Université de Fribourg
  • Fribourg, FR, Switzerland
Recent publications
The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed to meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.
Objectives Among the measures taken to combat sexism and sexual harassment, prevention courses for medical students are one possibility. We aimed to describe the process of implementing a training course on the prevention of sexism and sexual harassment for medical students in two Swiss medical schools by using the Theater of the Oppressed as an interactive and reflexive tool within the course. The purpose of this theater was to give the students the opportunity to express themselves and to collectively look for and discuss ways to combat and escape from oppressive situations. Results This collaborative, innovative, and interactive implementation showed that different forms of a training course can be implemented with similar objectives in an adaptable and transferable manner. The interactive and reflexive Theater of the Oppressed was an appropriate option to reach the objectives. Courses were based on identifying and acting on concrete problematic situations by focusing on individual, collective, and institutional resources. Students reported a high level of satisfaction.
Advanced methods such as high-resolution X-ray diffraction and X-ray micro CT allow highly precise determination of materials' residual stress, volume, and lattice defects. Their conjoint exploitation offers a powering tool to facilitate the industrial implementation of novelties in microfabrication. The wafer-level packaging represents a critical step of the MEMS microfabrication resulting in a hermetic, defect- and stress-free interface. For the first time, such critical parameters are investigated related to a novel wafer-bonding process, namely Impulse Current Bonding (ICB), and compared to the standard anodic bonding technology used for MEMS production. The ICB does not induce any relevant residual stress at the interface above the limit of 1 MPa, determined by the unrivaled strain detectability of HRXRD. The bonding interface is devoid of any defects, as defined by X-ray micro-CT studies. The ICB technology reduces the thermal budget of the packaging up to 85% compared to the anodic bonding, which outlines an outstanding step forward in reducing the energy footprint. The extension of ICB to other materials systems such as glass to ceramic or metals makes this technology a promising candidate for numerous applications, including the design of biocompatible devices for bio-implants.
Ubiquilin-2 (UBQLN2) is a ubiquitin-binding protein that shuttles ubiquitinated proteins to proteasomal and autophagic degradation. UBQLN2 mutations are genetically linked to the neurodegenerative disorders amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD). However, it remains elusive how UBQLN2 mutations cause ALS/FTD. Here, we systematically examined proteomic and transcriptomic changes in patient-derived lymphoblasts and CRISPR/Cas9–engineered HeLa cells carrying ALS/FTD UBQLN2 mutations. This analysis revealed a strong up-regulation of the microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) which was also observed in UBQLN2 knockout cells and primary rodent neurons depleted of UBQLN2, suggesting that a UBQLN2 loss-of-function mechanism is responsible for the elevated MAP1B levels. Consistent with MAP1B’s role in microtubule binding, we detected an increase in total and acetylated tubulin. Furthermore, we uncovered that UBQLN2 mutations result in decreased phosphorylation of MAP1B and of the ALS/FTD–linked fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein at S439 which is critical for regulating FUS-RNA binding and MAP1B protein abundance. Together, our findings point to a deregulated UBQLN2-FUS-MAP1B axis that may link protein homeostasis, RNA metabolism, and cytoskeleton dynamics, three molecular pathomechanisms of ALS/FTD.
We show that the moduli space of positive Ricci curvature metrics on all the total spaces of $$S^7$$ S 7 -bundles over $$S^8$$ S 8 which are rational homology spheres has infinitely many path components. Furthermore, we carry out the diffeomorphism classification of quotients of Milnor spheres by a certain involution and show that the moduli space of metrics of non-negative sectional curvature on them has infinitely many path components. Finally, a diffeomorphism finiteness result is obtained on quotients of Shimada spheres by the same type of involution and we show that for the types that can be expressed by an infinite family of manifolds, the moduli space of positive Ricci curvature metrics has infinitely many path components.
We characterize the Lie groups with finitely many connected components that are O(u)-bilipschitz equivalent (almost quasiisometric in the sense that the sublinear function u replaces the additive bounds of quasiisometry) to the real hyperbolic space, or to the complex hyperbolic plane. The characterizations are expressed in terms of deformations of Lie algebras and in terms of pinching of sectional curvature of left-invariant Riemannian metrics in the real case. We also compare sublinear bilipschitz equivalence and coarse equivalence, and prove that every coarse equivalence between the logarithmic coarse structures of geodesic spaces is a O(log)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$O(\log )$$\end{document}-bilipschitz equivalence. The Lie groups characterized are exactly those whose logarithmic coarse structure is equivalent to that of a real hyperbolic space or the complex hyperbolic plane. Finally we point out that a conjecture made by Tyson about the conformal dimensions of the boundaries of certain hyperbolic buildings holds conditionally to the four exponentials conjecture.
Due to the continuous emergence of various social and trade networks, network influence analysis has aroused great interest of the researchers. Based on different influence propagation models, many new models and methods for influence maximization on networks have been proposed. As an extension and expansion of the traditional influence maximization problem, influence blocking maximization has become a hotspot of research, and has been widely applied in many areas such as physics, computer science and epidemiology. In recent years, various methods for influence blocking maximization problem have been reported. However, we still lack a comprehensive review to systematically analyze the methodological and theoretical advances in influence blocking maximization problem from the aspects of social networks influence analysis. This review aims to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive survey and analysis of the theory and applications of influence blocking maximization. Not only it advances the theoretical understanding of the influence maximization problem, but will be a point of reference for future researches.
We study the infinitesimal CR automorphisms of polynomial model hypersurfaces of finite multitype, which violates 2-jet determination. We give an exposition of some recent results, which provide explicit description of such “exotic” symmetries in complex dimension three. The results are illustrated by numerous examples.
We assess the demand effects of discounts on train tickets issued by the Swiss Federal Railways, the so-called ‘supersaver tickets’, based on machine learning, a subfield of artificial intelligence. Considering a survey-based sample of buyers of supersaver tickets, we use causal machine learning to assess the impact of the discount rate on rescheduling a trip, which seems relevant in the light of capacity constraints at rush hours. Assuming that (i) the discount rate is quasi-random conditional on our rich set of characteristics and (ii) the buying decision increases weakly monotonically in the discount rate, we identify the discount rate’s effect among ‘always buyers’, who would have traveled even without a discount, based on our survey that asks about customer behavior in the absence of discounts. We find that on average, increasing the discount rate by one percentage point increases the share of rescheduled trips by 0.16 percentage points among always buyers. Investigating effect heterogeneity across observables suggests that the effects are higher for leisure travelers and during peak hours when controlling several other characteristics.
The sense of body ownership builds on proper multisensory integration mechanisms. The Rubber-Hand Illusion (RHI) paradigm exploits a visuo-tactile multisensory conflict to induce illusory body ownership toward a fake hand, assessed by multidimensional subjective ratings and univocal objective measurements. Considering the controversy as to whether viewing the rubber hand is necessary or not to induce the illusion, we investigated the effects of targeted manipulations of visibility on subjective and objective aspects of the RHI. To this aim, we collected questionnaire and proprioceptive drift data from thirty participants receiving visuo-tactile stimulation in a setup that allowed for increasing and decreasing the visibility (illumination) of the rubber hand. We found that specific subjective ratings (Movement and Loss of Ownership) were sensitive to the interaction between rubber hand's visibility and illusory ownership. The interaction was not significant for the Embodiment subjective component and for the objective one (proprioceptive drift). Since different degrees of visibility did not differentially affect the RHI, these findings highlight that relatively abrupt changes in the visibility of the rubber hand can differentially impact subjective versus objective components of body ownership. This understanding may be critical for neuroscientific theories on the relationship between multisensory integration and body consciousness.
The existence of a non-defective stationary disc attached to a non-degenerate model quadric in CN\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\mathbb {C}}^N$$\end{document} is a necessary condition to ensure the unique 1-jet determination of the lifts of a key family of stationary discs [6]. In this paper, we give an elementary proof of the equivalence when the model quadric is strongly pseudoconvex, recovering a result of Tumanov [14]. Our proof is based on the explicit expression of stationary discs, and opens up a conjecture for the unique 1-jet determination to hold when the model is not necessarily strongly pseudoconvex.
Lymph node status is a major prognostic factor in early-stage cervical cancer. Predicting the risk of lymph node metastasis is essential for optimal therapeutic management. The aim of the study was to develop a web-based application to predict the risk of lymph node metastasis in patients with early-stage (IA1 with positive lymph vascular space invasion, IA2 and IB1) cervical cancer. We performed a secondary analysis of data from two prospective multicenter trials, Senticol 1 and 2 pooled together in the training dataset. The histological risk factors were included in a multivariate logistic regression model in order to determine the most suitable prediction model. An internal validation of the chosen prediction model was then carried out by a cross validation of the ‘leave one out cross validation’ type. The prediction model was implemented in an interactive online application of the ‘Shinyapp’ type. Finally, an external validation was performed with a retrospective cohort from L’Hôtel-Dieu de Québec in Canada. Three hundred twenty-one patients participating in Senticol 1 and 2 were included in our training analysis. Among these patients, 280 did not present lymph node invasion (87.2%), 13 presented isolated tumor cells (4%), 11 presented micrometastases (3.4%) and 17 macrometastases (5.3%). Tumor size, presence of lymph-vascular space invasion and stromal invasion were included in the prediction model. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve from this model had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.79 (95% CI [0.69– 0.90]). The AUC from the cross validation was 0.65. The external validation on the Canadian cohort confirmed a good discrimination of the model with an AUC of 0.83. This is the first study of a prediction score for lymph node involvement in early-stage cervical cancer that includes internal and external validation. The web application is a simple, practical, and modern method of using this prediction score to assist in clinical management.
Background: Developing treatments for cognitive impairment is key to improving the functioning of people with mood disorders. Neuroimaging may assist in identifying brain-based efficacy markers. This systematic review and position paper by the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Targeting Cognition Task Force examines the evidence from neuroimaging studies of pro-cognitive interventions. Methods: We included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of candidate interventions in people with mood disorders or healthy individuals, following the procedures of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis 2020 statement. Searches were conducted on PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Clinicaltrials.gov from inception to 30th April 2021. Two independent authors reviewed the studies using the National Heart, Lung, Blood Institutes of Health Quality Assessment Tool for Controlled Intervention Studies and quality of neuroimaging methodology assessment checklist. Results: We identified 26 studies (N=702). Six investigated cognitive remediation or pharmacological treatments in mood disorders (N=190). In healthy individuals, 14 studies investigated pharmacological interventions (N=319), two cognitive training (N=73) and four neuromodulatory treatments (N=120). Methodologies were mostly rated as 'fair'. 77% studies investigated effects with task-based fMRI. Findings varied but most consistently involved treatment-associated cognitive control network (CCN) activity increases with cognitive improvements, or CCN activity decreases with no cognitive change, and increased functional connectivity. In mood disorders, treatment-related default mode network suppression occurred. Conclusions: Modulation of CCN and DMN activity is a putative efficacy biomarker. Methodological recommendations are to pre-declare intended analyses and use task-based fMRI, paradigms probing the CCN, longitudinal assessments, mock scanning and out-of-scanner tests.
The protein kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of cell growth and proliferation, supporting anabolic reactions and inhibiting catabolic pathways like autophagy. Its hyperactivation is a frequent event in cancer promoting tumor cell proliferation. Several intracellular membrane-associated mTORC1 pools have been identified, linking its function to distinct subcellular localizations. Here, we characterize the N-terminal kinase-like protein SCYL1 as a Golgi-localized target through which mTORC1 controls organelle distribution and extracellular vesicle secretion in breast cancer cells. Under growth conditions, SCYL1 is phosphorylated by mTORC1 on Ser754, supporting Golgi localization. Upon mTORC1 inhibition, Ser754 dephosphorylation leads to SCYL1 displacement to endosomes. Peripheral, dephosphorylated SCYL1 causes Golgi enlargement, redistribution of early and late endosomes and increased extracellular vesicle release. Thus, the mTORC1-controlled phosphorylation status of SCYL1 is an important determinant regulating subcellular distribution and function of endolysosomal compartments. It may also explain the pathophysiology underlying human genetic diseases such as CALFAN syndrome, which is caused by loss-of-function of SCYL1 .
Mechanochromic mechanophores are reporter molecules that indicate mechanical events through changes of their photophysical properties. Supramolecular mechanophores, in which the activation is based on the rearrangement of luminophores and/or quenchers without any covalent bond scission, remain less well investigated. Here, we report a cyclophane-based supramolecular mechanophore that contains a 1,6-bis(phenylethynyl)pyrene luminophore and a pyromellitic diimide quencher. In solution, the blue monomer emission of the luminophore is largely quenched and a faint reddish-orange emission originating from a charge-transfer (CT) complex is observed. A polyurethane elastomer containing the mechanophore displays orange emission in the absence of force, which is dominated by the CT-emission. Mechanical deformation causes a decrease of the CT-emission and an increase of blue monomer emission, due to the spatial separation between the luminophore and quencher. The ratio of the two emission intensities correlates with the applied stress. .
It is a popular notion that binge-watching – watching several episodes of a TV show in one sitting – enhances entertainment experiences compared to watching singular episodes. However, empirical results are contradictory, and the assumption of such effects is not well founded in theory. We thus re-examined this claim with an experiment ( n = 80) and a field study using tracking data ( n = 47). In the experiment, binge-watching had slightly negative effects on transportation, hedonic entertainment, and valence, but a positive effect on arousal. In the field study, there were no differences between the two viewing modes. We thus conclude that binge-watching per se does not affect the entertainment experience. This finding aligns with other recent research showing that binge-watching does not differ much from conventional and low-intensity media use and thus calls into question the usefulness of defining binge-watching solely based on the number of episodes in one sitting.
Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the Senbiosys device in measuring blood pressure (BP) by photoplethysmography (PPG) in patients undergoing coronary angiograms. Methods: This is a substudy within the Senbiosys trial, which is a prospective, single-arm, single-center study, evaluating the accuracy of BP estimation of the Senbiosys device compared to invasive BP. Patients referred for coronary angiograms underwent invasive BP measurement and simultaneously wore the Senbiosys ring. SBP and DBP estimations measured by the Senbiosys device were compared with invasive measurements. Results: A total of 25 patients were included. Overall, 708 epochs with adequate PPG signal belonging to 17 patients were analyzed. A total of 84% of the SBP estimates and 99% of the DBP estimates have an absolute error of less than 10 mmHg compared with the invasive measurements. Mean difference was 2.3 ± 7.0 mmHg and 0.5 ± 3.5 mmHg for SBP and DBP, respectively. Conclusion: The Senbiosys device is accurate enough to determine BP in a selected population undergoing coronary angiograms.
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4,367 members
Miroslava Nedyalkova
  • Department of Chemistry
Jean-Pierre Metraux
  • Department Biology
Mourad Khayati
  • Department of Informatics
Sebastian Schief
  • Department of Social Work Social Policy and Global Development
Avenue de l'Europe, 1700, Fribourg, FR, Switzerland
Head of institution
Prof. Astrid Epiney
+41 26 300 70 34