The current work reports a green and straightforward preparation of superhydrophobic cotton coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PMDS) via the water/oil/water (W/O/W) emulsion approach. The W/O/W emulsion containing Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)-water as the internal phase, PDMS as the dispersed phase, and water as the continuous phase is prepared in less than 5 min through a simple mechanical homogenization using PVOH as an emulsifying agent. The PDMS coating was prepared via the dip-coating of cotton fabric in the emulsion, followed by the heat treatment. The use of emulsion allows a uniform formation of PDMS coating on the fabric surface while minimizing the used coating amount. The prepared cotton sample has an excellent superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (WCA) of up to 169°. The prepared cotton effectively resisted the adhesion of and penetration of acidic and moderate-basic solutions. It also exhibited enhanced resistance against bacterial adhesion, whereby the number of bacteria adhering to the sample surface is reduced by many folds compared to untreated cotton. The PVOH concentration and the emulsion shelf time significantly impact the superhydrophobicity of the prepared sample.
The rate of cervical cancer among Canadian Inuit women is higher than the national average. To date, early detection remains the best strategy for reducing the incidence of cervical cancer and its consequences. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators in implementing human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling as a primary screening strategy for cervical cancer among Inuit women of Nunavik in Northern Quebec. A focused ethnographic approach was adopted. Inuit women of Nunavik participated in individual or group interviews during which a semi-structured interview guide was used to determine their perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to implementing HPV self-sampling as a primary screening strategy for cervical cancer. The data were analysed based on Paillé’s grounded theory of qualitative analysis. Twenty-eight Inuit women participated in this study. Analysis revealed five subcategories of facilitators and four barriers. Inuit women may embrace the self-sampling method. Importantly, in order to be effective, these strategies must be culturally sensitive and adapted to women’s preferences so as to increase sustainability. The results of this study provide the means for integrating the perspectives of Inuit women in implementing HPV self-sampling as a primary screening strategy for cervical cancer in Nunavik. Consideration of these facilitators and barriers might maximise the chance of success and optimise the screening participation rate. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Background Previous studies have identified the carbohydrate epitope Galα1–3Galβ1–4GlcNAc-R (termed the α-galactosyl epitope), known as the α-Gal antigen as the primary xenoantigen recognized by the human immune system. The α-Gal antigen is regulated by galactosyltransferase (GGTA1), and α-Gal antigen-deficient mice have been widely used in xenoimmunological studies, as well as for the immunogenic risk evaluation of animal-derived medical devices. The objective of this study was to develop α-Gal antigen-deficient rabbits by GGTA1 gene editing with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Results The mutation efficiency of GGTA1 gene-editing in rabbits was as high as 92.3% in F0 pups. Phenotype analysis showed that the α-Gal antigen expression in the major organs of F0 rabbits was decreased by more than 99.96% compared with that in wild-type (WT) rabbits, and the specific anti-Gal IgG and IgM antibody levels in F1 rabbits increased with increasing age, peaking at approximately 5 or 6 months. Further study showed that GGTA1 gene expression in F2-edited rabbits was dramatically reduced compared to that in WT rabbits. Conclusions α-Gal antigen-deficient rabbits were successfully generated by GGTA1 gene editing via the CRISPR/Cas9 system in this study. The feasibility of using these α-Gal antigen-deficient rabbits for the in situ implantation and residual immunogenic risk evaluation of animal tissue-derived medical devices was also preliminarily confirmed.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic caused an unprecedented health emergency across the world. Public health measures aimed at slowing the spread of the virus impose measures concerning physical distancing that citizens must observe. Thousands of workers quickly found themselves having to telework, with no preparation by their organizations. The literature reports the positive effects of teleworking on certain indicators of well-being, as well as best teleworking practices in a normal context. The urgent and unplanned nature of the switch to teleworking in a crisis may have changed the relationship between teleworking and well-being. Objective: This study aimed to explore workers' perspectives on teleworking in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, regarding its effects on their well-being. Methods: Following a descriptive interpretive research design, we collected qualitative data from 15 teleworkers via focus groups and individual interviews. Two researchers used a thematic analysis strategy to analyze the data. Results: Data analysis led to identifying 16 factors that participants cited as influencing the well-being of teleworkers. These form eight categories: delays related to uncertainty, manager practices, organizational practices, social interactions, job characteristics, teleworking space, personal realities and personal practices. The results show the influence of interactions between work demands, control and social support on the well-being of workers. Conclusion: Because of its many advantages, organizations and their workers will increasingly engage in telework. The influences of telework on people's well-being call for implementing concrete "best practices" that are applicable and that consider workers' perspectives.
The lived experiences of women with disabilities within their mothering role have received little attention in the literature. Even more scant is the perspective of women who become disabled after entering into motherhood. This ethnographic study documents the experiences of a mother, professional, and international researcher who is catapulted into the disableist world and is propelled to suddenly negotiate her newly appointed identities. This critical reflection leads to exposing the internalized ableist discourses and provides the terrain for a resistance identity based on character strengths, resiliency, and purpose. It centers around developing an identity based on mothering within an inter-dependency model. This study contributes to the fields of disability studies, mothering, and positive psychology.
Xylem anatomy may change in response to environmental or biotic stresses. Vascular occlusion, an anatomical modification of mature xylem, contributes to plant resistance and susceptibility to different stresses. In woody organs, xylem occlusions have been examined as part of the senescence process, but their presence and function in leaves remain obscure. In grapevine, many stresses are associated with premature leaf senescence inducing discolorations and scorched tissue in leaves. However, we still do not know whether the leaf senescence process follows the same sequence of physiological events and whether leaf xylem anatomy is affected in similar ways. In this study, we quantified vascular occlusions in midribs from leaves with symptoms of the grapevine disease esca, magnesium deficiency, and autumn senescence. We found higher amounts of vascular occlusions in leaves with esca symptoms (in 27% of xylem vessels on average), whereas the leaves with other symptoms (as well as the asymptomatic controls) had far fewer occlusions (in 3% of vessels). Therefore, we assessed the relationship between xylem occlusions and esca leaf symptoms in four different countries (California in the US, France, Italy, and Spain) and eight different cultivars. We monitored the plants over the course of the growing season, confirming that vascular occlusions do not evolve with symptom age. Finally, we investigated the hydraulic integrity of leaf xylem vessels by optical visualization of embolism propagation during dehydration. We found that the occlusions lead to hydraulic dysfunction mainly in the peripheral veins compared to the midribs in esca symptomatic leaves. These results open new perspectives on the role of vascular occlusions during the leaf senescence process, highlighting the uniqueness of esca leaf symptoms and its consequence on leaf physiology.
L’individu hypermoderne évolue dans une société caractérisée par l’excès et l’accélération de son mode de vie à travers laquelle il doit trouver un sens qui lui est propre et effectuer des choix qui lui permettront de se forger une identité. Les notions de spiritualité, de flow et de littératie physique combinées offrent une posture analytique nouvelle sur cette problématique en mettant en perspective le bien-être de l’individu. Ces notions nous amènent également à étudier le flowart, une pratique de loisir holistique et émersive ainsi qu’une forme de méditation en mouvement. La phénoménologie est ainsi utilisée afin de décrire l’expérience vécue du flowart et son impact sur le mode de vie de sept participants. Les données ont été collectées via un questionnaire à cinq questions ouvertes et un entretien semi-dirigé. L’analyse des données nous permet de circonscrire l’essence de ce phénomène, une forme d’énergie tangible et une connexion que les participants ressentent lorsqu’ils entrent en état de flow.
Cellulose is the most abundant bio-inspired polymer derived from biomass with tremendous promises to expedite the sustainability and green transition. The interesting, fascinating, and applicable properties of nanocellulose-based structures including biocompatibility, low cost, high intrinsic strength, and extraordinary mechanical properties have opened new horizons for their advanced and emerging applications. This comprehensive review aimed to highlight different aspects of cellulose nanomaterials, ranging from preparation, classification, surface modification, nanocomposite fabrication, characterization, and their potential applications in various multifunctional, and high-performance products. This work also reviews the recent approaches applied to modify the surface chemistry of nanocellulose through functionalizing its surface hydroxyl groups to impart advanced desirable properties. Also, emerging applications of CNMs including biosensors, electromagnetic shielding, eco-friendly and sustainable packaging, and bio-medical fields are well demonstrated in this review.
Investigating the relationship between attention-deﬁcit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and impulsivity will beneﬁt our understanding of the concept of problematic pornography use (PPU), and revealing predisposing and malleable moderators of PPU will be beneﬁcial for its prevention and intervention. The current study not only aimed to observe these relationships, but also explored the potential moderating role of physical exercise in the general population. A total of 600 Chinese adults (Mage = 32.31, SDage = 12.40, 39.8% women) were recruited and completed an online survey. The results showed that participants with regular exercise scored lower than those without exercise on ADHD, impulsivity, and PPU (all ps < 0.001). Using latent moderated structural equations (LMS), the ﬁndings revealed that the relationship between ADHD symptoms and PPU was mediated by impulsivity, and physical exercise moderated this relationship (B = −0.14, p = 0.048). Speciﬁcally, when individuals’ physical exercise was higher than 0.84 standard deviations above the mean, the positive predictive effect of impulsivity on PPU was not signiﬁcant. These ﬁndings indicate the important role of impulsivity in the relationship between ADHD and PPU, and physical exercise could be a meaningful component of interventions among individuals experiencing PPU.
To assist sixth-generation wireless systems in the management of a wide variety of services, ranging from mission-critical services to safety-critical tasks, key physical layer technologies such as reconfgurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) are proposed. Even though RISs are already used in various scenarios to enable the implementation of smart radio environments, they still face challenges with regard to real-time operation. Specifcally, high dimensional fully passive RISs typically need costly system overhead for channel estimation. This paper, however, investigates a semi-passive RIS that requires a very low number of active elements, wherein only two pilots are required per channel coherence time. While in its infant stage, the application of deep learning (DL) tools shows promise in enabling feasible solutions. We propose two low-training overhead and energy-efcient adversarial bandit-based schemes with outstanding performance gains when compared to DL-based refection beamforming reference methods. The resulting deep learning models are discussed using state-of-the-art model quality prediction trends.
Adequate social functioning during childhood requires context-appropriate social decision-making. To make such decisions, children rely on their social norms, conceptualized as cognitive models of shared expectations. Since social norms are dynamic, children must adapt their models of shared expectations and modify their behavior in line with their social environment. This study aimed to investigate children’s abilities to use social information to adapt their fairness norm and to identify the computational mechanism governing this process. Thirty children (7–11 years, M = 7.9 SD = 0.85, 11 girls) played the role of Responder in a modified version of the Ultimatum Game–a two-player game based on the fairness norm–in which they had to choose to accept or reject offers from different Proposers. Norm adaptation was assessed by comparing rejection rates before and after a conditioning block in which children received several low offers. Computational models were compared to test which best explains children’s behavior during the game. Mean rejection rate decreased significantly after receiving several low offers suggesting that children have the ability to dynamically update their fairness norm and adapt to changing social environments. Model-based analyses suggest that this process involves the computation of norm-prediction errors. This is the first study on norm adaptation capacities in school-aged children that uses a computational approach. Children use implicit social information to adapt their fairness norm to changing environments and this process appears to be supported by a computational mechanism in which norm-prediction errors are used to update norms.
Prior research has found mixed evidence regarding the relationships between board gender diversity (BGD) and firm value. Moreover, there is a lack of evidence on the channels through which BGD affects firm performance; hence, this paper tackles this issue. We aim to investigate the relationship between BGD and firm performance and to explore the mediating role of intellectual capital efficiency (ICE) in this relationship. Using a multivariate regression analysis and a sample of 4008 North American firms from 2002 to 2020 (14,382 firm-year observations), we find that gender diversity is positively related to financial performance, confirming that a diversified board improves board effectiveness and brings new resources to the firm, which allows it to improve its performance. More interestingly, the results of the Structural Equation Model (SEM) indicate that the relationship between gender diversity and performance is more pronounced with the mediating role of ICE. Our results are robust, controlling for the endogeneity and heteroscedasticity issues, with several controls for firm- and country-level characteristics, using alternative sample compositions and alternative econometric techniques, and including year, industry, country and firm-fixed effects. Interestingly, this paper shows strong evidence that the effect of BGD on firm value is more effective by incorporating the role of intellectual capital efficiency.
What is it to be “an ideal parent”? Does the answer differ across countries and social classes? To answer these questions in a way that minimizes bias and ethnocentrism, we used open-ended questions to explore ideal-parent beliefs among 8,357 mothers and 3,517 fathers from 37 countries. Leximancer Semantic Network Analysis was utilized to first determine parenting culture zones (i.e., countries with shared ideal-parent beliefs) and then extract the predominant themes and concepts in each culture zone. The results yielded specific types of ideal-parent beliefs in five parenting culture zones: being “responsible and children/family-focused” for Asian parents, being “responsible and proper demeanor-focused” for African parents, and being “loving and responsible” for Hispanic-Italian parents. Although the most important themes and concepts were the same in the final two zones—being “loving and patient,” there were subtle differences: English-speaking, European Union, and Russian parents emphasized “being caring,” while French-speaking parents valued “listening” or being “present.” Ideal-parent beliefs also differed by education levels within culture zones, but no general pattern was discerned across culture zones. These findings suggest that the country in which parents were born cannot fully explain their differences in ideal-parent beliefs and that differences arising from social class or education level cannot be dismissed. Future research should consider how these differences affect the validity of the measurements in question and how they can be incorporated into parenting intervention research within and across cultures.
Implementation fidelity is the degree of compliance with which the core elements of program or intervention practices are used as intended. The scientific literature reveals gaps in defining and assessing implementation fidelity in early intervention: lack of common definitions and conceptual framework as well as their lack of application. Through a critical review of the scientific literature, this article aims to identify information that can be used to develop a common language and guidelines for assessing implementation fidelity. An analysis of 46 theoretical and empirical papers about early intervention implementation, published between 1998 and 2018, identified four conceptual frameworks, in addition to that of Dane and Schneider. Following analysis of the conceptual frameworks, a four-component conceptualization of implementation fidelity (adherence, dosage, quality and participant responsiveness) is proposed.
Causal mediation mechanisms are well supported by available experimental evidence and provide a practicable way to reductive physicalism. According to the causal mediation account of mechanistic explanation, descriptions as diverse as ‘black-box’ phenomena, mechanistic sketches and schemas mixing physically interpreted and operationalized biological, psychological and social variables, and detailed descriptions of mechanisms refer to the same causal structure circumscribed within the spatiotemporal boundaries of a replicable experimental setup. The coreference of coarser- and finer-grained descriptions of causal structures opens new possibilities for testing the reductive physicalism conjecture. I discuss experimental designs supporting the causal mediation account and show how recent studies demonstrating the biological mediation of mind-mind causal processes can provide evidence for reductive physicalism.
Molecular dynamics simulation is applied to investigate the effect of two ionic liquids (IL) on the nucleation and growth of (nano-)cavities in water under tension and on the cavities’ collapse following the release of tension. Simulations of the same phenomena in two pure water samples of different sizes are carried out for comparison. The first IL, i.e., tetra-ethyl ammonium mesylate ([Tea][Ms]), is relatively hydrophilic and its addition to water at 25 wt% concentration decreases its tendency to nucleate cavities. Apart from quantitative details, cavity formation and collapse are similar to those taking place in water, and qualitatively follow the Rayleigh-Plesset (RP) equation. The second IL, i.e., tetrabutyl phosphonium 2,4-dimethylbenzene sulfonate ([P4444 ][DMBS]), is amphiphilic, and forms nanostructured solutions with water. At 25 wt% concentrations, [P4444 ][DMBS] favours the nucleation of bubbles, that tend to form at the interface between water-rich and IL-rich domains. Cavity collapse in [P4444 ][DMBS]/water solutions are greatly hindered by a shell of ions decorating the interface between the solution and the vapour phase. A similar effect is observed for the equilibration of a population of bubbles of different sizes. The drastic slowing down of bubbles’ relaxation processes suggests ways to produce long-lived nanometric cavities in the liquid phase that could be useful for nanotechnology and drug delivery.
In this study, a novel antimicrobial formula that incorporates Listeria bacteriophage P100 and silver nanoparticles into an alginate matrix was successfully developed. Paper coated with the antimicrobial formula inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The effects of alginate concentration on the formation of silver nanoparticles, silver concentration on the infectivity of phages, and of low alginate concentrations on the sustained release of silver and phages were explored. The highest antimicrobial activity of the alginate–silver coating was achieved with an alginate concentration of 1%. Adding phage P100 (109 PFU/mL) into the alginate–silver coating led to a synergic effect that resulted in a 5-log reduction in L. monocytogenes. A bioactive paper was then developed by coating a base paper with the antimicrobial formula at different coating weights, followed by infrared drying. The higher coating weight was a crucial factor for the maintenance of phage infectivity throughout the coating and drying processes. Phages incorporated into the alginate matrix remained functional even after high-temperature infrared drying. Taken together, an optimized coating matrix is critical in improving the antimicrobial performance of bioactive paper as well as maintaining phage infectivity during the paper manufacturing process.
In this manuscript, we are reporting for the first time one dimensional (1D) cerium hydrogen phosphate (Ce(HPO4)2.xH2O) electrode material for supercapacitor application. In short, a simple hydrothermal technique was employed to prepare Ce(HPO4)2.xH2O. The maximum surface area of 82 m2 g−1 was obtained from nitrogen sorption isotherm. SEM images revealed Ce(HPO4)2.xH2O exhibited a nanorod-like structure along with particles and clusters. The maximum specific capacitance of 114 F g−1 was achieved at 0.2 A g−1 current density for Ce(HPO4)/NF electrode material in a three-electrode configuration. Furthermore, the fabricated symmetric supercapacitor (SSC) based on Ce(HPO4)2.xH2O//Ce(HPO4)2.xH2O demonstrates reasonable specific energy (2.08 Wh kg−1), moderate specific power (499.88 W kg−1), and outstanding cyclic durability (retains 92.7% of its initial specific capacitance after 5000 GCD cycles).
Purpose The purpose of this study was to conceptualize integrative prevention at work and to identify its operational variables to support its application in occupational rehabilitation. Methods Based on Walker and Avant’s specifications for concept analysis, we conducted a systematic five-step procedure (i.e., 1-identification of research question, 2-literature search through meta-narrative review, 3-manuscript selection, 4-extraction, 5-analysis). Results Analysis of information extracted from 20 manuscripts across diverse literature fields allowed to identify that the shared attributes of integrative prevention at work are: (a) coordination of the three levels of prevention, (b) integration of health promotion with prevention, (c) shared understanding of the goal, (d) engagement of stakeholders, and (e) variety of actions. The analysis also identified three antecedents and five consequences, situating the concept within the context of a change process. The results include recommendations for promoting the practical application of the concept. Conclusion The results of this study offer an informative, non-prescriptive, and operational definition of integrative prevention at work that all the stakeholders involved, including occupational rehabilitation professionals, can use.
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to numerous changes in work environments. Thousands of workers quickly found themselves having to telework without being prepared, which had consequences on their work experience and health. Authors proposed telework practices that promote the healthy work experience of workers in a pandemic context, but less attention has been paid to consider the realities and needs of individuals with physical disabilities. Purpose This study aimed to explore the influence of telework during the pandemic on the work experience of people with physical disabilities. Methods Following an interpretive descriptive research design, interviews were conducted with 16 workers with physical disabilities (i.e., motor, or sensory). The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis strategy. Results The results revealed 15 factors that influence the work experience of teleworkers with physical disabilities. These factors are related to interactions between three spheres of the worker's life: the individual, the organization, and the environment. Ten recommendations are proposed to consider the reality and needs of individuals with physical disabilities in the telework practices. Conclusion Given that telework has expanded since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and will likely continue to remain a widespread modality of work delivery, it becomes even more important to expand knowledge about it, to benefit the work experience of teleworkers with physical disabilities.
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