The oases in the arid the Nefzaoua region in central-western Tunisia are associated with spring mounds. Spring mounds result from an exceptional succession of geomorphological, hydrogeological and climatic conditions and processes that follow each other in a specific order. They look like small volcanoes that range from 200 m to more than 2000 m in diameter and 3–30 m in height, which centres were once occupied by a pond fed by an artesian spring. They are at the origin of each oasis's irrigation system, which radiates from the mound's foot. Due to intense irrigation of intensive date palm plantations (Phoenix dactylifera) in recent decades, all artesian springs dried out. We established a complete inventory and typology (i.e. location, dimension, and types of degradation) of all spring mounds in the Nefzaoua region. Overall, in an area of 3000 km², 126 spring mounds of 7 types were identified, of which 112 (89%) were degraded. Due to the low salt content in spring mound sediments, they are excavated and used as a soil amendment to expand new palm plantations. Only 14 mounds (11%) are presently preserved. Their qualification as a geomorphosite could preserve them from complete destruction.
Recent research with adult participants using the flankers task has shown that the recognition of central target words is facilitated by the presence of morphologically related flanker words. Here we explored the development of such morphological flanker effects in two groups of primary school children (average ages = 8 years 6 months and 10 years 3 months) and a group of adult participants. We examined effects of a transparent morphological relation in two conditions: one where the target was the stem and flankers were derivations (e.g., farmer farm farmer) and the other where the flankers were stems and the target was the derived form (e.g., farm farmer farm). Morphological flanker effects were compared with repetition flanker effects with the same set of stimuli (e.g., farm farm farm; farmer farmer farmer), and effects of related flankers were contrasted with the appropriate unrelated flankers. Results revealed no significant effect of morphological relatedness in the two groups of children and a significant effect in the adult group, but only for suffixed targets and stem flankers. Repetition effects for stem targets were found across all groups, whereas repetition effects for suffixed targets were found only in the older children and adults. These results show that morphological processing, in a context involving multiple words presented simultaneously, takes several years to develop and that morphological complexity (stem vs. derived) is a limiting factor for repetition effects in the flankers task with young children.
Like many other activities, luxury gastronomy has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. To maintain a certain level of turnover, luxury restaurants had to innovate by digitalizing their offer, that is, delivering a customer journey that encompasses digital and physical consumer experiences. Based on the two approaches to customer experience (dimension- and stage-oriented), the aim of this research is to propose and test a model of the digitalized gastronomy experience that includes its antecedents and consequences. A qualitative study (Study 1), involving 15 restaurant chefs and experts, defines the digitalized gastronomy experience and identifies the dimensions and customer journey stages associated with that experience. A quantitative study (Study 2) of 217 French consumers of luxury gastronomy validates the proposed conceptualization, its antecedents (website elements and psychological variables), and its consequences (purchase intentions). We also confirm the role of involvement in gastronomy as a contingent variable.
The first COVID-19 confinement induced dramatic changes in the lives of adolescents, but little is known about the processes that affected youth engagement with school during this period. This study addressed this issue by uncovering a stress process model of school engagement during confinement, based on confinement stressors and adolescent resources. Data were collected from 406 French adolescents and their parents (grades 6 through 9, 47% girls). The results showed that multiple stressors (parental anxiety, lack of Internet or computer, low relevant and unclear school activities) and resources (academic self-concept, parental support and teacher support) affected engagement, and that some effects intertwined (e.g., effects of low relevant and unclear school activities were moderated and mediated by academic self-concept). Implications are drawn on ways to tackle stress processes and help adolescents stay engaged with schoolwork during confinement.
Résumé Le présent numéro spécial de la revue Archimède. Archéologie et histoire ancienne, organisé sous les auspices du projet Imago Genitalium : Sex and Gender in Ancient Mediterranean Art, porte sur les représentations du phallus dans l'Antiquité. Le projet a pour objectif de combler les lacunes de la recherche sur les parties sexuelles du corps, les organes qui leur sont associés (les seins) et leurs fluides. En effet, en partie à cause de l'héritage des lois de l'époque victorienne interdisant le matériel jugé « indécent » ou « obscène » parce qu'il était considéré comme évoquant la sexualité (même si celle-ci est vaguement définie), une grande quantité du matériel représentant des images d'organes génitaux humains dans l'Antiquité a régulièrement été isolée de ses contextes matériels d'origine, séquestrée dans des « cabinets secrets » spécialement désignés dans les musées et cachée à la vue du public. Malgré certains progrès, de nombreux comptes rendus scientifiques de l'Antiquité ne sont pas parvenus à intégrer ce matériel dans les contextes culturels et matériels desquels il a été systématiquement mis à l’écart, ce qui conduit à en avoir une vision déformée. La présente édition, première publication du groupe Imago Genitalium (https://genitaliaandco.hypotheses.org/equipe) attire l'attention sur les représentations du phallus en Égypte, au Levant et en Asie Mineure, en Grèce et dans l'Empire romain afin de mieux comprendre les significations culturelles et les fonctions rituelles associées à ces représentations. Bien qu'il y ait quelques exceptions, en général, les images discutées ne connotent pas l’« obscénité », mais représentent plutôt les termes positifs d'une série de dualités qui se chevauchent : vie/mort, création/destruction, santé/maladie, protection/malheur et prospérité/malheur. Les articles de ce numéro spécial traitent de l'apparence et de l'usage multiple du phallus dans les pratiques funéraires et mortuaires, des rituels d'attribution de la parenté, de la divination, de la procréation et de la fertilité, de la guérison et de la médecine, ainsi que des conventions artistiques déployées pour distinguer les tout-petits des adultes ou pour susciter le rire et alors détourner le mauvais œil. Abstract Title: Imago Genitalium: Introduction to the special issue “The phallus in Antiquity” The present special issue of the journal Archimède. Archéologie et histoire ancienne, organized under the auspices of the Imago Genitalium: Sex and Gender in Ancient Mediterranean Art project, focuses on depictions of the phallus in Antiquity. It aims to fill the gap in research on the sexual parts of the body, their associated organs (the breasts) and their fluids. Due in part to the legacy of Victorian-period laws banning material deemed to be “indecent” or “obscene” because it was held to connote sexuality (however vaguely defined), a large amount of material depicting images of human genitalia in Antiquity has regularly been isolated from its original material contexts, sequestered in specially designated “secret cabinets” of museums, and hidden from public view. Despite some progress, many scholarly accounts of Antiquity fail to integrate this material into the cultural and material contexts from which it was systematically stripped, resulting in distorted views. The present special edition, the first publication of the Imago Genitalium group (https://genitaliaandco.hypotheses.org/equipe), draws attention to representations of the phallus in Egypt, the Levant and Asia Minor, Greece, and the Roman Empire to better understand the cultural significations and ritual functions associated with those representations. Although there are some exceptions, in general the images discussed did not connote “obscenity,” but instead represented the positive terms in a series of overlapping dualities: life/death, creation/destruction, health/illness, protection/harm, and prosperity/misfortune. The essays in this special issue deal with the multifarious appearances and usages of phalli within the contexts of funerary and mortuary practices, rituals of kinship attribution, divination, procreation and fertility, healing and medicine, and artistic conventions deployed to distinguish toddlers from adults or to elicit laughter and thus to avert the evil eye.
By revisiting three empirical qualitative studies, the paper elaborates on conceptual and methodological issues pertaining to clarification of the use of the concept of politicization and “ordinary relationships to politics.” The first study was conducted at the end of the 1990s on voluntary associations of young people of foreign descent in the French suburbs; the second was devoted to ordinary relationships to politics among young people in working-class neighborhoods in France; the third involves ongoing fieldwork examining non-profit organizations and their relationship to the state, focusing notably on evangelical non-profits in the Boston area of the USA. Although the research questions were different, they dealt with ordinary relationships to politics (ORP). This notion encompasses two dimensions. On the one hand, the idea that what determines one’s relationship to politics is not only political, but also social: that we need to “embed” the study of relationships to politics into social dimensions. This is related to the study of the determination of relationships to politics. On the other hand, the idea that a relationship to politics is not only a relationship to the institutionalized political field, but that we need to adopt a broader definition of what politicization is, in order to grasp its ordinary forms, especially—but not only—when we deal with the working class. In this case, what is at stake is the definition of politicization. Nowadays, there is relative consensus in the literature regarding the determination of relationships to politics, but the definition of what politicization is remains much more controversial. In this paper, I present the terms of this controversy and the value in and limits of the various perspectives and, more specifically, I elaborate on how the changes in the type of fieldwork I conducted, in the national contexts, and the theoretical questions I asked impacted on the way I chose to define politicization. I suggest combining three definitions of politicization: (i) the legitimist or realist conception based on the relationship to the institutional political sphere; (ii) the conception of politicization as the identification of shared problems calling for collective solutions; and finally, (iii) approaching politicization as the readiness to be moved, to consider points of view other than those initially adopted.
Combination HIV prevention covers a range of biomedical, behavioral, and socio-structural interventions. Despite the growing availability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), it is not always accessible in European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control reporting countries and may not meet the needs of all at-risk populations. Based on the Flash! PrEP in Europe data, multiple correspondence analysis and hierarchical clustering were used to identify patterns in HIV prevention strategies among 9980 men who have sex with men (MSM). PrEP interest was evaluated among four identified clusters: (A) “high condom use, sometimes Treatment as Prevention (TasP)”; (B) “mix of methods, infrequent condom use”; (C) “high condom use, tendency to choose partners based on serological status” and (D) “moderate use of condoms mixed with other prevention strategies”. Clusters B and D had higher PrEP interest. These results suggest that MSM use a range of behavioral and biomedical risk reduction strategies that are often combined. On-demand PrEP may meet the needs of MSM who infrequently use condoms and other prevention methods.
Deficits in temporal auditory processing, and in particular higher gap detection thresholds have been reported in children with inconsistent phonological disorder (IPD). Here we hypothesized that providing these children with extra time for phoneme identification may in turn enhance their phonological planning abilities for production, and accordingly improve not only consistency but also accuracy of their speech. We designed and tested a new temporal-based therapy, inspired by Core Vocabulary Therapy and called it T-CVT, where we digitally lengthened formant transitions between phonemes of words used for therapy. This allowed to target both temporal auditory processing and word phonological planning. Four preschool Persian native children with IPD received T-CVT for eight weeks. We measured changes in speech consistency (% inconsistency) and accuracy (percentage of consonants correct PCC) to assess the effects of the intervention. Therapy significantly improved both consistency and accuracy of word production in the four children: % inconsistency decreased from 59% on average before therapy to 2% post-T-CVT, and PCC increased from 61% to 92% on average. Consistency and accuracy were furthermore maintained or even still improved at three-month follow-up (2% inconsistency and 99% PCC). Results in a nonword repetition task showed the generalization of these effects to non-treated material: % inconsistency for nonwords decreased from 67% to 10% post-therapy, and PCC increased from 63% to 90%. These preliminary findings support the efficacy of the T-CVT intervention for children with IPD who show temporal auditory processing deficits as reflected by higher gap detection thresholds.
Despite its popularity in practice, the Grit-O Scale has shown inconsistent factorial structures and differing levels of internal consistency in samples outside the USA. The validity of the Grit-O Scale in different contexts is, therefore, questionable. As such, the purpose of this paper was to determine whether the Grit-O Scale could be used as a valid and reliable measure to compare grit across different nations. Specifically, the aim was to investigate the factorial validity, reliability, and concurrent validity of the Grit-O Scale and to investigate measurement invariance across three national cohorts (Europe, the USA, and Hong Kong). Data were gathered from 1888 respondents stemming from one USA- (n=471), two Hong Kong- (n=361) and four European (n=1056) universities. A series of traditional CFA and less restrictive ESEM models were estimated and systematically compared to determine the best factorial form of the Grit-O Scale. The results showed that a bifactor ESEM model, with one general factor of overall grit and two specific factors (consistency of interest and perseverance of effort), fitted the data best, showed strong measurement invariance across the three samples, and showed itself to be a reliable measure. Furthermore, concurrent validity was established by showing that the three grit factors were directly and positively related to task performance. Meaningful latent comparisons between the three cultural cohorts could therefore be made. The results imply that cross-national comparisons of grit may only be problematic when traditional CFA approaches are favoured. In contrast, ESEM modelling approaches may compensate for cross-national differences in understanding grit and control for differences in the interpretation of the scale’s items. Therefore, the bifactor ESEM approach may be more appropriate for cross-cultural and cross-national comparison studies, as it allows for these differences to be meaningfully captured, modelled, and controlled for.
Fleury Richard was a colorist painter of the early 19th century. He practiced the oil technique inspired by the Renaissance at a time when advances in chemistry were introducing many new synthetic pigments. His color-mixing cabinet has been kept intact at the Musée des Beaux Arts de Lyon. This original study is based on the analysis of more than 40 color powders using different spectroscopic techniques (X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy), color index estimation, and the comparison of the results obtained from three pictural works painted by the artist. It allows us (i) to identify and reference the pigmented powders and pictural choices in connection with historical manuscripts describing the artist’s practice, and (ii) to identify the most judicious analysis methods and question the difficulty of analyzing paintings in a non-destructive way, where pigments are put into a matrix and mixed.
The purpose of the paper is to propose two new procedures that deal with overfitting problem using neural techniques for variable selection and business failure prediction. The first procedure, called HVS-AUC, is based simultaneously on (i) the backward search, (ii) the HVS measure (Heuristic for Variable Selection), and (iii) the AUC criterion (Area Under Curve). The second procedure, called forward-AUC, is based on (i) the forward search and (ii) the AUC criterion. Using a sample of bankrupt and non-bankrupt firms in France, the implementation of the procedures using neural networks shows that the profitability, the repayment capacity, the taxation, and the importance of investment have a strong explanatory power in bankruptcy prediction. These procedures also provide more parsimonious and more efficient models compared to Linear Discriminant Analysis.
In the past two decades, gratitude has been shown to be closely related to mental health and well-being. However, there is no consensus about its definition, and self-gratitude was hastily dismissed. This research aimed to analyze how self-gratitude is considered by laypersons. We conducted three online studies to test the hypothesis according to which self-gratitude is prototypically organized. In Study 1, participants (N = 152) listed the features of self-gratitude: 55 categories emerged from the data processing. In Study 2, participants (N = 146) significantly distinguished the features according to their degree of centrality. In Study 3 (N = 108), the analysis showed that the centrality of features influenced cognition through a recognition task. The results provide preliminary evidence of the internal structure of self-gratitude. Overall, this study showed the lay conceptions, allowing us to define self-gratitude as acknowledgment and appreciation of meaningful benefits involving the self.
Environmental issues have become a major concern for policymakers faced with the threat of global warming. The Euro-pean Climate Energy Package is an ambitious plan which drives the trajectories of European countries in three directions: reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing the share of renewable energy and improving energy efficiency. This article is original in that it considers the three targets together using multidimensional data analysis methods, a methodology which makes it possible to propose temporal and spatial typologies for the energy transition of European countries over the period 2000-2019. Results show evidence of a gradual transition over three subperiods towards a more environmentally conscious economy. Four distinct types of energy transition profiles are identified, highlighting the contrasting performances of EU Members in terms of energy transition. In particular, some economically more advanced countries, namely Germany, Ireland, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, are lagging in achieving their targets. Finally, discriminant analyses suggest that economic performance, trade performance, innovation system and policy mix design have been particularly effective in promoting energy transition over the period 2000-2019, while only innovation system helps to explain the contrasting results observed at country level over that time.
Body awareness may arise in the total absence of sensory input, as suggested by the spontaneous occurrence of normal and pathological (i.e., hallucinatory) bodily sensations. These phenomena may arise due to back-projections from higher-order cortical areas to the primary (SI) and secondary (SII) somatosensory cortices, and would appear to be reflected in cortical oscillatory activity in both SI and SII. Here, we set to investigate the relationship of SI and SII in SPS. Healthy participants underwent an EEG recording session at rest, and then completed an experiment on the perception of spontaneous sensations occurring on the hands. Cortical oscillatory activity was extracted from specified ROIs in the somatosensory cortices. The findings showed that (i) SPS perceived in the fingers correlated positively with alpha-band oscillations recorded in SI, and that (ii) SPS perceived in the palm correlated positively with gamma-band oscillations and negatively with beta-band oscillations recorded in SII. Apart from supporting the idea that the somatosensory cortices are involved in bodily awareness even in the absence of sensory input, these findings also suggest that default oscillatory activity in the somatosensory cortices reflects individual differences in bodily awareness. The results are interpreted in terms of neural and cognitive processes that may give rise to bodily awareness and modulate it, and their importance in understanding body perception distortions and bodily delusions and hallucinations is discussed.
This chapter focuses on the Neogene evolution of the Pyrenean mountain range. Based on methods of denudation chronology and landform analysis, the transition from the ancestral (Paleogene) to the modern Pyrenees is analysed. During the ~25 Ma following the definitive relaxation of tectonic convergence, the sediment record reveals a state of transience in which rates of crustal deformation and crustal denudation were neither steady through time at any given location, nor spatially uniform. Transience is also encoded in landform assemblages within the mountain range, whether in the Axial Zone or the outer fold belts. Slope systems, interfluve summits and valleys responded in characteristic ways to relative lulls in the history of crustal deformation, and/or were at certain places buffered from base-level changes. The mountain landscape, accordingly, consists of (i) a mosaic of range-top, low-gradient erosion surfaces of varying sizes and states of conservation, often in abrupt juxtaposition with (ii) a population of younger incisional landforms, themselves displaying evidence of successive stages of downcutting and drainage reorganisation such as dry valleys, wind gaps, mountain-flank pediments and rock benches. All are situated above (iii) staircases of Quaternary alluvial terraces, fans and debris cones. The entire landscape evolution sequence was driven by post-orogenic regional uplift and was enhanced more locally by active fault tectonics.
This chapter summarises the key points addressed in the previous four. From the K–T boundary to the present, the Pyrenees as a mountain range rising between Europe and Iberia went through three successive states: the proto-Pyrenees, the ancestral Pyrenees, and the modern Pyrenees. Throughout this period, the mountain range changed in length, width, relief and elevation. The proto-Pyrenees began to emerge in the east, forming a mountain range that coincided with the eastern third of the modern Pyrenees. Mountain topography extended at the time farther east into the area now occupied by the Gulf of Lion. Growth of the mountain belt extended westward from Ypresian time and the ancestral Pyrenees appear to have attained their peak energy and peak topography between the Priabonian and the Oligocene, at a time when the Ebro Basin was entering its ~20–25-million-year period of internally drained sedimentary confinement. Mountain-front fan systems became ubiquitous on both sides of the orogen during this time interval. The chapter delivers a comparative analysis of the depositional histories in the pro- and retro-foreland basins of the orogen. Explanations to a number of recorded features are contained among the rich assemblage of geomorphological and chronostratigraphic evidence encountered in the elevated massifs and Neogene extensional basins of the eastern Pyrenees, which are explored in greater depth throughout the nine itineraries described in chapters 6 to 14 of this GeoGuide.
Itinerary 1 showcases regional tectonic and sedimentary evolution during the Oligocene and Miocene. The successive stops track landscape evolution and base-level changes during the Neogene by examining fault systems, sediment lithostratigraphy and provenance, and erosion surface vestiges crosscutting folds and structures of the North-Pyrenean and Sub-Pyrenean zones. Stops include sites where the planar land surfaces have been dated by various methods, and where their geodynamic and palaeoclimatic context can be reconstructed from a variety of environmental archives. Insights are also gained into the Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of the coastal plains, highlighting the recurrence of catastrophic flooding in the valleys.
Pollen-based vegetation change has been inferred from sediments in Kalavan Red Lake. This small lake is placed in the beech-oak-hornbeam forest, about three kilometres away from archaeological remains. It has the potential to document the Holocene forest history and climate and human impacts on the Lesser Caucasus. However, this lake happens to be formed by a large landslide. Pollen and XRF analysis are provided over the last 3800 years. The basal age of the Kalavan sediment approximates the landslide age. This created a not vegetated slope including the lake catchment. Erosion and sedimentation processes brought coarse and heavy minerogenic elements, declining with the catchment revegetation by tall-grassland. This shift in the sedimentation continues, suggesting less erosion in the catchment when an admixture of Quercus and grasslands settled. Starting from 2000 cal. BP, arboreal pollen increases successively thanks to the step afforestation of Quercus, Carpinus orientalis and Fagus. The comparison with available pollen reconstruction illustrates the uniqueness of the vegetation dynamic recorded at Kalavan. However, the duration of this succession is also questionable. An intermediate hypothesis is proposed: the Kalavan's dynamic is first initiated by the landslide with the tall-grass development, then paced by the regional vegetation dynamic. Linking vegetation history and erosion with regional climate and archaeological data helps to evidence short-term climate change and human impact. Antique arid phase (2000–1600 cal. BP), the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age affect the vegetation, while demography variations during the Medieval period and Modern Age are shown by pastoral activity.
Introduction Recent studies on cognitive training in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) showed positive long-term effects on cognition and daily living, suggesting remote computer-based programmes to increase training sessions while reducing patient’s travelling. The aim of this study is to examine short-term and long-term benefits of computer-based cognitive training at home in patients with mild to moderate AD, as a complement to the training in speech and language therapists’ (SLT) offices. The secondary purpose is to study training frequency required to obtain noticeable effects. Methods and analyses This is a national multicentre study, conducted in SLT offices. The patients follow training in one of three conditions: once a week in SLT office only (regular condition) and once a week in SLT office plus one or three times per week at home. The trainings’ content in SLT office and at home is identical. For all three groups near and far transfer will be compared with evaluate training frequency’s effect. Our primary outcome is executive and working memory scores in experimental tasks, and the secondary is neuropsychological tests and questionnaires’ scores. Linear models’ analyses are considered for all measures with a random intercept for patients and another for per practice. The fixed effects will be: three modality groups and time, repeated measures, (T0—pretraining, T1—post-training, T2—long-term follow-up) and the interaction pairs. Ethics and dissemination The study got ethics approval of the national ethical committee CPP Sud Méditerranée III (No 2019-A00458-49) and of the National Commission for Information Technology and Liberties (No 919217). Informed consent is obtained from each participant. Results will be disseminated in oral communications or posters in international conferences and published in scientific journals. Trial registration number NCT04010175 .
The transition along the strike of the Sunda subduction zone, from oceanic subduction in the west to subduction of continental Australian lithosphere in the east is envisioned as one of the canonical examples of the structural changes that take place within an overriding plate when a continental lithosphere wedge enters a subduction zone. Yet, the along-strike offset of the trench toward the Australian margin represents a structural response opposite to the predictions of numerical models. To understand this paradox, we analyse the morphotectonic evolution of Sumba island located at the transition from oceanic to continental Indo-Australian lithosphere subduction. Drainage evolution allows us to constrain the topographic evolution of the island since the Pliocene. Flights of uplifted coral reef terraces document Quaternary deformation. Focal mechanisms of shallow crustal earthquakes constrain the current stress field. Together, these data reveal that the island is affected by dextral en-échelon folding. Offshore, west of the island, reverse and strike-slip focal mechanisms evidence an active dextral transpressional zone. The emergence of the island and dextral shearing of the accretionary prism were triggered by subduction of the western lateral boundary of the Australian continental margin. We contend that the Plio-Quaternary tectonic evolution of the region, with transpression and migration of the trench toward the Australian margin is primarily dictated by shear stress transfer from the lower plate to the overriding plate, favored by strong interplate coupling, and by southwestward escape of the Savu-Sumba block following the impingement of the Australian continental margin against Timor island.
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