Identification of dominant, actionable oncogenic signaling pathways is key to guide the development of new targeted treatments for advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have recently unveiled a novel YES-YAP/TAZ signaling axis involved in liver cancer development. Our study identifies the tyrosine kinase YES as a potential therapeutic target in HCC.
The microbiome is now regarded as one of the hallmarks of cancer and several strategies to modify the gut microbiota to improve immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) activity are being evaluated in clinical trials. Preliminary data regarding the upper gastro-intestinal microbiota indicated that Helicobacter pylori seropositivity was associated with a negative prognosis in patients amenable to ICI. In 97 patients with advanced melanoma treated with ICI, we assessed the impact of H. pylori on outcomes and microbiome composition. We performed H. pylori serology and profiled the fecal microbiome with metagenomics sequencing. Among the 97 patients, 22% were H. pylori positive (Pos). H. pylori Pos patients had a significantly shorter overall survival (p = .02) compared to H. pylori negative (Neg) patients. In addition, objective response rate and progression-free survival were decreased in H. pylori Pos patients. Metagenomics sequencing did not reveal any difference in diversity indexes between the H. pylori groups. At the taxa level, Eubacterium ventriosum, Mediterraneibacter (Ruminococcus) torques, and Dorea formicigenerans were increased in the H. pylori Pos group, while Alistipes finegoldii, Hungatella hathewayi and Blautia producta were over-represented in the H. pylori Neg group. In a second independent cohort of patients with NSCLC, diversity indexes were similar in both groups and Bacteroides xylanisolvens was increased in H. pylori Neg patients. Our results demonstrated that the negative impact of H. pylori on outcomes seem to be independent from the fecal microbiome composition. These findings warrant further validation and development of therapeutic strategies to eradicate H. pylori in immuno-oncology arena.
Background Despite the growing utility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for cardiac morphology and function, sex and age-specific normal reference values derived from large, multi-ethnic data sets are lacking. Furthermore, most available studies use a simplified tracing methodology. Using a large cohort of participants without history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or risk factors from the Canadian Alliance for Healthy Heart and Minds, we sought to establish a robust set of reference values for ventricular and atrial parameters using an anatomically correct contouring method, and to determine the influence of age and sex on ventricular parameters. Methods and results Participants (n = 3206, 65% females; age 55.2 ± 8.4 years for females and 55.1 ± 8.8 years for men) underwent CMR using standard methods for quantitative measurements of cardiac parameters. Normal ventricular and atrial reference values are provided: (1) for males and females, (2) stratified by four age categories, and (3) for different races/ethnicities. Values are reported as absolute, indexed to body surface area, or height. Ventricular volumes and mass were significantly larger for males than females (p < 0.001). Ventricular ejection fraction was significantly diminished in males as compared to females (p < 0.001). Indexed left ventricular (LV) end-systolic, end-diastolic volumes, mass and right ventricular (RV) parameters significantly decreased as age increased for both sexes (p < 0.001). For females, but not men, mean LV and RVEF significantly increased with age (p < 0.001). Conclusion Using anatomically correct contouring methodology, we provide accurate sex and age-specific normal reference values for CMR parameters derived from the largest, multi-ethnic population free of CVD to date. Clinical trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02220582. Registered 20 August 2014—Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02220582 .
The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
Many individuals living with severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia, present cognitive deficits and reasoning biases negatively impacting clinical and functional trajectories. Remote cognitive assessment presents many opportunities for advancing research and treatment but has yet to be widely used in psychiatric populations. We conducted a scoping review of remote cognitive assessment in severe mental illness to provide an overview of available measures and guide best practices. Overall, 34 studies ( n = 20,813 clinical participants) were reviewed and remote measures, psychometrics, facilitators, barriers, and future directions were synthesized using a logic model. We identified 82 measures assessing cognition in severe mental illness across 11 cognitive domains and four device platforms. Remote measures were generally comparable to traditional versions, though psychometric properties were infrequently reported. Facilitators included standardized procedures and wider recruitment, whereas barriers included imprecise measure adaptations, technology inaccessibility, low patient engagement, and poor digital literacy. Our review identified several remote cognitive measures in psychiatry across all cognitive domains. However, there is a need for more rigorous validation of these measures and consideration of potentially influential factors, such as sex and gender. We provide recommendations for conducting remote cognitive assessment in psychiatry and fostering high-quality research using digital technologies.
The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed to meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.
Background Over a third of people living with HIV (PLHIV) have suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Measures of barriers to ART adherence often lack comprehensiveness. To help manage ART adherence barriers in HIV care, we are developing a new patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) of these barriers (the I-Score). Methods We assessed the content validity of 100 items (distinct barriers) to retain only those most relevant to both PLHIV and HIV health/social service providers. A web-based Delphi was conducted in Canada and France, collecting data from December 2018 to October 2019. Items were evaluated on relevance (the combined rated importance and actionability for HIV care of items among both PLHIV and providers); comprehensibility (rated item clarity); comprehensiveness (examined against our conceptual framework); cross-cultural equivalence (based on comparisons by questionnaire language (English, French) and country of residence). Pearson’s chi-square tests were used for comparisons by language, country, gender, and stakeholder group (PLHIV, providers). Results Panelists included 40 PLHIV and 57 providers (66% response rate). Thirty-one items were retained based on consensus thresholds for relevance (minimum: 50% for PLHIV, 60% for providers) and showed good comprehensibility and comprehensiveness, when compared to our conceptual framework (representation of: 6/6 domains, 15/20 subdomains). No significant difference in relevance based on language or country was found among retained items, suggestive of cross-cultural equivalence. Among all 100 items, only 6 significant differences on relevance were observed for gender. For 62 items, the relevance ratings of PLHIV and providers differed significantly, with providers showing greater endorsement of all items but one. Discussion The Delphi led to a much-needed item reduction. Remaining items highlight the panel’s multidimensional priorities for the PROM on ART adherence barriers, with few, if any, differences by language, country, and gender. While the analyses may lack generalizability and power, the sample size is considered adequate for a PROM validation study. Conclusion Retained items showed good content validity. The different patterns of item endorsement observed underscore the utility of engaging multiple stakeholder groups in PROM development for use in clinical practice. The greater endorsement of items by providers versus patients merits further investigation, including the implications of such differentials for measure development.
Background Acute airway angioedema commonly occurs through two distinct mechanisms: histamine- and bradykinin-dependent. Although they respond to distinct treatments, these two potentially life-threatening states present similarly. Poor recognition of the bradykinin-dependent pathway leads to treatment errors in the emergency department (ED), despite the availability of multiple pharmacologic options for hereditary angioedema (HAE) and other forms of bradykinin-induced angioedema. Here, we consider the pathophysiology and clinical features of bradykinin-induced angioedema, and we present a systematic literature review exploring the effectiveness of the available therapies for managing such cases. Methods PubMed searches using ‘emergency’, ‘bradykinin’ and various therapeutic product names identified studies reporting the efficacy of treatments for bradykinin-induced angioedema in the ED setting. In all, 22 studies met prespecified criteria and are analysed here. Findings Whereas histamine-induced angioedema has a faster onset and often presents with urticaria, bradykinin-induced angioedema is slower in onset, with greater incidence of abdominal symptoms. Acute airway angioedema in the ED should initially be treated with anaphylactic protocols, focusing on airway management and treatment with epinephrine, antihistamine and systemic steroids. Bradykinin-induced angioedema should be considered if this standard treatment is not effective, despite proper dosing and regard of beta-adrenergic blockade. Therapeutics currently approved for HAE appear as promising options for this and other forms of bradykinin-induced angioedema encountered in the ED. Conclusion Diagnostic algorithms of bradykinin-induced angioedema should be followed in the ED, with early use of approved therapies to improve patient outcomes.
This article provides a road map, along with recommendations, for the adoption and implementation of telesimulation at a large scale. We provide tools for translating an in-presence simulation curriculum into a telesimulation curriculum using a combination off-the-shelf telecommunication platform. We also describe the roles and tasks that emerged within the simulation team when planning and delivering a telesimulation curriculum.
Background The LH surge is a pivotal event that triggers multiple key ovarian processes including oocyte maturation, cumulus expansion, follicular wall rupture and luteinization of mural granulosa and theca cells. Recently, LH-dependent activation of the Hippo signaling pathway has been shown to be required for the differentiation of granulosa cells into luteal cells. Still, the precise interactions between Hippo and LH signaling in murine granulosa cells remain to be elucidated. Methods To detect the expression of effectors of the Hippo pathway, western blot, immunohistochemical and RT-qPCR analyses were performed on granulosa cells treated with LH in vitro or isolated from immature mice treated with eCG and hCG. Cultured granulosa cells were pretreated with pharmacologic inhibitors to identify the signaling pathways involved in Hippo regulation by LH. To study the roles of Yap1 and Taz in the regulation of the LH signaling cascade, RT-qPCR and microarray analyses were done on granulosa cells from Yap1 f/f ; Taz f/f mice treated with an adenovirus to drive cre expression. RT-qPCR was performed to evaluate YAP1 binding to the Areg promoter following chromatin immunoprecipitation of granulosa cells collected from mice prior to or 60 min following hCG treatment. Results Granulosa cells showed a transient increase in LATS1, YAP1 and TAZ phosphorylation levels in response to the ovulatory signal. This Hippo activation by LH was mediated by protein kinase A. Furthermore, Yap1 and Taz are required for the induction of several LH target genes such as Areg , Pgr and Ptgs2 , and for the activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Consistent with these results, there was a substantial overlap between genes that are upregulated by LH and those that are downregulated following loss of Yap1 / Taz, highlighting a major role for Hippo in mediating LH actions in the ovulation process. Finally, we showed that there is a marked recruitment of YAP1 to the Areg promoter of granulosa cells in response to hCG stimulation. Conclusions Overall, these results indicate that Hippo collaborates with the cAMP/PKA and ERK1/2 pathways to participate in the precise regulation of the LH cascade, and that Areg , as a direct transcriptional target of YAP1, is involved in mediating its actions in the ovary.
Hippocampal CA1 parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV INs) play a central role in controlling principal cell activity and orchestrating network oscillations. PV INs receive excitatory inputs from CA3 Schaffer collaterals and local CA1 pyramidal cells, and they provide perisomatic inhibition. Schaffer collateral excitatory synapses onto PV INs express Hebbian and anti-Hebbian types of long-term potentiation (LTP), as well as elicit LTP of intrinsic excitability (LTP IE ). LTP IE requires the activation of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5) and is mediated by downregulation of potassium channels Kv1.1. It is sensitive to rapamycin and thus may involve activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). LTP IE facilitates PV INs recruitment in CA1 and maintains an excitatory-inhibitory balance. Impaired CA1 PV INs activity or LTP affects network oscillations and memory. However, whether LTP IE in PV INs plays a role in hippocampus-dependent memory remains unknown. Here, we used conditional deletion of the obligatory component of mTORC1, the Regulatory-Associated Protein of mTOR (Raptor), to directly manipulate mTORC1 in PV INs. We found that homozygous, but not heterozygous, conditional knock-out of Rptor resulted in a decrease in CA1 PV INs of mTORC1 signaling via its downstream effector S6 phosphorylation assessed by immunofluorescence. In whole-cell recordings from hippocampal slices, repetitive firing of CA1 PV INs was impaired in mice with either homozygous or heterozygous conditional knock-out of Rptor . High frequency stimulation of Schaffer collateral inputs that induce LTP IE in PV INs of control mice failed to do so in mice with either heterozygous or homozygous conditional knock-out of Rptor in PV INs. At the behavioral level, mice with homozygous or heterozygous conditional knock-out of Rptor showed similar long-term contextual fear memory or contextual fear memory discrimination relative to control mice. Thus, mTORC1 activity in CA1 PV INs regulates repetitive firing and LTP IE but not consolidation of long-term contextual fear memory and context discrimination. Our results indicate that mTORC1 plays cell-specific roles in synaptic plasticity of hippocampal inhibitory interneurons that are differentially involved in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory.
Translational research aims at reducing gaps between fundamental scientific discoveries and real-world applications. However, the trajectory of most scientific discoveries along the translation research continuum remains highly complex. Logic models are powerful tools that can help reduce this complexity. They are often used to lay out road maps and depict the relationship between activities and their intended effects. Few if any existing tools have been designed to guide the implementation and evaluation of collaborative models between community-based primary health care and biomedical research. To address this gap, we developed a logic model in two stages: 1) a literature review; and 2) the drafting and revision of the model by experts in the field. We describe its components, including objectives, inputs, activities, target groups, outputs, and results for a collaborative model involving fundamental biomedical research and primary health care practices. Our proposed logic model provides a road map that has the potential to reduce the complexity faced by translational research in chronic diseases by providing guidelines for decision-makers. Future work should attempt to validate the model before its broad-based implementation.
Background Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder often associated with cognitive dysfunctions, including a high occurrence of deficits in visuoperceptual skills. The neural underpinnings of these visuoperceptual deficits are not fully understood. We used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) to investigate possible alterations in the synchronization of neural activity in the occipital cortex of children with NF1. Methods SSVEPs were measured using electroencephalography and compared between children with NF1 ( n = 28) and neurotypical controls ( n = 28) aged between 4 and 13 years old. SSVEPs were recorded during visual stimulation with coloured icons flickering at three different frequencies (6 Hz, 10 Hz, and 15 Hz) and analyzed in terms of signal-to-noise ratios. A mixed design ANCOVA was performed to compare SSVEP responses between groups at the three stimulation frequencies. Pearson’s correlations with levels of intellectual functioning as well as with symptoms of ADHD, ASD and emotional/behavioral problems were performed. The impact of psychostimulant medication on the SSVEP responses was analyzed in a subset of the NF1 group ( n = 8) with paired t-tests. Results We observed reduced signal-to-noise ratios of the SSVEP responses in children with NF1. The SSVEP responses were negatively correlated with symptoms of inattention and with symptoms of emotional/behavioral problems in the NF1 group. The SSVEP response generated by the lowest stimulation frequency (i.e., 6 Hz) was rescued with the intake of psychostimulant medication. Conclusions Impaired processing of rhythmic visual stimulation was evidenced in children with NF1 through measures of SSVEP responses. Those responses seem to be more reduced in children with NF1 who exhibit more symptoms of inattention and emotional/behavioral problems in their daily life. SSVEPs are potentially sensitive electrophysiological markers that could be included in future studies investigating the impact of medication on brain activity and cognitive functioning in children with NF1.
Bock et al. (1992) found that the binding of animacy features onto grammatical roles is susceptible to priming in sentence production. Moreover, this effect did not interact with structural priming. This finding supports an account according to which syntactic representations are insensitive to the consistency of animacy-to-structure mapping. This account has contributed greatly to the development of syntactic processing theories in language production. However, this study has never been directly replicated and the few related studies showed mixed results. A meta-analysis of these studies failed to replicate the findings of Bock et al. (1992). Therefore, we conducted a well-powered replication (n = 496) that followed the original study as closely as possible. We found an effect of structural priming and an animacy priming effect, replicating Bock et al.’s findings. In addition, we replicated Bock et al.’s (1992) observed null interaction between structural priming and animacy binding, which suggests that syntactic representations are indeed independent of semantic information about animacy.
Introduction There is a growing need for small-diameter (<6 mm) off-the-shelf synthetic vascular conduits for different surgical bypass procedures, with actual synthetic conduits showing unacceptable thrombosis rates. The goal of this study was to build vascular grafts with better compliance than standard synthetic conduits and with an inner layer stimulating endothelialization while remaining antithrombogenic. Methods Tubular vascular conduits made of a scaffold of polyurethane/polycaprolactone combined with a bioactive coating based on chondroitin sulfate (CS) were created using electrospinning and plasma polymerization. In vitro testing followed by a comparative in vivo trial in a sheep model as bilateral carotid bypasses was performed to assess the conduits’ performance compared to the actual standard. Results In vitro, the novel small-diameter (5 mm) electrospun vascular grafts coated with chondroitin sulfate (CS) showed 10 times more compliance compared to commercial expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) conduits while maintaining adequate suturability, burst pressure profiles, and structural stability over time. The subsequent in vivo trial was terminated after electrospun vascular grafts coated with CS showed to be inferior compared to their expanded polytetrafluoroethylene counterparts. Conclusions The inability of the experimental conduits to perform well in vivo despite promising in vitro results may be related to the low porosity of the grafts and the lack of rapid endothelialization despite the presence of the CS coating. Further research is warranted to explore ways to improve electrospun polyurethane/polycaprolactone scaffold in order to make it prone to transmural endothelialization while being resistant to strenuous conditions.
Few studies have assessed the visual development of static and dynamic information processing at different levels of processing during typical development from the school-age years to adulthood. The implication of non-visual factors on visual development, such as cognitive (e.g., IQ) and attentional abilities, has yet to be systematically assessed with regard to spanning such a large age range. To address these voids, 203 typically-developing participants (aged 6 to 31 years) identified the orientation or direction of a static or moving grating defined by either luminance- or texture-contrast. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure contrast sensitivity in all four conditions. Cognitive (Wechsler IQ) and attentional ability (CPT-3) were also measured for all participants. Different developmental rates of contrast sensitivity were found between static and dynamic conditions when defined by more complex, texture-defined information, with the difference in sensitivity starting after the age of 9.71 years. However, static and dynamic profiles for luminance-defined information developed similarly with age. In addition, IQ did not correlate with nor predict the sensitivity across any condition. These results suggest age significantly explains the variance in the developmental profiles of contrast sensitivity above and beyond non-visual factors such as IQ and the CPT-3 attentional scores. Moreover, the neural pathways processing static and dynamic visual information continue to develop through late childhood and adolescence for the processing of texture-defined information only.
This article concerns the ways in which authors from various fields conceptualise the ethical issues arising in the conduct of research. We reviewed critically and systematically the literature concerning the ethics of conducting research in order to engage in a reflection about the vocabulary and conceptual categories used in the publications reviewed. To understand better how the ethical issues involved in conducting research are conceptualised in the publications reviewed, we 1) established an inventory of the conceptualisations reviewed, and 2) we critically assessed them. We found that the publications reviewed mostly showed examples of descriptive ethics, in that most authors describe ethical issues without reflecting much on them, which could be explained both by 1) a lack of ethical education in research contexts, and 2) by the fact that we do not know what researchers know (or do not) about ethical issues. Additionally, the definitions identified in the publications are scarce and at times imprecise, but this seems more to point out the ethical vocabulary’s difficulties in certain contexts. Further, very few authors offer proper conceptualisations of the ethical issues arising in conducting research. When dealing with vast arrays of ethical issues to conceptualise, perhaps one ought to remember that some typologies already exist that could guide further reflection and help understand other realities for which the current ethical vocabulary may be lacking. We believe that combining the reviewed typologies, both with other well-developed typologies and critical reflection, could help support better ethical practice in conducting research.
Background and objective While several mobility measures exist, there is large variability across measures in how mobility is conceptualized, the source of information and the measurement properties making it challenging to select relevant mobility measures for individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI). Therefore, the objective was to conduct a comprehensive synthesis of existing evidence on the measurement properties, the interpretability and the feasibility of mobility measures from various sources of information (patients, clinicians, technology) using an umbrella review of published systematic reviews among individuals with ABI. Methods Ovid MEDLINE, CINHAL, Cochrane Library and EMBASE electronic databases were searched from 2000 to March 2020. Two independent reviewers appraised the methodological quality of the systematic reviews using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist. Measurement properties and quality of evidence were applied according to COnsensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instrument (COSMIN) guidelines. Mobility measures were categorized using international standards with the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF). Results Thirty-five systematic reviews were included covering 147 mobility measures, of which 85% were mapped to the ICF Activity and Participation component. Results showed an acceptable overall "sufficient" rating for reliability, construct validity and responsiveness for 132 (90%), 127 (86%) and 76 (52%) of the measures, respectively; however, among these measures, ≤ 25% of the methods for evaluating these properties were rated as ‘high’ quality of evidence. Also, there was limited information that supports measure feasibility and scoring interpretability. Conclusions Future systematic reviews should report measures’ content validity to support the use of the measure in clinical care and research. More evaluations of the minimal important difference and floor and ceiling effects are needed to help guide clinical interpretation. Registration information International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO); ID: CRD42018100068.
There are limited literature data on the impact of coexposure on the toxicokinetics of pesticides in agricultural workers. Using the largely employed pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) and fungicide captan as sentinel pesticides, we compared individual temporal profiles of biomarkers of exposure to LCT in strawberry field workers following an application episode of LCT alone or in coexposure with captan. Participants provided all urine voided over a 3-day period after an application of a pesticide formulation containing LCT alone (E1) or LCT mixed with captan (E2), and in some cases following re-entry in treated field (E3). Pyrethroid metabolites were measured in all urine samples, in particular 3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-en-1-yl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (CFMP), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and 4-hydroxy-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (4-OH3PBA). There were no obvious differences in individual concentration–time profiles and cumulative excretion of metabolites (CFMP, 3-PBA, 4-OH3BPA) after exposure to LCT alone or in combination with captan. For most workers and exposure scenarios, CFMP was the main metabolite excreted, but time courses of CFMP in urine did not always follow that of 3-PBA and 4-OH3BPA. Given that the latter metabolites are common to other pyrethroids, this suggests that some workers were coexposed to pyrethroids other than LCT. For several workers and exposure scenarios E1 and E2, values of CFMP increased in the hours following spraying. However, for many pesticide operators, other peaks of CFMP were observed at later times, indicating that tasks other than spraying of LCT-containing formulations contributed to this increased exposure. These tasks were mainly handling/cleaning of equipment used for spraying (tractor or sprayer) or work/inspection in LCT-treated field according to questionnaire responses. Overall, this study provided novel excretion time course data for LCT metabolites valuable for interpretation of biomonitoring data in workers, but also showed that coexposure was not a major determinant of variability in exposure biomarker levels. Our analysis also pointed out the importance of measuring specific metabolites.
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