This article reviews the experimental research on the level of anxiety or depression in gifted individuals. Twenty-seven studies compared gifted and typically developing individuals for the anxiety level and 15 studies for the depression level comparison. This current meta-analysis was performed on the anxiety and depression levels distinctly. We found a non-significant negative effect size for both anxiety, g = -0.14, k = 27, and depression, g = -0.14, k = 15. These values should be taken cautiously given that a high heterogeneity was also found, which remained largely unexplained by the moderators tested. Only age and type of anxiety assessment emerged as significant moderators for the anxiety domain. The observed effect size for depression was not significantly affected by the subgroups analyzed.
The prevalence of complications was high for patients treated according to hemodynamic treatment strategy. • factors associated with complications in this population were age, the preoperative hemoglobin and surgical complications. • These factors were associated with outcome in this population treated according to hemodynamic treatment strategy. • Neither blood pressure, cardiac output, intraoperative volume, nor norepinephrine dose were associated with complications.
BACKGROUND The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) predicts that alien plant species are unsuitable hosts for native phytophagous insects. On the other hand, the biotic resistance hypothesis (BRH) predicts that generalist herbivores may prefer alien plant over their common host plant. In this study, we have tested these two hypotheses by comparing the potential colonization of the invasive Pontic rhododendron ( Rhododendron ponticum L.) vs. the common rearing host plants by two generalist aphid species ( Aphis fabae and Myzus persicae ). We assessed (1) the probing behavior using the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) technique and (2) survival and fecundity in Petri dishes. RESULTS The results showed the inability of A. fabae and M. persicae to immediately colonize R. ponticum . Despite their ability to feed on this invasive plant, the two aphid species hardly survived and poorly reproduced. CONCLUSION Our results are consistent with the ERH, since R. ponticum appeared as an unsuitable host for native phytophagous insects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Background The long‐term risk of relapse after switching from intravenous (IV) to subcutaneous (SC) infliximab remains unknown in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Aims To assess the long‐term effectiveness and acceptability of switching from IV to SC infliximab in patients with IBD treated with or without an intensified IV regimen. Methods We extended the follow‐up of the REMSWITCH study including patients with IBD in clinical remission who were switched from IV to SC infliximab (120 mg/2 weeks). Relapse was defined as clinical relapse or faecal calprotectin increase ≥150 μg/g compared to baseline. Results After median follow‐up of 18 [15–20] months, among 128 patients, rates of relapse were 13.8% (8/58), 18.4% (7/38), 35.3% (6/17) and 86.7% (13/15) at last follow‐up (p < 0.001), in those receiving 5 mg/kg/8 weeks, 10 mg/kg/8 weeks, 10 mg/kg/6 weeks and 10 mg/kg/4 weeks at baseline, respectively. Among relapsing patients, dose escalation led to clinical remission in 82.1% (23/28). In multivariable analyses, factors associated with higher risk of relapse were IV infliximab 10 mg/kg/4 weeks (OR = 61.0 [6.1–607.0], p < 0.001) or 10 mg/kg/6 weeks (OR = 4.7 [1.1–20.2], p = 0.017), and decreased (OR = 5.6 [1.5–20.3], p = 0.004) or stable (OR = 5.0 [1.6–15.0], p = 0.009) serum levels of infliximab between baseline and first post‐switch visit. Acceptability was improved at 6 months and did not decrease over time (6.9 ± 1.6 before the switch vs. 8.8 ± 1.3 at 6 months and 8.8 ± 1.3 at last follow‐up; p < 0.001). No severe adverse events were reported. Conclusions Switching from IV to SC infliximab 120 mg every other week is safe and well accepted leading to low long‐term risk of relapse. Tight monitoring and dose escalation should be recommended for patients receiving 10 mg/kg/6 weeks and 4 weeks, respectively.
Climate change is pushing species towards and potentially beyond their critical thermal limits. The extent to which species can cope with temperatures exceeding their critical thermal limits is still uncertain. To better assess species' responses to warming, we compute the warming tolerance (Δ T niche ) as a thermal vulnerability index, using species' upper thermal limits (the temperature at the warm limit of their distribution range) minus the local habitat temperature actually experienced at a given location. This metric is useful to predict how much more warming species can tolerate before negative impacts are expected to occur. Here we set up a cross‐continental transplant experiment involving five regions distributed along a latitudinal gradient across Europe (43° N–61° N). Transplant sites were located in dense and open forests stands, and at forest edges and in interiors. We estimated the warming tolerance for 12 understory plant species common in European temperate forests. During 3 years, we examined the effects of the warming tolerance of each species across all transplanted locations on local plant performance, in terms of survival, height, ground cover, flowering probabilities and flower number. We found that the warming tolerance (Δ T niche ) of the 12 studied understory species was significantly different across Europe and varied by up to 8°C. In general, Δ T niche were smaller (less positive) towards the forest edge and in open stands. Plant performance (growth and reproduction) increased with increasing Δ T niche across all 12 species. Our study demonstrated that Δ T niche of understory plant species varied with macroclimatic differences among regions across Europe, as well as in response to forest microclimates, albeit to a lesser extent. Our findings support the hypothesis that plant performance across species decreases in terms of growth and reproduction as local temperature conditions reach or exceed the warm limit of the focal species.
We focus on the electronic, magnetic, and ferroelectric properties of the bilayer composite, Bi0.9La0.1Fe0.9Mn0.1O3/La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (BFO-LM/LSMO). The studied films were processed on a Pt-substrate using chemical solution deposition. The morphology and structure purity of the synthesized films were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the simultaneous presence of macroscopic polarization and a fairly high magnetization were highlighted for the investigated specimen. In addition, the stability and electronic and magnetic properties of the BFO-LM/LSMO bilayer films with different stacking patterns have been explored using first-principles calculations. Moreover, the interfacial separation work for the Fe and Mn atoms at the interface in the BFO-LM/LSMO bilayer are 0.2069 J/m2 and 1.0309 J/m2, respectively, indicating that these systems have high stability, which is due to the strong hybridizations of the Fe_d, Mn_d, and O_p states at the interface. The interactions between the Fe and Mn spins at the interface lead to enhancing the remnant and saturation magnetizations in this system. The obtained results make BFO-LM/LSMO films a promising material for advanced spintronics and multifunctional devices.
Background The 2023 Duke-ISCVID criteria for infective endocarditis (IE) were recently proposed to update the diagnostic classification of IE. Using an open prospective multicenter cohort of patients treated for IE (ObservatoireEI, NCT03272724), we evaluated the performance indices of these new criteria, compared with those of the 2000 Modified Duke and the 2015 ESC criteria. Methods Data of patients who developed IE between January 2017 and October 2022, were extracted from the cohort database. Each case was individually adjudicated by 3 IE expert clinicians who met to identify cases they deemed ‘certain IE', which formed the “gold standard” IE group. A case was adjudicated as a ‘certain IE’ only when all 3 experts agreed on certainty of IE. Within each classification, each case was summarized by its criteria and assigned one of the definite, possible, or rejected categories. For each diagnostic classification, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy and their 95% confidence intervals were computed in the whole case sample and in selected sub-groups (Figure). Case distribution of the 1194 cases by the three sets of criteria Results Cases included 1194 patients (mean age 66.1 years, 71.2% men), of whom 680 (57%) had a previously known pre-existing heart disease (414 prosthetic valves), 284 (23.8%) had a CIED, and 94 (7.9%) had a prior history of IE (see additional characteristics in Table 1). Of the 1194 patients, 946 (79.2%) were adjudicated as certain IE; 978 (81.9%), 997 (83.5%), and 1057 (88.5%) were classified as definite IE in the 2000 modified Duke, the 2015 ESC, and the 2023 Duke-ISCVID criteria, respectively (Figure). In the whole case sample, the sensitivity of each classification was 93.2% [91.6%; 94.8%], 95.0% [93.7%; 96.4%], and 97.6% [ 96.6%; 98.6%], respectively (p< .001 for all 2-by-2 comparisons). Corresponding specificity rates were 61.3% [55.2%; 67.4%], 60.5% [54.4%; 66.6%], and 46.0% [39.8%; 52.2%], respectively. Corresponding accuracy rates were 86.6% [84.7%; 88.5%], 87.9% [86.0%; 89.7%]), and 86.9% [84.9%; 88.8%], respectively. Performance indices on selected subgroups of patients are shown in Table 2. Patients’ Characteristics (Cont'd) Performance indices (% and [95% CI]) of the 2000 modified Duke, 2015 ESC, and 2023 Duke-ISCVID criteria for the diagnosis of IE in the whole study sample and selected subgroups Conclusion Compared to the 2000 Modified Duke and the 2015 ESC criteria, the 2023 Duke-ISCVID criteria had a significantly higher sensitivity and a significantly lower specificity, while accuracy was not significantly different. Disclosures françois Goehringer, n/a, Gilead Sciences: Expert Testimony|Gilead Sciences: Honoraria|GSK: Expert Testimony Christophe Strady, n/a, shionogi: Honoraria
Solvent‐free (SF) manufacturing of Lithium‐ion battery (LIB) electrodes is safer and more environmentally friendly than the traditional slurry casting approach. However, as a young technique, SF manufacturing is under development of its pathways and operation conditions. In different SF processes reported in literature, extrusion is a common step. A detailed model of this process would be extremely computationally demanding. This work proposes a novel simplified discrete element model at the mesoscopic scale for the extrusion during SF manufacturing of LIB electrodes. In addition to active material particles, we consider fluid‐like solid particles to approximate the molten polymer and the carbon additive phases. The formulation and other process parameters are taken from our experimental facility that uses extrusion to fabricate filaments for 3D printing of LIB cells. The extrusion is carried out in a conical twin screw extruder. Our approach allows to obtain representative electrode microstructures after extrusion, where electrical conductivity, ionic effective diffusivity, tortuosity factor and porosity are calculated. The model is a proof of concept that is employed to investigate the influence of the extruder speed and the cohesion level on the resulting electrode properties.
Objectives The objective of this study is to better characterize the features and outcomes of a large population of patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Methods We performed an observational retrospective multicenter cohort study in France. Patients who fulfilled at least one diagnostic criterion set for MCTD and none of the criteria for other differentiated CTD (dCTD) were included. Results Three hundred and thirty patients (88% females, median [interquartile range] age of 35 years [26–45]) were included. The diagnostic criteria of Sharp or Kasukawa were met by 97.3% and 93.3% of patients, respectively. None met other classification criteria without fulfilling Sharp or Kasukawa criteria. After a median follow‐up of 8 (3–14) years, 149 (45.2%) patients achieved remission, 92 (27.9%) had interstitial lung disease, 25 (7.6%) had pulmonary hypertension, and 18 (5.6%) died. Eighty‐five (25.8%) patients progressed to a dCTD, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (15.8%) or systemic sclerosis (10.6%). Median duration between diagnosis and progression to a dCTD was 5 (2–11) years. The presence at MCTD diagnosis of an abnormal pattern on nailfold capillaroscopy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.44, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] [1.11–5.58]) and parotid swelling (OR = 3.86, 95%CI [1.31–11.4]) were statistically associated with progression to a dCTD. Patients who did not progress to a dCTD were more likely to achieve remission at the last follow‐up (51.8% vs. 25.9%). Conclusions This study shows that MCTD is a distinct entity that can be classified using either Kasukawa or Sharp criteria, and that only 25.8% of patients progress to a dCTD during follow‐up.
We investigate the rational cohomology of the quotient of (generalized) braid groups by the commutator subgroup of the pure braid groups. We provide a combinatorial description of it using isomorphism classes of certain families of graphs. We establish Poincaré dualities for them and prove a stabilization property for the infinite series of reflection groups.
Deep learning has been recently used to extract the relevant features for representing input data also in the unsupervised setting. However, state-of-the-art techniques focus mostly on algorithmic efficiency and accuracy rather than mimicking the input manifold. On the contrary, competitive learning is a powerful tool for replicating the input distribution topology. It is cognitive/biologically inspired as it is founded on Hebbian learning, a neuropsychological theory claiming that neurons can increase their specialization by competing for the right to respond to/represent a subset of the input data. This paper introduces a novel perspective by combining these two techniques: unsupervised gradient-based and competitive learning. The theory is based on the intuition that neural networks can learn topological structures by working directly on the transpose of the input matrix. At this purpose, the vanilla competitive layer and its dual are presented. The former is representative of a standard competitive layer for deep clustering, while the latter is trained on the transposed matrix. The equivalence of the layers is extensively proven both theoretically and experimentally. The dual competitive layer has better properties. Unlike the vanilla layer, it directly outputs the prototypes of the data inputs, while still allowing learning by backpropagation. More importantly, this paper proves theoretically that the dual layer is better suited for handling high-dimensional data (e.g., for biological applications), because the estimation of the weights is driven by a constraining subspace which does not depend on the input dimensionality, but only on the dataset cardinality. This paper has introduced a novel approach for unsupervised gradient-based competitive learning. This approach is very promising both in the case of small datasets of high-dimensional data and for better exploiting the advantages of a deep architecture: the dual layer perfectly integrates with the deep layers. A theoretical justification is also given by using the analysis of the gradient flow for both vanilla and dual layers.
Some fibromyalgia (FM) patients engage in rumination (i.e. a chain of repetitive, passive and relatively uncontrollable thoughts focused on negative content) to cope with the pain and discomfort of daily activities. The partial model of rumination in chronic pain suggests that rumination processes may play a causal role in maintaining pain. Rumination might also be one of the key factors interfering with the reestablishment of adapted physical activity. The objective of this study was to test how rumination vs. distraction induction influence FM patients’ pain intensity, discomfort linked to pain, and affect after physical activity. Forty-seven participants with a diagnosis of FM were randomly assigned to undergo distraction induction vs. rumination induction after performing a physical activity in ecological setting. Their pain intensity, pain-related discomfort, and affect were measured at the baseline, after physical activity, and after rumination versus distraction induction. A series of mixed-design ANOVAs showed that rumination induction after physical activity impairs patients’ recovery in terms of pain intensity and discomfort, but not affect, as compared to the distraction condition. In conclusion, participants with fibromyalgia who engage in rumination following a physical activity recover less from their pain experience as compared to distraction induction. These results are consistent with the partial model of rumination in chronic pain and support the idea that rumination may play a causal role in the development and maintenance of pain.
Aim The microclimate and light conditions on the forest floor are strongly modified by tree canopies. Therefore, we need to better consider the micro‐environment when quantifying trait–environment relationships for forest understorey plants. Here, we quantify relationships between micro‐environmental conditions and plant functional traits at the community level, including intraspecific trait variation, and their relationship with microclimate air temperature, light and soil properties. Location Deciduous temperate forests across Europe. Time period 2018. Major taxa studied Herbaceous vegetation. Methods We sampled 225 plots across 15 regions along four complementary gradients capturing both macro‐ and microclimatic conditions including latitude, elevation, forest management and distance to forest edges. We related the community‐weighted mean of five plant functional traits (plant height, specific leaf area [SLA], plant carbon [C], plant nitrogen [N] and plant C:N ratio) across 150 vascular plant species to variation in local microclimate air temperature, light and soil properties. We tested the effect of accounting for intraspecific variation in trait–environment relationships and performed variation partitioning to identify major drivers of trait variation. Results Microclimate temperature, light availability and soil properties were all important predictors of community‐weighted mean functional traits. When light availability and variation in temperature were higher, the herb community often consisted of taller plants with a higher C:N ratio. In more productive environments (e.g. with high soil nitrogen availability), the community was dominated by individuals with resource‐acquisitive traits: high SLA and N but low C:N. Including intraspecific trait variation increased the strength of the trait–micro‐environment relationship, and increased the importance of light availability. Main conclusions The trait–environment relationships were much stronger when the micro‐environment and intraspecific trait variation were considered. By locally steering light availability and temperature, forest managers can potentially impact the functional signature of the forest herb‐layer community.
Cautious classifiers are designed to make indeterminate decisions when the uncertainty on the input data or the model output is too high, so as to reduce the risk of making wrong decisions. In this paper, we propose two cautious decision-making procedures, by aggregating trees providing probability intervals constructed via the imprecise Dirichlet model. The trees are aggregated in the belief functions framework, by maximizing the lower expected discounted utility, so as to achieve a good compromise between model accuracy and determinacy. They can be regarded as generalizations of the two classical aggregation strategies for tree ensembles, i.e., averaging and voting. The efficiency and performance of the proposed procedures are tested on random forests and illustrated on three UCI datasets.
Over the past decade, researchers have focused on studying the functional context of perceiving painful stimuli, particularly concerning the posturographic correlates of emotional processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the differential modulation of non-linear measures characterizing postural control in the context of perceiving painful stimuli. The study involved 36 healthy young participants who, while standing, viewed images depicting feet and hands in painful or non-painful situations, both actively (by imagining themselves affected by the situation) and passively. For Center of Pressure (COP) displacement, three non-linear measures (Sample Entropy, Fractal Dimension, and Lyapunov exponent) were calculated. The results suggest lower values of FD and LyE in response to active stimulation compared to those recorded for passive stimulation. Above all, our results pledge for the usefulness of the Lyapunov exponent for assessing postural modulation dynamics in response to painful stimuli perception. The feasibility of this calculation could provide an interesting insight in the collection of biomarkers related to postural correlates of emotional processes and their modulation in neurological disease where socio-affective functions can be often impaired before cognitive ones.
Background: There is a dearth of research on religiosity in Arabic-speaking populations, partly due to a lack of universal, standardized and valid instruments to assess this construct. We sought through this study to establish the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the shortest version of the Central Religiosity Scale (CRS-5), a widely used measure of religiosity that can be applicable to most religious traditions, thus allowing for worldwide cultural and trans-religious comparisons. Method: A total of 352 Lebanese young adults enrolled in this study with a mean age of 25.08 years (SD = 9.25) and 73.3% women. The forward-backward method was adopted to translate the original English version of the CRS-5 to Arabic. Results: We ran an Exploratory Factor Analysis for the CRS-5 to test whether the expected dimensionality is suitable for the subsequent Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The model found replicates the originally proposed five items and one-factor model. Our findings demonstrated that the Arabic CRS-5 achieved good levels of composite reliability, with a McDonald’s ω coefficient of .85. A multi-group CFA was modelled for the examination of measurement invariance of the Arabic CRS-5 across gender at the metric, configural, and scalar levels. Between-gender comparisons revealed no significant differences between males and females regarding CRS-5 scores. Finally, we found that religiosity was positively correlated with positive mental health aspects (i.e., social support) and inversely correlated with negative mental health aspects (i.e., suicidal ideation, depression, social anxiety and entrapment); thus attesting for the convergent validity of the CRS-5 as a measure of centrality of religiosity. Conclusion: Pending further validations with larger and more representative populations, we preliminarily suggest that the Arabic CRS-5 is psychometrically sound, and can be recommended for use for research and clinical purposes in Arabic-speaking people of various religions and cultures.
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