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- SourceAvailable from: Allan Linneberg[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: The prevalence of allergic respiratory disease tends to increase in populations that adopt the so-called Westernized lifestyle. We investigated the association between atopy and several possible lifestyle-related factors in seven Danish population-based studies. Methods: A total of 20048 persons participated in the seven studies. We used logistic regression to analyse the associations between possible determinants and atopy defined as serum specific IgE or skin prick test positivity against inhalant allergens. Associations were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). In addition, individual participant data meta-analyses were performed. Results: Atopy was significantly associated with younger age (OR per 1 year increase in age: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.97, 0.98); male sex (OR for males versus females: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.45), heavy drinking (OR for heavy drinkers versus light drinkers: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.27), never smoking (OR for current versus never smokers: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.80), and higher educational level (OR for educated versus uneducated: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.41). Atopy was not associated with blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, physical activity or body mass except in women only, where we found a positive association (OR for obese vs. normal weight: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.39) with ptrend = 0.032. Conclusions: Of interest for preventive purposes, we found that atopy was associated with some of the reversible lifestyle-related factors that characterize a Westernized lifestyle.
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ABSTRACT: Anti-CD52 therapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of a number of B cell malignancies, hematopoietic disorders and autoimmune diseases (including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis); however the current standard of treatment, the humanized monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab, is associated with the development of anti-drug anti-bodies in a high proportion of patients. In order to address this problem, we have identified a novel murine anti-CD52 antibody which has been humanized using a process that avoids the inclusion within the variable domains of non-human germline MHC class II binding pep-tides and known CD4+ T cell epitopes, thus reducing its potential for immunogenicity in the clinic. The resultant humanized antibody, ANT1034, was shown to have superior binding to CD52 expressing cells than alemtuzumab and was more effective at directing both antibody dependent and complement dependent cell cytotoxicity. Furthermore, when in the presence of a cross-linking antibody, ANT1034 was more effective at directly inducing apoptosis than alemtuzumab. ANT1034 also showed superior activity in a SCID mouse/human CD52 tumour xenograft model where a single 1 mg/Kg dose of ANT1034 led to increased mouse survival compared to a 10 mg/Kg dose of alemtuzumab. Finally, ANT1034 was compared to alemtuzumab in in vitro T cell assays in order to evaluate its potential to stimulate proliferation of T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from a panel of human donors: whereas alemtuzumab stimulated proliferation in a high proportion of the donor cohort, ANT1034 did not stimulate proliferation in any of the donors. Therefore we have developed a candidate therapeutic humanized antibody, ANT1034, that may have the potential to be more efficacious and less immunogenic than the current standard anti-CD52 therapy.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the predictive value of functional autoantibodies against vascular receptors for the development of ischemic digital ulcers (DU) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Angiotensin II Type 1 receptor (AT1R) and endothelin 1 Type A receptor (ETAR) autoantibodies were measured at baseline in a prospective cohort of 90 patients with SSc together with 5 validated angiogenic markers. The primary outcome was the occurrence of at least 1 new ischemic DU during the 5-year followup. Twenty-four patients developed at least 1 new DU during the followup period. Univariate Cox analysis revealed that concentrations above the median value of anti-AT1R and anti-ETAR antibodies were predictive of the occurrence of ischemic DU (HR 2.85, 95% CI 1.19-6.84 and HR 3.39, 95% CI 1.35-8.50, respectively). A first multivariate Cox analysis including functional autoantibodies and clinical predictors of new DU confirmed anti-ETAR autoantibodies as independent predictors of the occurrence of new ischemic DU (HR 3.15, 95% CI 1.22-8.13) together with a history of DU at baseline. In a second model implemented with angiogenic markers, anti-ETAR autoantibodies remained an independent predictor of the occurrence of new ischemic DU (HR 9.59, 95% CI 1.75-52.64) together with the presence at baseline of active DU or history of DU. Anti-ETAR autoantibodies can be used together with the presence of current or past DU to identify patients with SSc who are at risk for the development of subsequent DU. These autoantibodies may allow for earlier management and therapeutic intervention.
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