Background: Waste production and management from residents and collection for sorting are systems heavily dependent on territorial dimensions. Ergonomic research needs to better integrate such territorial determinants to improve work conditions and design sustainable work systems. Objective: Through studies in France and Brazil, this paper analyzes the territorial relations that raise work systems' sustainability challenges for materials recovery facilities (MRFs) and waste management in both countries and examines the links between work activity and territory in MRFs. Methods: Both studies were based on the principles of activity-oriented ergonomics and used analyses of work activity and sociotechnical systems. The French study focused on interventions conducted over a 42-month period in five MRFs. The Brazilian study was based on a 20-month longitudinal qualitative and quantitative study. Results: In this paper, we argue that territory is a key determining factor in waste production and work. Notably, the consumption patterns of residents and the economic flows within a geographic space determine the waste composition; and the territorially specified public policies, which define technical and social dimensions of waste collection and sorting. However, the territorial dimensions of waste are poorly considered in facility design. Workers' health and sorting system performance are thus affected and negatively compromise plant performance. Conclusion: The territory appears as a blind spot in the design of work systems. One of the challenges is to create interfaces and devices that could help to integrate better human activity and waste territorialized anchorage, in a multilevel organization, from local communities to the global recycling chains.
One of the gravest concerns related to cloud computing pertains to data security. As businesses start on digital transformation, there is a clear requirement for privacy and data protection. Organizations today have more data, applications, and websites than they have ever had before. Data security has risen to the top of the priority list for cloud computing security. Although numerous solutions have been put forward, most of them exclusively target individual stages within the data life cycle, such as storage. This approach proves inadequate in effectively tackling the security challenges of cloud data, given that threats can arise at any phase of the data life cycle. Any security breach occurring during any stage of the data life cycle process has the potential to compromise overall data security. Hence, it becomes imperative to address data security across all phases of the data life cycle. This article’s primary contribution lies in introducing a novel viewpoint concerning data security solutions aligned with the data life cycle. This perspective holds significant importance and can serve as a road map for crafting a comprehensive security strategy. The article conducts an exhaustive review of the complete data life cycle and identifies a research gap comprising unresolved challenges that could potentially serve as research inquiries for our forthcoming endeavors.
Background: A huge amount of ergonomic research has been carried out in companies. However, territory is now becoming a new frontier for decision-making during design. Objective: This article aims to examine how territorial scale impacts the design process of a work system. Methods: Two types of methods were used. First, we analyzed and defined what constitutes a territorialized work system. On this basis we conducted a design project for the re-conception of a territorialized work system with the linden tree. Results: It is argued that a "territorialized work system" is not limited to its productive dimensions; it engages in a "making of a milieu" which consists in matching the work system with a range of dimensions that make life possible within the territory. Conclusion: The territorial aspect of running a design project thus relates to three dimensions: the systemic dimension of the system to be designed, the organization of the design project itself, and the nature of the object to be designed: the possibility of making a milieu, i.e. of being able to live in the territory.
Background Cognitive dissonance theory and research has suggested that engaging in prevention interventions for other students may be a means of reducing one’s own problematic behaviors in order to reduce potential cognitive dissonance. This study assessed the effects of a new mandatory prevention intervention program for healthcare students in France. The aim was to measure the effects of engaging in a prevention program in schools on the usual increase in substance use in student populations. Methods Healthcare students were trained in a French university to develop psychosocial competences as a health promotion means (FEPS training) or more specifically to prevent substance use in teenagers (Unplugged program training). The students (n = 314) who accepted to take part in the study from both groups completed questionnaires before their interventions in schools, and at the end of the year, measuring their representations and behaviors regarding psychoactive substances. Results The results indicated a significant reduction in alcohol consumption in terms of quantity, but no significant reduction in tobacco and marijuana consumption. Conclusions This study showed that, contrary to the usual increase in substance use in students as they advance in their year, the students who took part in this study showed reduced self-reported consumption of alcohol after they had performed the prevention intervention in schools regardless of the type of training they had received (general health promotion vs. specific substance use prevention program). Limitations and future perspectives are discussed.
Spring mounds are specific geomorphological landforms in arid or semi‐arid environments associated with playas and artesian springs. Spring mounds are found worldwide, especially in the great Artesian Basin of Australia and in North American and Egyptian deserts. They result from an exceptional succession of climatic, geomorphological and hydrogeological conditions, with processes that follow each other in a specific order. In Tunisia, in the arid zone, ca. 126 spring mounds have been identified in Nefzaoua province alone, especially in the oasis east of Chott el Jerid. They have a conical shape that ranges from 200 to more than 2000 m in diameter and 3–30 m tall, and their centre is hollowed out by an artesian spring of fresh water. Palm groves ( Phoenix dactylifera ) spread out at the foot of each mound. The springs have dried up because of the proliferation of borehole wells. Because of the low electric conductivity (EC) of the sediments (<1 mS cm ⁻¹ ) at their base, spring mounds have been excavated and used as a soil amendment to expand new palm plantations. This excavation allows for analysis of their internal structure, which has never been observed well. In the present study, fine analysis of sediment layers in four sections of two representative mounds showed that vegetation had trapped sediment at their base. Fine strata of variable texture alternating with variable calcium carbonate, gypsum or organic carbon contents suggest a clear limnic origin. Many redoximorphic features, sometimes associated with the presence of old roots, suggest variation in the water level in the centre of the mound. The mounds are capped by a thick layer of indurated gypsum, which helps them resist hydric and aeolian erosion. The origin of the sediment components is discussed.
Introduction: Using the job demands control support (JDCS) model, we examined the impact of introducing information and communication technologies (ICTs) on the working conditions of civil servants in a major public institution in Gabon. We hypothesized that perceived ICT usability moderates the temporal beneficial/detrimental (dis)continuity of job demands and job control before and after their introduction. For exploratory and complementary purposes, we also investigated changes in social support. Methods: To this end, we conducted a quantitative two-wave longitudinal study of 162 civil servants, with measures before and after the introduction of ICTs for one subsample, and compared them to another subsample for which ICTs had not already been introduced (control group). Results: At baseline (T1), the two subsamples were similar regarding JDCS variables; at follow-up (T2), civil servants without ICTs reported, on average, a slight increase in job demand and a strong decrease in job control, whereas civil servants with newly introduced ICTs reported unchanged levels of job demand and job control. Similar observations, albeit of a lesser magnitude, occurred for social support. The analyses revealed that perceived usability marginally moderated the temporal stability of job control, whereas high job control at T1 favored similarly high job control at T2 only when ICTs were perceived as very highly usable. Discussion and Conclusion: The discussion addresses the possible existence of a downward social comparison effect for civil servants without ICTs, suggests the likely role of coping strategies to explain the mixed results, examines the study contributions and limitations, and delineates practical implications.
In order to track diachronic changes in archaeological sequences, researchers typically partition time into stratigraphic layers defined during fieldwork, which serve as the framework for ensuing analyses. These analytical units have a significant impact on archaeological inference, defining its resolution, and influencing both the study of cultural assemblages and the reconstruction of past environments. However, field layers are seldom re-evaluated after excavation despite the fact that archaeological deposits are now commonly recognised as often containing material ‘mixed’ together by site formation processes, excavation techniques, or analytical practices. Although the analysis of intra-site spatial data clearly offers a means to overcome these issues, our literature review of 192 journal articles revealed the potential of this data (notably vertical projections of piece-plotted artefacts) to be under-exploited in prehistoric archaeology. Here, we advocate for the development of a more spatially informed framework for interpretation that we refer to as post-excavation stratigraphy or PES. After proposing a definition for PES, we attempt to develop a framework for theoretical considerations underlying their implication, importance, and potential. Three main benefits of PES are highlighted: ensuring assemblage reliability, increased chronological and spatial resolution, and more reliable interpretations based on a multi-stratigraphic approach. We contend that the stratigraphy defined during fieldwork is insufficient and potentially misleading. By providing a different “stratigraphic view” of the same sequence, each specialist can contribute data that, when combined, produces a better understanding of interactions between changes in, for example, technological or cultural traditions, subsistence strategies, or paleoenvironments.
This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric validity of the French adaptation of the Strengths Use Scale (SUS), a self-report tool measuring how individuals use their strengths in daily life. The original SUS, developed by Govindji and Linley (2007), has not been thoroughly assessed across languages and cultures. The adapted French SUS exhibits similar properties to the original and presents no new consistency issues. This study contributes to adapting and validating the SUS in French for research and clinical practice. Future research should focus on developing a shorter version by eliminating redundancies and adapting the scale for children to evaluate positive psychology interventions’ efficacy in youth.
Introduction The objective of the present study was to test two Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS) designed to help older drivers to intercept a moving inter-vehicular space. Method Older and younger drivers were asked to intercept a moving inter-vehicular space within a train of vehicles in a driving simulator. Three ADAS conditions (No-ADAS, Head Down, Head Up) as well as five distinct speed regulation conditions were tested. Vehicle trajectory, gaze behavior and acceptance were analyzed. Results Our results reveal that the ADAS tested make it possible to perform the interception task but also to reduce the variability of the behavior produced. They also indicate that the location of the augmented information provided by the ADAS directly impacts the information-gathering strategy implemented. Finally, whereas younger divers reported mixed levels of ADAS acceptance, older drivers reported a good level of acceptance. Discussion All these results could be particularly useful with a view of designing ADAS for older drivers.
Humans have evolved voluntary control over vocal production for speaking and singing, while preserving the phylogenetically older system of spontaneous nonverbal vocalizations such as laughs and screams. To test for systematic acoustic differences between these vocal domains, we analyzed a broad, cross-cultural corpus representing over 2 h of speech, singing, and nonverbal vocalizations. We show that, while speech is relatively low-pitched and tonal with mostly regular phonation, singing and especially nonverbal vocalizations vary enormously in pitch and often display harsh-sounding, irregular phonation owing to nonlinear phenomena. The evolution of complex supralaryngeal articulatory spectro-temporal modulation has been critical for speech, yet has not significantly constrained laryngeal source modulation. In contrast, articulation is very limited in nonverbal vocalizations, which predominantly contain minimally articulated open vowels and rapid temporal modulation in the roughness range. We infer that vocal source modulation works best for conveying affect, while vocal filter modulation mainly facilitates semantic communication.
Forward collision warning systems (FCWSs) monitor the road ahead and warn drivers when the time to collision reaches a certain threshold. Using a driving simulator, this study compared the effects of FCWSs between novice drivers (unlicensed drivers) and experienced drivers (holding a driving license for at least four years) on near-collision events, as well as visual and driving behaviors. The experimental drives lasted about six hours spread over six consecutive weeks. Visual behaviors (e.g., mean number of fixations) and driving behaviors (e.g., braking reaction times) were collected during unprovoked near-collision events occurring during a car-following task, with (FCWS group) or without FCWS (No Automation group). FCWS presence reduced the number of near-collision events drastically and enhanced visual behaviors during those events. Unexpectedly, brake reaction times were observed to be significantly longer with FCWS, suggesting a cognitive cost associated with the warning process. Still, the FCWS showed a slight safety benefit for novice drivers attributed to the assistance provided for the situation analysis. Outside the warning events, FCWS presence also impacted car-following behaviors. Drivers took an extra safety margin, possibly to prevent incidental triggering of warnings. The data enlighten the nature of the cognitive processes associated with FCWSs. Altogether, the findings support the general efficiency of FCWSs observed through a massive reduction in the number of near-collision events and point toward the need for further investigations.
Purpose Acting on modifiable risk factors can prevent approximately 40% of cancers. Knowing the factors that lead people to adopt healthy behaviors is crucial for designing effective primary prevention campaigns. Our study attempts to provide knowledge in this direction. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted via the Seintinelles collaborative research platform in a community of women without a personal cancer history, and volunteering to take online questionnaires. We collected data on sociodemographic and health factors, knowledge of cancer risk factors, behaviors, and possible behavior changes (tobacco/alcohol use, diet, body weight, and physical activity) in the last 10 years. Results The study involved 1465 women aged between 18 and 84 years. Factors such as young age, living alone, and obesity were associated with some positive or negative behavior changes. Being professionally active and having comorbidities favored certain positive behavior changes, while having dependent children, living in a rural area, and being hospitalized were associated with negative or no change in behaviors. Lack of knowledge about modifiable risk factors for cancer was associated with the non-adoption of various healthy behaviors (consumptions of fruit and vegetables, processed and red meat; physical activity). Only 5.5% of participants currently reported to be compliant with seven public health recommendations (smoking; alcohol, fruit/vegetables, and red/processed meat intakes; body mass index; and physical activity). Conclusions This study allowed to identify the need to increase the level of knowledge on modifiable risk factors for cancer among the general population and to better clarify the content of prevention messages.
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