Université de Vincennes - Paris 8
Recent publications
Threshold implementation is a method based on secret sharing to secure cryptographic ciphers (and in particular S-boxes) against differential power analysis side-channel attacks which was proposed by Nikova, Rechberger, and Rijmen in 2006. Until now, threshold implementations were only constructed for specific types of functions and some small S-boxes, but no generic construction was ever presented. In this paper, we present the first universal threshold implementation with t +2 shares that is applicable to any bijective S-box, where t is its algebraic degree (or is larger than the algebraic degree). While being universal, our construction is also optimal with respect to the number of shares, since the theoretically smallest possible number, t + 1, is not attainable for some bijective S-boxes. Our results enable low latency secure hardware implementations without the need for additional randomness. In particular, we apply this result to find two uniform sharings of the AES S-box. The first sharing is obtained by using the threshold implementation of the inversion in F <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">2<sup>8</sup></sub> and the second by using two threshold implementations of two cubic power permutations that decompose the inversion. Area and performance figures for hardware implementations are provided.
We introduce the concept of a rank-saturating system and outline its correspondence to a rank-metric code with a given covering radius. We consider the problem of finding the value of \(s_{q^m/q}(k,\rho )\), which is the minimum \(\mathbb {F}_q\)-dimension of a q-system in \(\mathbb {F}_{q^m}^k\) that is rank-\(\rho \)-saturating. This is equivalent to the covering problem in the rank metric. We obtain upper and lower bounds on \(s_{q^m/q}(k,\rho )\) and evaluate it for certain values of k and \(\rho \). We give constructions of rank-\(\rho \)-saturating systems suggested from geometry.
The freight transport system currently faces several problems that prevent its sustainability and resilience, especially with the spread of COVID-19. To deal with these issues, freight transport performance should be managed and controlled using appropriate indicators. In this paper, a multi-criteria analysis approach is applied to select the most suitable set of sustainability and resilience indicators utilised to assess the performance of freight transport system. In this context, a list of indicators is extracted from the literature. Then, the most appropriate set of indicators is selected based on six selection criteria: understandable, data available, sensible, achievable, predictable and relevant to target. Among 138 sustainability and resilience indicators, only 26 indicators that meet the defined criteria, are selected. These help decision-makers assess the sustainability and resilience of freight transport and propose the necessary modifications to improve the whole system.
This study presents the development of a predictive model for the health monitoring of power transmitters in a packaging robot using machine learning techniques. The model is based on a Discrete Bayesian Filter (DBF) and is compared to a model based on a Naïve Bayes Filter (NBF). Data preprocessing techniques are applied to select suitable descriptors for the predictive model. The results show that the DBF model outperforms the NBF model in terms of predictive power. The model can be used to estimate the current state of the power transmitter and predict its degradation over time. This can lead to improved maintenance planning and cost savings in the context of Industry 4.0.
In this paper, we are concerned with the development of solutions for optimal production planning and management of perishable products with a focus to ice-food product for which scarce literature is available. A key aspect of our proposed study is that it takes into account the interaction between various features, namely: the material and the human resources as well as the seasonality that might underpin the demand profile. As such we propose a mixed integer program that models an integrated optimization process for accurate ice-food production planning. This model operates under the objective of minimizing total inventory cost including several resource features. Besides, we develop and introduce a novel heuristic for resolving it. Evidence on the performance of our proposed models is established by means of an extensive comparative study against a peer mixed integer program and two heuristics that are available in the agri-food production planning literature. The results thus obtained showed that our heuristic solution compared more favorable in minimizing the holding volumes after customer delivery under various settings of inventory control parameters, namely: the initial available inventory and the available production capacity.
Green space matters for mental health but is under constant pressure in an increasingly urbanising world. Often there is little space available in cities for green areas, so it is vital to optimise the design and usage of these available green spaces. To achieve this, experts in planning, design and nature conservation need to know which types and characteristics of green spaces are most beneficial for residents' mental health. A scoping review of studies that compare different green space types and characteristics on mental health was conducted. A total of 215 (experimental, observational and qualitative) papers were included in the scoping review. This review highlights a high level of heterogeneity in study design, geographical locations, mental health outcomes and green space measures. Few of the included studies were specifically designed to enable direct comparisons between green space types and characteristics (e.g. between parks and forests). The included studies have predominantly experimental research designs looking at the effects of short‐term exposure to green space on short‐term mental health outcomes (e.g. affect and physiological stress). More studies enabled only indirect comparisons, either within the same study or between different studies. Analysis of the direction of the mental health outcomes (positive, neutral, negative) from exposure to various types and characteristics of green space found positive (i.e. beneficial) effects across all green space types. However, green space characteristics did appear to render more diverse effects on mental health, which is especially the case for vegetation characteristics (e.g. higher vegetation density can be negative for mental health). The scoping review reveals gaps in the present evidence base, with a specific need for more studies directly comparing green space types and characteristics within the same study. Proposed future research directions include the use of longitudinal research designs focusing on green space characteristics, considering actual exposure and systematically addressing heterogeneity in factors influencing the relation between green spaces and mental health (e.g. type of interaction, user experience). Read the free Plain Language Summary for this article on the Journal blog.
We argue that the pictorial nature of certain constructions in signs and in gestures explains surprising properties of their syntax. In several sign languages, the standard word order (e.g. SVO) gets turned into SOV (with preverbal arguments) when the predicate is a classifier, a distinguished construction with highly iconic properties (e.g. Pavlič, 2016). In silent gestures, participants also prefer an SOV order in extensional constructions, irrespective of the word order of the language they speak (Goldin-Meadow et al., 2008). But in silent gestures and in Brazilian Sign Language (Libras), intensional constructions can override these SOV preferences, yielding SVO instead (Schouwstra & de Swart, 2014; Napoli et al., 2017). This distinction was argued to be due to iconicity: arguments are expressed before the verb if they correspond to entities that are present before the action, otherwise they follow the verb. While agreeing with this intuition, we propose that the extensional/intensional distinction is neither empirically nor theoretically appropriate. In new data from American Sign Language, we replicate the distinction among extensional classifier predicates: for x ate up the ball, the ball is typically seen before the eating and a preposed object is preferred; but for x spit out the ball, the ball is typically seen after the spitting and a postposed object is preferred, although both eat up and spit out are used extensionally. We extend this finding to data involving pro-speech (= speech-replacing) gestures embedded in French sentences. We argue for a Visibility Generalization according to which arguments appear before the verb if their denotations are typically visible before the action, and we develop a new formal account within a pictorial semantics for visual animations (inspired by Greenberg and Abusch). It derives the observed word order preferences, it explains how the semantics of classifier predicates combines iconic and conventional properties, and it makes a more general point: sign language semantics combines logical semantics with pictorial semantics.
Groups have cognitive existence through the prototype of the group (Haslam et al., 1995; https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420250504). Past group prototypes then refer to the most representative characteristics that define the group in these previous states. We suppose, as collective events might have different versions associated with different valences (Zaromb et al., 2014; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-013-0369-7), this might also be the case for prototypes also held in the collective memory (Halbwachs, 1950; http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1522/cla.ham.mem1). After highlighting different facets of the past (Study 1) or not (Study 2), we used the “free association method” (Lo Monaco et al., 2017; https://doi.org/10.1111/jtsb.12124; Vergès, [1992], L’évocation de l’argent. Bulletin de Psychologie, 45(4–7), 203–209). Yet, this research explored the content of past prototypes associated with different elements of French collective memory: the French during the Second World War (Study 1, N = 301), and French people in 18th century (Study 2, N = 354). Results suggest the existence for each of these periods of a “two-sided” prototype, i.e., a positive vs. negative-valence prototype. The implications of the existence of these “two-sided” prototypes, the implication of collective continuity perceived for each of them and avenues for future research will be discussed.
The instrumentality of employees can be considered a common feature of the modern workplace. To investigate the influence of this instrumentalizing culture on organizational performance on the individual level, we tested whether perceived clan values (according to the Competing Values Framework) could explain affective commitment directly and indirectly through perceptions of organizational justice and organizational dehumanization in employees. Using the PROCESS macro, we tested a corresponding serial mediation model in a convenience sample of 306 French employees. Although employees who perceived a lack of clan values were less committed, the observed indirect effect was greater. Our findings highlight the role of perceived organizational culture in influencing affective commitment and how perceived justice and dehumanization may explain part of this relationship. This research also contradicts widespread beliefs stating dehumanizing strategies are universally beneficial in terms of organizational efficiency. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
This article investigates the nature and implications of the European Union (EU)’s recent discourse and policy approach towards Internet standards. Internet is a network of interconnected networks that can communicate with one another thanks to shared protocols, most often produced by standard-developing organisations. This research analyses the effects of the discursive turn of the EU–as part of its new digital sovereignty agenda–and investigates whether it has materialised into actual changes in the way the EU engages with the making process of Internet standards since 2019. This article shows that the EU’s approach towards these arenas has been and remains inconsistent. It argues that the EU’s increasing ‘digital assertiveness’ and digital sovereignty discourses have led to a few noticeable policy evolutions, whose effects remain largely unintended and that could further normalise state-based interventions in the Internet architecture.
In line with the progressive development of digital technologies, this theoretical article is about the conception of a digital twin - based assistant to increase the serenity of the journey of the occupants of a connected car, automated or not. Its main functions are (i) to manage the Human (driver and/or passenger) - Machine (vehicle) Interaction, (ii) to inform the occupants and support decision-making by avoiding stressful situations. This is done by appropriate prevention and remediation. We advocate that the virtual assistant functions for being empathetic can be done by taking the user's point of view. Thanks to the knowledge about tasks, practices, needs and constraints, we describe how car-user's individual features can be used to get her digital twin description. Based on ontologies, this features model, providing assistance is then to simulate online the next steps of the task realization, informing about conditions, prerequisites, post-requites and subtasks to be fulfilled. Expected effects of this cognitive technology dedicated to personalized assistance are a decrease in stress, in frequency of incident and accident situations, according to a monitoring, as complete as possible, of the car-driver's conditions and situations dedicated to a serene driving.
In the framework of the LTA project, focusing on leisure reading for children with visual impairment, we present a prototype of multisensory illustration that will be used as a model for future accessible tactile interactive books. This multisensory illustration is based on two approaches to illustrate the storytelling. The first approach consists in embodying the character's legs with the index and middle fingers in order for the user to imitate actions such as walking. The second approach is to offer interactions feedback according to the readers actions. The main goal of this multisensory illustration prototype is to test and evaluate a selection of interactions and their associated sensors. These interactions help visually impaired readers to identify the environment of the story. They also help to understand actions behind the verbs. Readers are engaged to produce actions such as touching and imitating with their fingers. These interactions are developed according to hypotheses based on the literature. This multisensory illustration prototype was tested with a panel of children. The results comfort the idea that these interactions are useful for them.
Dans le contexte brésilien de fermeture des écoles en raison de la pandemie de la Covid-19, face aux multiples formes de crises sociales et à un projet de destruction du pays mené par les autorités politiques, cette contribution témoigne de comment les jeunes rencontrés au moment du passage entre le lycée et l’université dans le cadre d’une recherche ont vécu cette période. Les entretiens menés ont fait émerger la question importante de leur rapport à l’école, en tant qu’institution, dans ce moment existentiel de projection. La recherche met en lumière le fait que ces jeunes ont pu traverser ces crises en s’appuyant sur une forme d’école intériorisée, un trait identificatoire qui a rendu possible le travail psychique du deuil, leur permettant de ne pas tomber dans un état mélancolique.
Pragmatic competence covers a range of skills, including the ability to interpret indirect meaning (i.e., any instance where there is a mismatch between literal and intended meaning). Past research has suggested that indirect meaning poses comprehension challenges for learners of a second language (L2). This result has been explained with reference to the influence of proficiency and the linguistic/discourse‐level conventionality of indirect meaning types. To verify and potentially extend these results, we conducted a close replication of a study of indirect meaning comprehension in L2 Spanish (Taguchi et al., 2016) for which we used a group of L2 French learners. Results confirmed most of Taguchi et al.'s findings. In our interpretation, we suggest that our results are consistent with the idea that difficulties with indirect meaning comprehension largely stem from lacunae in general oral comprehension, thus calling into question the idea that indirect meaning may be globally more difficult to interpret. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Parmi les nombreuses innovations théoriques de Jean-Marie Floch, sa redécouverte de Wölfflin a marqué une date dans l’histoire de la théorie sémiotique ; redécouverte d’un structuralisme pré-structural accompagné d’un développement théorique considérable, dans l’œuvre de Floch, permettant l’extension de la « vision baroque » opposable à la « vision classique » bien au-delà du domaine qui lui a donné naissance, au delà même des univers esthétiques, pour entrer de plain-pied dans le champ de la communication sociale (médiatique, technique, politique, etc.) contemporaine. Or, les propositions de Claude Zilberberg (notamment dans « Présence de Wölfflin », n° 23-24 des Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques, 1992) ont profondément modifié la perspective théorique sur l’héritage du célèbre historien de l’art, suscitant un désaccord avec Floch. En interrogeant le statut du débat au sein de la communauté sémiotique, illustré ici par les divergences tues entre les sémioticiens, on analyse ces deux « lectures » de Wölfflin, leurs différences formelles, leurs rapports respectifs avec le sensible, leurs horizons théoriques – catégoriel d’un côté, tensif de l’autre. On met alors l’accent sur deux points de divergence, concernant le statut de l’affect et le problème de la profondeur. On montre les empiètements entre les deux approches et leur profonde convergence. Mais surtout on suggère ici un dépassement possible de la controverse en analysant la distinction classique / baroque sur fond de perception et en termes de « rythme », c’est-à-dire comme variation de tension entre les événements accentuels d’une série syntagmatique. On fait ainsi intervenir la question de la nuance, celle de la non-résolution de syntagmes accentuels, voire de la discordance entre niveaux accentuels. Cette contribution à la connaissance d’un phénomène essentiel dans l’histoire des formes permet aussi de reposer la question de sa dénomination. Comment nommer en effet ce qui constitue, à travers tant de matériaux langagiers (non verbal et verbal), tant de domaines de communication, tant de moments et de contextes historiques, une trame insistante au sein de la culture occidentale, au cœur même de sa « grammaire d'expression » dont l’opposition «classique/baroque » n’est au fond qu’une émergence exceptionnelle, mais locale ?
La notion de semi-symbolisme demeure théoriquement et pratiquement problématique, depuis l’invention et l’usage flamboyant qu’en fit Jean-Marie Floch dans les années quatre-vingt et quatre-vingt dix du siècle précédent. Testant sa nécessité dogmatique et son efficacité pragmatique en considérant la recherche que ce dernier avait menée à propos de l’icône de la Trinité peinte par Andreï Rublev, et qui est consignée dans son ouvrage posthume de 2009, on suggère la possibilité de l’intégration de la démarche analytique de la sémiotique dans une autre grille et d’une réorganisation des rapports entre « interférences du contexte », « sens plastique », et « outil semi-symbolique ».
Little is known about adolescents’ own beliefs regarding their level of risk taking or regarding peer influence on the latter. This is an important matter given that beliefs influence judgements and decisions. With the present study, we aimed to study adolescents’ and adults’ beliefs about adolescents’ risk taking compared to adults’ risk taking, and beliefs about peer influence on risk taking. To this end, an experimental design was used. A cross-sectional study included 56 adolescents and 43 adults, who completed a questionnaire asking about adolescents’ and adults’ risk-taking propensity and a syllogistic reasoning task designed to indirectly study these beliefs. Both direct and indirect measures indicated that adolescents perceived adolescence as a period of higher risk taking compared to adulthood, and believed peer presence to promote this effect. Adults perceived this detrimental effect of peers to be present irrespective of age. We discuss the implications of these results in terms of social representation.
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Antoine Bioy
  • Department of Psychology
Akrum Abdul-Latif
  • IUT de Tremblay
Jean-Paul Laurent
  • Department of Psychology
Serge Caparos
  • Department of Psychology
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