This paper addresses the issue of optimal day-ahead scheduling of a plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) aggregator that participates in the electricity market and offers an out-of-market balancing service to the local renewable power penetrated distribution system in a snow-prone area. The proposed balancing service provides a reliable source of flexibility for the extra real-time energy demand of the distribution system operator (DSO) which originates from the difference between its day-ahead bids and the actual demand. The problem is investigated on a snowy day when the DSO's day-ahead decisions encounter more uncertainty due to the considerable effect of snow loss on the DSO's photovoltaic plant performance. The aggregator's scheduling is formulated as two-stage stochastic programming which minimizes the PEVs’ charging cost. Monte Carlo simulation and K-means clustering are implemented to generate scenarios of driving patterns and real-time energy market prices, respectively. Offering the balancing service requires day-ahead predictions of the photovoltaic power and the grid load demand which are modeled using long short-term memory networks. The problem is formulated as mixed-integer linear programming. The results show that the proposed scheduling approach reduces the PEVs’ charging cost by 53% and guarantees the grid normal operation. Moreover, the balancing service can reduce the expected PEVs’ charging cost and the DSO's real-time cost by 12% and 14%, respectively. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Improved land stewardship is necessary for climate change mitigation. As such, actions are needed to increase carbon (C) sinks and reduce C emissions from land use activities. Residual materials with fertilizing capacity can be used to reconstruct severely degraded soils and recreate a sustainable vegetation cover, leading to reductions in atmospheric CO2 levels. We studied the temporal dynamics of CO2 sequestration potential in soils reconstructed with 1200 Mg ha⁻¹ biosolids along a young chronosequence ranging from 0 to 7 years after initiating reclamation of a decommissioned asbestos mine in southern Québec, Canada. We measured in situ soil CO2 fluxes, soil C pools and soil physicochemical properties. Since bacterial communities are highly responsive to soil physicochemical properties, we also analyzed both their diversity and community structure. The age since soil reclamation did not have a clear effect on soil properties, but it exerted greater control over soil C fluxes and soil bacterial community diversity and structure. Our results suggest large C fluxes to the atmosphere within the first year following soil reconstruction, but soils constitute a stable C pool thereafter.
Many individuals living with severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia, present cognitive deficits and reasoning biases negatively impacting clinical and functional trajectories. Remote cognitive assessment presents many opportunities for advancing research and treatment but has yet to be widely used in psychiatric populations. We conducted a scoping review of remote cognitive assessment in severe mental illness to provide an overview of available measures and guide best practices. Overall, 34 studies ( n = 20,813 clinical participants) were reviewed and remote measures, psychometrics, facilitators, barriers, and future directions were synthesized using a logic model. We identified 82 measures assessing cognition in severe mental illness across 11 cognitive domains and four device platforms. Remote measures were generally comparable to traditional versions, though psychometric properties were infrequently reported. Facilitators included standardized procedures and wider recruitment, whereas barriers included imprecise measure adaptations, technology inaccessibility, low patient engagement, and poor digital literacy. Our review identified several remote cognitive measures in psychiatry across all cognitive domains. However, there is a need for more rigorous validation of these measures and consideration of potentially influential factors, such as sex and gender. We provide recommendations for conducting remote cognitive assessment in psychiatry and fostering high-quality research using digital technologies.
The formation and turnover of soil organic carbon (C), the largest terrestrial C pool, is strongly impacted by the ultimate source of that C: leaves, wood, roots, and root exudates. The quantity and quality of these inputs is determined by the identity of the plants involved. Yet substantial uncertainty surrounds the complex relationships among plant traits and soil C, precluding efforts to maximize whole-ecosystem C uptake in nature-based climate mitigation scenarios. In this study, we leveraged a biodiversity-ecosystem function experiment with trees (IDENT) to explore the effects of interspecific variation in plant traits on soil C dynamics in the very early stages of stand development (9 years since planting). Mineral soil C stocks to 5 cm depth were quantified in monospecific plots of 19 tree species planted on a former agricultural field, and analyzed in relation to tree growth and functional traits. We found that tree species identity affected soil bulk density and, to a lesser extent, the carbon content of the topsoil, and thereby total C pools. Among species and across plots, mineral soil C stocks were positively correlated with rates of tree growth and were significantly larger beneath broadleaf trees with “fast” functional traits vs. conifers with more conservative leaf traits, when comparisons were made over equivalent soil depth increments. Thus, plant functional traits mediate interspecific differences in productivity, which in turn influence the magnitude of belowground C stocks. These results highlight important linkages between above- and belowground carbon cycles in the earliest stages of afforestation.
This paper presents a novel hybrid transformer (HT) to regulate voltage sags/swells and to provide a unity power factor at the connection point to the medium voltage grid. The HT is a promising instrument for constructing an active distribution grid in the future. To overcome the applied design limitations concerning the converter and control system of the existing HTs, the HT structure and the control design have been proposed based on the indirect matrix converter (IMC) and Lyapunov energy function, respectively. The proposed HT topology consists of a direct power converter and a line frequency transformer. The proposed HT employs an IMC with space vector modulation that is connected to the distribution network via a series transformer. This power electronic converter increases the reliability, controllability and intelligence of the distribution substation. The Lyapunov direct control method is used to design the IMC controller that ensures tracking the input reference current and voltage. A systematic experimental and numerical investigation is performed in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed topology. The proposed HT can compensate voltage sags/swells (more than 20% of nominal voltage). In addition, it performs properly in power factor correction and reduces the capacitor bank in the station.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to conceptualize integrative prevention at work and to identify its operational variables to support its application in occupational rehabilitation. Methods Based on Walker and Avant’s specifications for concept analysis, we conducted a systematic five-step procedure (i.e., 1-identification of research question, 2-literature search through meta-narrative review, 3-manuscript selection, 4-extraction, 5-analysis). Results Analysis of information extracted from 20 manuscripts across diverse literature fields allowed to identify that the shared attributes of integrative prevention at work are: (a) coordination of the three levels of prevention, (b) integration of health promotion with prevention, (c) shared understanding of the goal, (d) engagement of stakeholders, and (e) variety of actions. The analysis also identified three antecedents and five consequences, situating the concept within the context of a change process. The results include recommendations for promoting the practical application of the concept. Conclusion The results of this study offer an informative, non-prescriptive, and operational definition of integrative prevention at work that all the stakeholders involved, including occupational rehabilitation professionals, can use.
Cet article présente les résultats d’une étude exploratoire visant à décrire et à comprendre les interactions entre les personnes enseignantes et étudiantes, dans un contexte d’enseignement à distance d’urgence. Les perceptions des personnes enseignantes (n = 84) d’une université canadienne ont été recueillies par le biais d’un questionnaire anonyme en ligne. Grâce aux statistiques descriptives, nous pouvons confirmer que la quantité et la qualité des interactions ont été affectées respectivement dans 68 % et 52 % des réponses. De manière complémentaire, une analyse thématique des commentaires fait ressortir une classification originale de facteurs pouvant affecter les interactions. *** This article presents the results of an exploratory study aiming to describe and understand the interactions between teachers and students in an emergency remote teaching setting. The perceptions of Canadian university teachers (n = 84) were collected through an anonymous online questionnaire. Using descriptive statistics, we can confirm that the quantity and quality of interactions were affected in 68% and 52% of responses, respectively. Additionally, a thematic analysis of the comments reveals an original classification of factors that can affect interactions.
This study investigates the nature of the social interaction profiles observed among youth with intellectual disabilities (ID), defined while considering their relationships with their parents, peers, and teachers, as well as the implication of these profiles for self-esteem, aggressive behaviors, and prosocial behaviors. A sample of 393 youth with mild (48.2%) to moderate (51.8%) levels of ID, aged between 11 and 22 (M = 15.70), was recruited in Canada (n = 141) and Australia (n = 253). Our results revealed four profiles, corresponding to Socially Isolated (23.24%), Socially Integrated (39.83%), Socially Rejected (28.37%) and Socially Connected (8.57%) youth with ID. The socially integrated and connected profiles both presented higher self-esteem, more prosocial behaviors, and less aggressive behaviors than the socially isolated and rejected profiles.
This study explores the use of clinical override with the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI), including implications for predictive validity as well as the factors associated with this practice. The sample included 597 justice-involved youth from a metropolitan region in Québec, Canada. The clinical override was used in 32.5% of cases, usually to increase risk levels (30.3% of cases). As found in previous studies, clinical override did not increase the predictive validity of the YLS/CMI. Upward and downward clinical overrides were differently linked to the sociodemographic characteristics and criminal history of the youths in the sample. Criminal History, Peer Relations, Personality/Behavior, and Attitudes/Orientation risk/need domains were positively associated with upward override while Family Circumstances/Parenting, Personality/Behavior, and Attitudes/Orientation risk/need domains were negatively associated with downward override. These results are discussed in relation to the impact clinical override can have on the case management and interventions provided to justice-involved youth.
An islanded microgrid (MG) including low-inertia converter-based distributed generations (DGs) is subjected to instability. The virtual inertia concept was proposed to alleviate the stability issues by imitating the synchronous generators behavior. This paper spotlights on the optimization of virtual synchronous generator (VSG) parameters and virtual impedances (VI) in islanded MGs using particle swarm optimization (PSO). A small-signal model for MG is developed at first. The permissible ranges of virtual inertia (J) and virtual damping (D) based on MG small-signal stability are scrutinized afterwards. Moreover, VI are considered to lower the reactive power mismatch between converters. Finally, considering the permitted intervals for these parameters, an optimization method and objective function are defined to calculate VSG parameters and VI in the islanded MG. The proposed optimization method enhances the small-signal stability of the MG, decreases the current overshoot and minimizes reactive power mismatches. Simulation results drawn by the “VSG + VI” control include three scenarios. The effectiveness of the proposed “VSG + VI” control method in comparison with “droop” control, “droop + VI”, “non-optimal VSG + VI”, and “VSG ” is verified through simulation studies.
In this paper, we present a simple fiber optic sensor for magnetic-field/electric current measurement based on broadband fluorescence in a Bi12SiO20 crystal. A simple polarimetric scheme in combination with a standard 105/125 μm multimode fiber, a 405 nm laser diode and a spectrometer to analyze the spectrum is used. The magnetic field induces phase changes measured by the spectral shifts of the wavelength modulated response. The sensitivity is found to be wavelength dependent. It increases from 0.138 nm/A at 540 nm to 0.224 nm/A at 715 nm and is inversely proportional to the Verdet constant. A minimum current of 0.4A can be detected with a dynamic range of up to 32 dB. A detailed polarization analysis is presented.
Global warming is affecting plant phenology, with potential consequences on the dynamics of growth reactivation of sugar maple and the timings of maple syrup production. In this study, we assess the temperatures inducing the daily reactivation or cessation of sap production. We selected 19 sugarbushes across Quebec, Canada, using a tapping method associated with the tubing system, we recorded the daily timings of onset and ending of sap production during winter and spring 2018, and we associated the hourly temperatures at each site. Sap production occurred from mid-February to the end of April, starting on average between 10 and 11 AM, and ending from 6 to 8 PM. We observed a seasonal pattern in the onset and ending of sap production during spring, with the onset showing a greater change than the ending. Onset and ending of sap production occurred mostly under temperatures ranging between -2 and 2 °C. The production of sap in maple is closely related to circadian freeze-thaw cycles and occurs under nighttime and daytime temperatures fluctuating below and above 0 °C. The daily lengthening of the duration of sap production mirrors the changes in the timings of freeze and thaw events and can be explained by the physical properties of the water and the physiological processes occurring during growth reactivation. The ongoing warming will result in earlier and warmer springs, which may anticipate the cycles of freeze and thaw and advance sap production in sugar maple.
Background Special Olympics enables individuals with an intellectual disability across all continents to take part in sport year-round. Through its mission, Special Olympics provides a setting for athletes that aims to foster performance, participation, and personal development. Coaches play a central role in achieving these outcomes. As such, this scoping review aims to answer the following question: What is known about Special Olympics’ coach training and practices? Method Our scoping review was conducted according to Peters et al.'s (2020) guidelines. Keywords pertaining to Special Olympics, Program evaluation, and Coaches were searched in six databases to extract articles published between 1988 and October 1, 2021. Results In all, 16 studies were included in our scoping review. Of these studies, nine included information on coach training and 13 included information on coach practices. No randomized control trials were identified. Conclusions There is currently very little knowledge on Special Olympics coach training and practices. Moreover, there is no existing data to support the effectiveness of Special Olympics coaches formal training on coaches’ practices nor on athletes’ outcomes. There is an urgent need for research in this field.
Objectives: This paper presents findings from our collaborative research on the perceptions and preferences of people experiencing homelessness regarding outreach nursing services. Method: We conducted qualitative research using a critical ethnography approach. Sample: A total of 15 participants were interviewed individually (n = 12 people experiencing homelessness) and in focus groups (n = 3 care providers). We also conducted direct observation. Results: This paper focuses on one of the core categories that emerged from the data analysis "Perception of Health Care." This category emerged from the following three subcategories, which we will present in this paper: (1) Conflicting Relationships with Institutional Health Services; (2) Perception of Outreach Services; (3) Recommendations from Mobile Clinic Users. Conclusion: There are a range of perceptions of health services among people experiencing homelessness. Some are satisfied with the care received in the public health system, while many have experienced dehumanizing practices. Overall, outreach services are a promising strategy to reach people who are not served by the traditional modes of care delivery. Based on our findings, we suggest several key practices to personalize and adapt healthcare services and foster inclusive environments to better serve people experiencing homelessness.
Reductions in marital relationship quality are pervasive post‐cardiac event. It is not yet understood how relationship quality is linked to mental health outcomes in couples where one member has established cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the interdependence within dyads is seldom measured. This research is required as psychological distress has been independently linked to CVD incidence, morbidity, and mortality. This study assessed associations of relationship quality with depression and anxiety among patients with CVD and their spouses. Participants completed questionnaires measuring four dimensions of relationship quality and mental health. Data were analyzed using an Actor‐Partner Interdependence Model with hierarchical moderation analyses. 181 dyads (N = 362 participants) comprised the study sample. Most patients had coronary artery disease (66.3%) and 25.9% were female. Patients reported higher relationship satisfaction and fewer anxiety symptoms than did spouses. Patients and spouses with high dyadic consensus and affectional expression reported fewer mental health symptoms, but only when the other partner also perceived high levels of consensus and affectional expression in the relationship. Patients and spouses with low dyadic cohesion reported worse mental health symptoms (actor effects), but those effects were no longer significant when both the patient and the spouse appraised the relationship as having high levels of dyadic cohesion. Taken together, relationship quality is linked to mental health symptoms in patients with CVD and their spouses. Longitudinal and experimental studies are now warranted to further substantiate the cross‐sectional findings of this study.
Legal contracts specify the terms and conditions—in essence, requirements—that apply to business transactions. This paper proposes a formal specification language for legal contracts, called Symboleo, where contracts consist of collections of obligations and powers that define a legal contract’s compliant executions. Symboleo offers execution time operations such as subcontracting, assignment, and substitution. Its formal semantics is defined in terms of logical axioms on statecharts that describe the lifetimes of contracts, obligations, and powers. We have implemented two tools to support the analysis of contract specifications. One is a conformance validation tool that enables checking that a specification is consistent with the expectations of contracting parties. The other tool enables model-checking of desired contract properties, expressed in temporal logic. We envision Symboleo with its associated tools as enablers for the formal verification of contracts to detect requirements-level issues. Our proposal includes an evaluation through the specification of two real life-inspired contracts.
Cet article décrit un projet de recherche collaborative, entre praticiens-partenaires et chercheurs, portant sur un modèle d’accompagnement et de formation des intervenants scolaires, visant une mise en oeuvre optimale et durable de programmes et d’interventions fondées sur des données probantes concernant le développement de la socialisation des élèves (prévention de la violence) ainsi que leur bien-être psychologique. La conceptualisation et l’expérimentation de ce modèle reposeront sur une structure et un fonctionnement partenarial mobilisant pas moins de 11 organisations représentant divers partenaires du milieu scolaire, qui travailleront avec plus de 18 chercheurs et 10 collaborateurs sur une période de trois ans.
Neurotransmitter receptors support the propagation of signals in the human brain. How receptor systems are situated within macro-scale neuroanatomy and how they shape emergent function remain poorly understood, and there exists no comprehensive atlas of receptors. Here we collate positron emission tomography data from more than 1,200 healthy individuals to construct a whole-brain three-dimensional normative atlas of 19 receptors and transporters across nine different neurotransmitter systems. We found that receptor profiles align with structural connectivity and mediate function, including neurophysiological oscillatory dynamics and resting-state hemodynamic functional connectivity. Using the Neurosynth cognitive atlas, we uncovered a topographic gradient of overlapping receptor distributions that separates extrinsic and intrinsic psychological processes. Finally, we found both expected and novel associations between receptor distributions and cortical abnormality patterns across 13 disorders. We replicated all findings in an independently collected autoradiography dataset. This work demonstrates how chemoarchitecture shapes brain structure and function, providing a new direction for studying multi-scale brain organization. Hansen et al. compile and share an atlas of neurotransmitter receptor/transporter densities in the human cortex and show that receptor achitecture reflects brain structure, function, dynamics, cognitive specialization and disease vulnerability.
Pain in children is frequent. Parents evaluate their children's pain to decide how to manage it or to share information with caregivers. This qualitative descriptive study aims to identify elements influencing the evaluation and management of pain in children from a parent's perspective. Participants were recruited through a pediatric center and university family medicine clinic. Participants had to have used medication for their child that was prescribed "as needed" to manage their child's pain in the month preceding the interview, whether it was a prescription-strength medication or an over-the-counter strength prescription. Semi-directed interviews 30-45 min in duration were conducted with 16 parents in the Outaouais region of Quebec (Canada), either at the participant's home or by phone (after the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic). A thematic analysis was completed to identify themes in the data from these individual interviews. The evaluation of children's pain by their parents is influenced by the parents' experience with pain and the expression of the pain by the children, whereas the actions to relieve the pain are based on the beliefs surrounding pain management in children. Evaluation of pain is complex since many parents' beliefs influence this evaluation and the subsequent pain management. The study results raise healthcare professionals' awareness regarding several elements which influence the evaluation of children's pain and its management by their parents.
Legal contracts specify requirements for business transactions. As any other requirements specification, contracts may contain errors and violate properties expected by contracting parties. Symboleo was recently proposed as a formal specification language for legal contracts. This paper presents SymboleoPC, a tool for analyzing Symboleo contracts using model checking. It highlights the architecture, implementation and testing of the tool, as well as a scalability evaluation with respect to the size of contracts and properties to be checked through a series of experiments. The results suggest that SymboleoPC can be usefully applied to the analysis of formal specifications of contracts with real-life sizes and structures.
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