This paper examines the impact of cost-efficiency on bank profitability in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic using quarterly data from a panel of banks operating in five (5) Sub-Saharan African countries. The findings show that cost-efficient banks are more profitable amid the pandemic. Additionally, we found that revenue diversification is associated with strong financial performance. Our findings contribute to literature by proposing the adoption of aggressive cost control and revenue diversification strategies by the management of banks to ensure sustainable and resilient financial performance in times of crises when interest incomes are sticky.
This paper investigates the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on the financial reporting quality of European banks by examining the occurrence of earnings management specifically income smoothing. Using a sample of listed European banks, we employ panel estimation to compare income smoothing in the pre-pandemic period (2019Q1-2019Q4) and the pandemic period (2020Q1-2021Q4). We find that earnings management has significantly increased during the pandemic years, evidencing how the quality of financial reporting is affected during the crisis period. Our findings further suggest that amid the crisis, governance quality limits the incidence of earnings management and emphasizes how the strength of country-level governance and institutional framework affects the quality of financial reporting. Further analysis shows that though banks are inclined to manage earnings during a crisis, nevertheless, the presence of high-quality audit is a limiting factor on the incidence of earnings management in the face of crisis. Our findings which are relevant to investors, market participants, and regulators among others make a significant contribution to the accounting literature and specifically complement the strand of literature on the discretionary use of loan loss provision for earnings management during crisis.
Regulation (EU) 2016/1624 enables Frontex to launch operations in the territory of third countries. Accordingly, status agreements between the EU and the Western Balkan countries as well as Moldova have been concluded. This article provides an in-depth analysis of these instruments. As this article will demonstrate, the conclusion of the status agreements constitutes an improvement, in comparison with the instruments of cooperation already in place. Yet, their implementation could lead to human rights violations. The status agreements provide that the team members sent by Frontex act under the instructions of the host state. Consequently, the third state would incur the prime responsibility for human rights violations committed by these border guards. This transfer of authority has not been stemmed from a transfer of jurisdiction over acts committed by the members of the team: rather they are entitled to immunity for all acts committed during their official functions.
This article analyses the fundamental relationship between Husserl’s theory of reflection in the first volume of Ideas pertaining to a pure phenomenology and the two main concepts upon which transcendental phenomenology is grounded: namely, description and reduction. Although the concept of reflection was already used in Logical Investigations, Husserl revised it entirely thanks to his analysis of time-consciousness in the 1905 Lectures. Reflection thus appears as a key concept in understanding the ‘turn’ that led Husserl to deeply modify his descriptive method in order to move to transcendental phenomenology.
Drainage infrastructure is an important element of the agricultural landscape, influencing hydro-sedimentary transfers from plots to rivers. The objective of this article is to demonstrate how the description of the main characteristics of drainage networks allows a better understanding of sediment (dis)connectivity. This study focuses on an 8 km² catchment in the Beaujolais vineyards (France) that is characterized by a complex drainage network. We applied methods using field surveys, a geographical information system and graph theory to map and analyse how such man-made infrastructures may act as barriers, buffers or shortcuts. The catchment shows dense and complex drainage networks characterized by sediment trapping strategies in the upper slopes, and flow concentration and export in the lower slopes. The results exemplify winegrowers’ strategies to disconnect sediments sources from the river to preserve soil resources.
Unmet needs in mental health care are a prominent issue and concern almost half of people with such disorders. Psymobile is a mobile outreach psychiatric team whose objective is to facilitate access to psychiatric services. Its intervention is at the request of relatives or social workers, making it possible to encounter situations of long-standing unmet needs. Our objective was to understand the barriers to accessing mental health care as perceived by patients and their relatives. We conducted a qualitative study with patients and their relatives using face-to-face semi-structured interviews and a hierarchical thematic analysis. Four major themes were identified: psychological and behavioural barriers, socio-economic barriers, structural barriers and physical barriers. Anosognosia or lack of insight is cited as a primary barrier, as are fear of stigma, and former negative experiences. The complexity of the French care system and the lack of literacy about mental illnesses were also emphasized by the participants. Physical determinants, such as the distance to healthcare facilities, were rarely mentioned. As a conclusion, outreach teams appear to be an appropriate way to address the issue of unmet mental health care needs when they provide psychiatric care.
This study examines the effect of introducing CSR criteria into CEO incentive compensation on the financial and extra-financial performance of French companies listed on the SBF 120 index. Based on panel data from 102 companies over a five-year period between 2014 and 2019, the empirical analysis shows that the inclusion of CSR criteria in compensation contracts improves environmental, societal and governance performance. However, the inclusion of these criteria has a negative impact on financial performance as measured by Tobin's q.
When consumers use social media to complain, they threaten to undermine brands’ images and online reputations. Academics and managers usually regard such public complaining as harmful or as expressions of a desire to hurt brands. Instead, an alternative, benevolent, and educational consumer motivation for complaining on brands’ social media might exist. By specifying the nature of this educational calling to complain and the contextual variables that favor its emergence, the current research outlines the process by which well-intentioned consumers seek to help brands improve, even if it means publicly pointing fingers. Four experiments show that both desire for revenge and desire for reconciliation affect public complaining; strong ties and single deviation contexts favor the benevolent process of online complaining; and benevolent complainants are more amenable to process recovery communication that does not necessarily include compensation.
Objectives Global comparisons and large samples are needed to inform policy makers about aging trends among people aged older than 60 years. Using harmonized data gathered from the Gateway to Global Aging data, we introduce a new framework to measure healthy aging across 13 OECD countries. Methods First, we developed an original measure of physiological age (PA), that is, a measure of age weighted for the influence of frailty, activities of daily living limitations, and comorbidities. Second, we compared healthy aging measures across 13 countries based on a ranking of the countries according to the discrepancy between estimated PA and chronological age (CA). Third, we explored the socioeconomic factors associated with healthy aging. Results We found a strong correlation between our PA measure and biological age. Italy, Israel, and the United States are the 3 countries where PA is the highest (independent of CA), thus indicating aging in poor health. In contrast, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Greece, Sweden, and Denmark have much lower PA than CA, thus indicating healthy aging. Finally, the PA-CA discrepancy is higher among poorer, less educated, and single older individuals. Conclusions Countries with higher PA need to implement or reinforce healthy aging measures and target the disadvantaged populations.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) in organisations may change ways of working and disrupt occupations, including managerial ones. Yet, the literature lacks information about how managerial skills will be affected by the implementation of AI within organisations. To investigate this topic, a thematic content analysis was performed on data collected from qualitative and semi-structured interviews with 40 AI experts. These first results were then confirmed through descriptive statistics performed on data collected from 103 other AI experts who also ranked the managerial skills to be developed in order of priority. Our final results show that most managerial skills are likely to be augmented by AI, while only a few of them may be replaced (information gathering and simple decision-making) or remain unaffected (leadership and imagination). Our study updates existing technical and non-technical taxonomies of managerial skills needed to keep pace with AI. It also contributes to the development of the AI-Human Resource Management interface.
Comparing one hyper-growth venture with one moderate growth venture, we show that growth paths critically depend on the founders’ capability to leverage BAs’ and VCs’ financial and cognitive resources in an ongoing process of interaction. Dynamically matching specific entrepreneurs’ and investors’ decision-making styles is critical for shaping heterogeneous growth paths, as investors and entrepreneurs interact. Specifically, sharing a predictive decision-making style among VCs, BAs and entrepreneurs facilitate mutual communication and shared understanding in the joint pursuit of ambitious growth targets. To the contrary, matching non-predictive and purely control-oriented entrepreneurs with BAs featuring an identical decision-making style locks the venture into a moderate growth trajectory. This has practical implications for entrepreneurs searching for the adequate funding strategy, and for equity investors in their assessment of entrepreneurs’ cognitive profiles. Plain English Summary Decision-making style in entrepreneurial finance and growth: how matching predictive entrepreneurs with predictive VCs and business angels boosts venture growth. Predictive decision-making boosts strong venture growth when shared by entrepreneurs, business angels (BAs), and venture capitalists (VCs) alike. Purely control-oriented entrepreneurs get locked into moderate growth when teaming up with control-oriented BAs, unless they dynamically adapt their decision-making style as a result of their interaction. Matching of decision-making styles appears hence to be crucial to sustain growth. Decision-making styles are not necessarily static, and the various actors may adapt their approach to changed circumstances. Certain BAs may play a prominent role in the process of change. Dynamic matching is a relevant avenue for future research. Our findings have also practical implications for the various actors in the field of entrepreneurial finance. Investors targeting especially strong growth should team up with highly predictive entrepreneurs only.
What makes one type of entrepreneurial ecosystem (EE) more conducive to entrepreneurial dynamics than another? EE research is a hot topic, and considerable progress has been made as regards its elements, network, and actors’ components. However, some scholars regret the absence of an empirical analysis of EE as a whole to understand how EE configuration operates. To introduce this perspective, we propose an unexplored inter-organizational ties analysis among all EE actors, at a country-level scale. Based on the network theory perspective, we conduct an exploratory research in five low-income African countries, using innovative research methods (the quantitative graph theory, web scraping, the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis) to understand the organizational patterns in these EEs, and their impact on entrepreneurial outcomes. At the core of this perspective lie inter-organizational ties measures of closeness, cohesiveness, and inter-connectedness, which are key causal conditions for high entrepreneurial dynamics levels and rates in low-income countries. This research underlines the importance of EE network attributes to facilitate the easy distribution of entrepreneurial nurturing components to entrepreneurs. It also highlights the importance of ease of information and knowledge flow, as well as a strong collaborative and coopetitive environment to make an EE more conducive to entrepreneurial dynamics.
This chapter explores recent representations in speculative literature and media of the cyborg as a queer-coded figure, and in particular of the ‘female’ cyborg as a lesbian figure. The latter counters the recurring trope of the cyborg fantasized as a submissive, sexualized, and fetishized woman-coded entity. The cyborg’s queerness stems from her simultaneous proximity to and estrangement from organic humanity; the lesbian cyborg contradicts established ways of what a woman should look and act like because she is positioned in excess of hegemonic hierarchies. In contemporary speculative narratives, the lesbian cyborg thus appears as a vector of emancipation, whose presence signifies the possibilities of new narratives that are not rooted in extractive exploitation but in anti-hegemonic queered relationalities.
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