involving a total of 2813 participants. We examine, for the first time, the simultaneous impact of several variables on the amount of resource extracted: the local vs. the national scale of the resource, the size of the group (small vs. big), the low vs. high recovery rate of the resource, and the available information. We show that individuals significantly reduce extraction levels in local as compared to national level dilemmas and that providing recommendations on sustainable extraction amounts significantly improves the sustainability of the resource. Overall, women extract significantly less, but care more about preserving the local resource; older participants extract significantly more resources but extract less from the national resource. Our experiment also fulfills a science popularization pedagogical aim, which we discuss.
Based on Hunt and Vitell’s theory of ethics, using three vignettes, we tested intrinsic and extrinsic religiosities and five ethical principles (justice, deontology, relativism, egoism, and utilitarianism) in the ethical decision-making process of 232 Indian business professionals. Intrinsic religiosity is positively related to ethical recognition and intent and extrinsic religiosity is negatively related to ethical intent in the vignette concerning duty of care. Although intrinsic religiosity predicted justice, deontology and relativism in three vignettes, it is also positively related to utilitarianism in one vignette. Egoism is not related to intrinsic and extrinsic religiosities. Extrinsic religiosity is negatively related to justice (one vignette), deontology (two vignettes), relativism (two vignettes) and utilitarianism (one vignette). Moreover, the intrinsic religiosity-ethical recognition and extrinsic religiosity-ethical intent relationships are varyingly mediated by the ethical principles. We extend Hunt and Vitell’s theory in a multi-faith context and our findings have implications for Indian business leaders and employees.
Urbanization and agricultural intensification are the main drivers of biodiversity losses through multiple stressors, especially habitat fragmentation, isolation and loss. Designing Blue and Green Infrastructure Networks (BGIN) has been recommended as a potential tool for land-use planning to increase ecosystem services while preserving biodiversity. All municipalities in France are required to perform BGIN planning. This article focuses on the Couesnon watershed (Brittany, France) and the participatory process used to define and analyze five possible pathways of future land-use and land-cover changes that included implementation of BGINs. Impacts on biodiversity were estimated by quantifying the change in landscape connectivity of woodlands, grasslands and wetlands. The effectiveness of BGIN policies was assessed by comparing current landscape connectivity (2018) to those in possible futures. Landscape connectivity referred to functional connectivity for three indicator species (Abax parallelepipedus, Maniola jurtina and Arvicola sapidus) across three landscape features: woodlands, grasslands and wetlands, respectively. Results allowed impacts of urban and agricultural land-use changes to be identified in terms of extent and quality. If BGIN policies were applied effectively to control the expansion of gray infrastructure, they would help increase the area and the quality of grassland and woodland connectivity by no more than 2%. Agricultural land-use and land-cover changes could have more impact on the extent of grassland (−82% to +38%) and wetland (−49% to +47%) connectivity. Current and future trends for hedgerows implied a decrease in woodland connectivity of 9.8–33.8%. Impacts on the quality of landscape connectivity is not proportional with the extent, as a decrease of the latter can have relatively more negative impacts on the former, and inversely. The study highlights that the BGIN strategy can preserve landscape connectivity effectively in urban ecosystems, where human density is higher, but can be threatened by agricultural intensification.
We present a structural and metamorphic study of the Abitibi greenstone belt (AGB) and Opatica Plutonic Belt (OPB) of the Archean Superior Province. The AGB-OPB contact is considered as an archetype example of Archean subduction, based on a LITHOPROBE seismic profile showing a North-dipping lithospheric-scale reflector interpreted as the vestige of subduction. Our mapping indicates that the AGB overlies the OPB, and that the AGB-OPB contact does not show evidence of significant shear deformation, as expected for a major upper plate-lower plate boundary. There is no metamorphic break at the AGB-OPB transition but rather a progressive increase of metamorphic grade toward the OPB. Therefore, we think that the OPB simply exposes the deepest part of a composite AGB-OPB sequence. ⁴⁰Ar/³⁹Ar ages suggest that the AGB and OPB rocks were exhumed from amphibolite-facies conditions at ∼ 2678 Ma and ∼ 2668 Ma, respectively, and then that both terranes share the same succession of thermal disturbances at c. 2650 Ma and 2600 Ma, the latter corresponding to shearing along the Nottaway River Shear Zone. We suggest that progressive cooling of both assemblages was accompanied by strain localisation along strike-slip shear zones and occurred when lateral flow of the lower crust became predominant over the convective overturn and vertical crustal material transfer. Comparison with adjacent areas suggests that regional metamorphism has been coeval over a large region, which is consistent with pervasive deformation and slow cooling as expected for vertical tectonic models and diapiric magmagenesis and ascent during the Archean.
Background: Neonatal hypothyroidism is often raised as a potential concern for the use of Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA) in pregnant women with suspected PE. Objectives: To assess the incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism among newborns from mothers exposed to CTPA. Patients/methods: Pregnant women with clinically suspected PE, included in a multicentre multinational prospective diagnostic management outcome study, based on pretest clinical probability assessment, high-sensitivity D-dimer testing, bilateral lower limb venous compression ultrasonography, and computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Results of the Guthrie tests were systematically collected for newborns of all women who required CTPA as part of the diagnostic strategy. A TSH level above 15 U/ml was used to define hypothyroidism. Results: Out of the 166 women included in the Swiss participating centers, 149 underwent a CTPA including 14 with twin pregnancies. Eight women suffered a pregnancy loss and results of the Guthrie could not be retrieved for 4 newborns. All TSH levels were reported as being below 15 U/ml. The incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism was 0/151 (0.0%, 95% CI: 0.0-2.5%). Conclusions: We did not identify any case of neonatal hypothyroidism in our cohort of 149 pregnant women investigated for suspected PE using a CTPA. Along with previous literature data, this provides further reassuring data regarding the use of CTPA in this indication.
Heterokaryosis is a system in which genetically distinct nuclei coexist within the same cytoplasm. While heterokaryosis dominates the life cycle of many fungal species, the transcriptomic changes associated with the transition from homokaryosis to heterokaryosis is not well understood. Here, we analyse gene expression profiles of homokaryons and heterokaryons from three phylogenetically and reproductively isolated lineages of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma . We show that heterokaryons are transcriptionally distinct from homokaryons in the sexual stage of development, but not in the vegetative stage, suggesting that the phenotypic switch to fertility in heterokaryons is associated with major changes in gene expression. Heterokaryon expression is predominantly defined by additive effects of its two nuclear components. Furthermore, allele-specific expression analysis of heterokaryons with varying nuclear ratios show patterns of expression ratios strongly dependent on nuclear ratios in the vegetative stage. By contrast, in the sexual stage, strong deviations of expression ratios indicate a co-regulation of nuclear gene expression in all three lineages. Taken together, our results show two levels of expression control: additive effects suggest a nuclear level of expression, whereas co-regulation of gene expression indicate a heterokaryon level of control.
Key message Phenomic prediction of wheat grain yield and heading date in different multi-environmental trial scenarios is accurate. Modelling the genotype-by-environment interaction effect using phenomic data is a potentially low-cost complement to genomic prediction. Abstract The performance of wheat cultivars in multi-environmental trials (MET) is difficult to predict because of the genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E). Phenomic selection is supposed to be efficient for modelling the G × E effect because it accounts for non-additive effects. Here, phenomic data are near-infrared (NIR) spectra obtained from plant material. While phenomic selection has recently been shown to accurately predict wheat grain yield in single environments, its accuracy needs to be investigated for MET. We used four datasets from two winter wheat breeding programs to test and compare the predictive abilities of phenomic and genomic models for grain yield and heading date in different MET scenarios. We also compared different methods to model the G × E using different covariance matrices based on spectra. On average, phenomic and genomic prediction abilities are similar in all different MET scenarios. Better predictive abilities were obtained when G × E effects were modelled with NIR spectra than without them, and it was better to use all the spectra of all genotypes in all environments for modelling the G × E. To facilitate the implementation of phenomic prediction, we tested MET designs where the NIR spectra were measured only on the genotype–environment combinations phenotyped for the target trait. Missing spectra were predicted with a weighted multivariate ridge regression. Intermediate predictive abilities for grain yield were obtained in a sparse testing scenario and for new genotypes, which shows that phenomic selection is an efficient and practicable prediction method for dealing with G × E.
An Interferometric Inverse SAR system is able to perform 3D imaging of non-cooperative targets by measuring their responses over time and through several receiving antennas. Phase differences between signals acquired with a spatial diversity in vertical or horizontal directions are used to localize moving scatterers in 3D. The use of several receiving channels generally results into a costly and complex hardware solution, and this paper proposes performing this multichannel acquisition using a single receiver and a hardware compressive device, based on a chaotic cavity which simultaneously multiplexes in the spectral domain signals acquired over different antennas. The radar responses of the scene are encoded in the spectral domain onto the single output of a leaky chaotic cavity, and can be retrieved by solving an inverse problem involving the random transfer matrix of the cavity. The applicability of this compressed sensing approach for the 3D imaging of a non-cooperative target using low-complexity hardware is demonstrated using both simulations and measurements. This study opens up new perspectives to reduce the hardware complexity of high-resolution ISAR systems.
The advantage of sex, and its fixation in some clades and species all over the eukaryote tree of life, is considered an evolutionary enigma, especially regarding its assumed two-fold cost. Several likely hypotheses have been proposed such as (1) a better response to the negative frequency-dependent selection imposed by the “Red Queen” hypothesis; (2) the competition between siblings induced by the Tangled Bank hypothesis; (3) the existence of genetic and of (4) ecological factors that can diminish the cost of sex to less than the standard assumed two-fold; and (5) a better maintenance of genetic diversity and its resulting phenotypic variation, providing a selective advantage in randomly fluctuating environments. While these hypotheses have mostly been studied separately, they can also act simultaneously. This was advocated by several studies which presented a pluralist point of view. Only three among the five causes cited above were considered yet in such a framework: the Red Queen hypothesis, the Tangled Bank and the genetic factors lowering the cost of sex. We thus simulated the evolution of a finite mutating population undergoing negative frequency-dependent selection on phenotypes and a two-fold (or less) cost of sexuality, experiencing randomly fluctuating selection along generations. The individuals inherited their reproductive modes, either clonal or sexual. We found that exclusive sexuality begins to fix in populations exposed to environmental variation that exceeds the width of one ecological niche (twice the standard deviation of a Gaussian response to environment). This threshold was lowered by increasing negative frequency-dependent selection and when reducing the two-fold cost of sex. It contributes advocating that the different processes involved in a short-term advantage of sex and recombination can act in combination to favor the fixation of sexual reproduction in populations.
Study objectives To develop evidence-based recommendations for prevention and management of infections, bleeding, and local anesthetic toxicity in children undergoing regional anesthesia. Design A joint committee of the European Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Therapy (ESRA) and the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) studied electronic literature databases of pediatric regional anesthesia to construct evidence-based recommendations. Main results For epidural anesthesia lumbar or thoracic placement is preferred. Skin preparation prior to block placement with chlorhexidine is preferred to povidone iodine. A tunneled catheter technique is suggested when using the caudal route or if the epidural catheter placement is kept in situ for more than 3 days. Inspection of the epidural catheter insertion site should be performed at least once a day as part of the postoperative management. When medical and physical examination is normal, coagulation tests are usually unnecessary but if coagulation tests are abnormal, neuraxial and deep peripheral nerve blocks are contraindicated. For patients receiving Low Molecular Weight Heparin thromboprophylaxis, a safety interval of two half-lives plus the time required for heparin to reach maximal levels is considered an adequate compromise between bleeding risk and thrombosis risk when removing epidural catheters. Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks reduce the risk of vascular puncture and thus the risk of local anesthetic toxicity is reduced. Conclusions In children undergoing regional anesthesia the incidence of infection, hematoma, and local anesthetic toxicity is low. The ASRA/ESRA joint committee proposes a practice advisory to prevent and treat these complications.
Résumé Les troubles du métabolisme du fer sont fréquents chez l’enfant. Il peut s’agir d’une déficience en fer absolue (ou quantitative) par insuffisance d’entrée de fer alimentaire dans le plasma, d’origine acquise (carence d’apport, malabsorption) ou génétique (syndrome Irida). La déficience peut aussi être fonctionnelle (ou qualitative) correspondant à un trouble de répartition tissulaire du fer sans modification du stock global de l’organisme ; le mécanisme en est une inflammation chronique. À l’inverse, le trouble peut être une surcharge en fer : génétique (hémochromatose juvénile) ou acquise (surcharge post-transfusionnelle, supplémentation parentérale excessive, ou dysérythropoïèse). Qu’il s’agisse de déficience ou de surcharge, l’approche diagnostique est essentiellement non invasive basée sur les données conjuguées de la clinique et de la biologie, en y adjoignant, pour la surcharge, l’imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) qui est devenue une technique déterminante non seulement pour la quantification de la surcharge mais aussi pour l’orientation physiopathologique. Les traitements symptomatiques du trouble du fer sont, dans la déficience, la supplémentation orale ou parentérale, et, dans la surcharge, le recours aux saignées en l’absence d’anémie et à la chélation orale du fer en situation d’anémie.
Spiro compounds are widely used as host matrices in organic light‐emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, inspired by the recent developments in thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials, the potential as a light emitter of two spiro‐configured organic semi‐conductors is investigated, constructed by the association of quinolinophenothiazine (QPTZ) or indoloacridine (IA) as the electron‐rich fragment and diphenylphosphine oxide fluorene as the electron‐poor fragment. By comparison with structural analogues lacking phosphine oxides, the crucial role played by these electron‐accepting substituents not only on the photo‐physical properties but also on the device performances is evidenced. Despite a very low quantum yield in solution, these two compounds unexpectedly display good emission properties when incorporated as a pure layer in OLEDs, thus highlighting the role of intermolecular effects. Fully organic spiro compounds with phosphine substituents used as pure emissive layer in OLEDs yield good device characteristics in spite of their low fluorescence in solution and thin film. The phosphine groups help generating intramolecular and intermolecular (exciplex‐like) excited states whose competition dictates the luminescence properties.
Background Since the latest 2017 French guidelines, knowledge about idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has evolved considerably. Methods Practical guidelines were drafted on the initiative of the Coordinating Reference Center for Rare Lung Diseases, led by the French Language Pulmonology Society (SPLF), by a coordinating group, a writing group, and a review group, with the involvement of the entire OrphaLung network, pulmonologists practicing in various settings, radiologists, pathologists, a general practitioner, a health manager, and a patient association. The method followed the "Clinical Practice Guidelines" process of the French National Authority for Health (HAS), including an online vote using a Likert scale. Results After a literature review, 54 guidelines were formulated, improved, and then validated by the working groups. These guidelines addressed multiple aspects of the disease: epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, quality criteria and interpretation of chest CT scans, lung biopsy indication and procedures, etiological workup, methods and indications for family screening and genetic testing, assessment of the functional impairment and prognosis, indication and use of antifibrotic agents, lung transplantation, management of symptoms, comorbidities and complications, treatment of chronic respiratory failure, diagnosis and management of acute exacerbations of fibrosis. Conclusion These evidence-based guidelines are intended to guide the diagnosis and practical management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Tropical Differential Algebraic Geometry considers difficult or even intractable problems in Differential Equations and tries to extract information on their solutions from a restricted structure of the input. The fundamental theorem of Tropical Differential Algebraic Geometry and its extensions state that the support of power series solutions of systems of ordinary differential equations (with formal power series coefficients over an uncountable algebraically closed field of characteristic zero) can be obtained either, by solving a so-called tropicalized differential system, or by testing monomial-freeness of the associated initial ideals. Tropicalized differential equations work on a completely different algebraic structure which may help in theoretical and computational questions, particularly on the existence of solutions. We show here that both of these methods can be generalized to the case of systems of partial differential equations, this is, one can go either with the solution of tropicalized systems, or test monomial-freeness of the ideal generated by the initials when looking for supports of power series solutions of systems of differential equations, regardless the (finite) number of derivatives. The key are the vertex sets of Newton polytopes, upon which relies the definition of both tropical vanishing condition and the initial of a differential polynomial.
Many insect species harbor heritable bacterial endosymbionts. Some facultative endosymbionts provide benefits to their hosts under certain environmental conditions. Facultative endosymbionts are expected to impose additional energetic expenditures to their host, reducing host fitness. While there is accumulating evidence in plant sucking insects that facultative endosymbionts reduce the fitness of their host under permissive conditions, no direct energy costs associated with facultative endosymbionts have been identified. Using the standard metabolic rate (SMR) as a measure of the energy cost of self‐maintenance, we investigated whether two common facultative endosymbionts Hamiltonella defensa or Regiella insecticola increase the maintenance cost of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum which could translate into host fitness reduction (‘compensation hypothesis’). In addition, we tested if there was a link between SMR and the aphid fitness and whether it depended on endosymbiont density and aphid energetic reserves. Finally, we measured SMR at different temperatures to assess the impact of suboptimal thermal conditions on physiological cost of endosymbionts. In the presence of facultative endosymbionts, aphids expressed generally a lower fitness and a higher SMR compared to uninfected ones, in accordance with the ‘compensation hypothesis’. However, the SMR difference between infected and uninfected aphids tended to decrease with increasing temperature. Complex host genotype‐by‐ symbiont genotype‐ by‐ temperature interactions on SMR were also revealed. Energetic budget of adult aphids appeared weakly influenced by the aphid genotype and endosymbiont species, suggesting that facultative endosymbionts primarily impact the consumption of energy resources rather than their acquisition. Density of facultative endosymbionts varied largely among aphid lines but was not associated with the fitness nor metabolic rate of aphids. This work supports the energy basis of facultative endosymbiont associated fitness costs and raises new questions about the effect of facultative endosymbionts on the energy metabolism of their host.
Staphylococcus aureus, a human opportunist pathogen, adjusts its metabolism to cope with iron deprivation within the host. We investigated the potential role of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in dictating this process. A single sRNA, named here IsrR, emerged from a competition assay with tagged-mutant libraries as being required during iron starvation. IsrR is iron-repressed and predicted to target mRNAs expressing iron-containing enzymes. Among them, we demonstrated that IsrR down-regulates the translation of mRNAs of enzymes that catalyze anaerobic nitrate respiration. The IsrR sequence reveals three single-stranded C-rich regions (CRRs). Mutational and structural analysis indicated a differential contribution of these CRRs according to targets. We also report that IsrR is required for full lethality of S. aureus in a mouse septicemia model, underscoring its role as a major contributor to the iron-sparing response for bacterial survival during infection. IsrR is conserved among staphylococci, but it is not ortholog to the proteobacterial sRNA RyhB, nor to other characterized sRNAs down-regulating mRNAs of iron-containing enzymes. Remarkably, these distinct sRNAs regulate common targets, illustrating that RNA-based regulation provides optimal evolutionary solutions to improve bacterial fitness when iron is scarce.
Studies on time allocation of various activities are crucial to understand which behavioural strategy is the most profitable in a given context, and so why animals behave in a particular way. Such investigations usually focus on a time window when the studied activity is performed, often neglecting how the time devoted to focal activity affects time allocation to following-up behaviours, while that may have its own fitness consequences. In this study, we examined time allocation into three post-foraging activities (entering the nest with food, nest attendance, and colony attendance) in a small seabird species, the little auk (Alle alle). Since little auks alternate foraging trips of different duration (short and long) and purpose (offspring feeding and primarily self-feeding, respectively) we expected that duration of the following up in-colony activities would also vary, being longer after a long absence in the colony (because of greater need of reassessment of the current predation pressure and social interactions in the colony, and re-establishing the bond with the offspring and/or partner and/or neighbours after longer absence). We found that it was not always the case, as time allocation of the post-foraging in-colony activities was primarily year- and sex-specific. It highlights the need to consider year and sex effects in studies of behavioural ecology, as not doing so may lead to spurious conclusions. Interestingly, and despite a great inter-individual variation in time allocation in the post-foraging in-colony activities, little auk individuals were quite repeatable in their behavioural performance, which suggests these activities may reflect birds behavioural profile. Overall, post-foraging in-colony activity of the little auk, although not much dependent on duration/type of the preceding foraging flights, varies with respect to year and sex, and as such may be a proxy of behavioural plasticity of the population.
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