Université Lumiere Lyon 2
Recent publications
As elsewhere around the North Atlantic, and throughout most European mountains, the Younger Dryas (YD: 12.9–11.7 ka) corresponded in the Pyrenees to a short period of cold climate, less intense than at the time of the Oldest Dryas (~18.9–14.6 ka) but notably colder than at the time of the Bølling–Allerød Interstadial (14.6–12.9 ka). The response of Pyrenean glaciers to the YD cold spike has been documented in just ten sites, mostly by ¹⁰Be and ³⁶Cl exposure ages obtained from glacially polished bedrock steps on valley floors, with only a few exposure ages from moraines and rock glaciers. Despite some uncertainty over age precision (mainly ascribable to uncertainty concerning past snow cover), all existing evidence indicates that YD glaciers, where present, prevailed mostly in the central and western Pyrenees and never exceeded lengths of 2–6 km. Ongoing deglaciation favoured paraglacial readjustments on cirque headwalls, promoting the widespread development of rock glaciers and, more locally, debris-covered glaciers.
The Bølling–Allerød (B-A) Interstadial (14.6–12.9 ka) was a period of intense glacier recession in the Pyrenees. All available proxies indicate that environmental conditions became substantially wetter and warmer than during the preceding post-LGM interval between 18.9 and 14.6 ka (early Last Glacial to Interglacial transition, LGIT). Most of the Pyrenean trunk glaciers vanished, being confined to the cirques and promoting the onset of paraglacial rock slope failures and the formation of rock glaciers. At lower elevations, forest expansion promoted a sharp decrease in catchment erosion rates. Braided glaciofluvial stream channels narrowed and gave way to meandering river styles. The detailed chronology of deglaciation during those 1700 years of rapid change has been documented for only a very small number of valleys, mostly relying on ¹⁰Be or ³⁶Cl exposure ages obtained from glacially polished bedrock steps on valley floors, with also a few results from ice-marginal boulders and/or rock glaciers. A period of glacier reexpansion occurred at the end of the B-A Interstadial in response to decreasing temperatures heralding the Younger Dryas.
In the Pyrenees, the magnitude of ice fluctuations during the earlier part of the last glacial-to-interglacial transition (18.9–14.6 ka), or LGIT, is only well established for a dozen of small catchments, mostly on the basis of exposure ages. Constraints on the distribution and chronology of early LGIT glaciers in the eastern massifs have been used as proxies for palaeoclimatic reconstructions, with widespread evidence of rapid and extensive post-Last Glacial Maximum (post-LGM) deglaciation. In some Pyrenean valleys, such as in the upper Têt catchment, the LGM equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) rose from 2000 to 2100 to ~2400 m as early as 19–20 cal ka BP. Thereafter, two glacier stillstands occurred around 19–18 and 17–16 ka. Glaciation patterns reveal systematically lower ELAs and higher glacier mass-balance gradients amongst massifs on the northern side of the range (thereby indicating cooler and wetter conditions) than on its southern side. These N–S climatic contrasts, still prominent today, have thus prevailed since the end of the LGM. In the central and western Pyrenees, data for the Noguera Ribagorçana, Noguera de Tor and Gállego valleys also document glaciers confined to the upper catchments around 17–16 ka.
Investor sentiment may not only influence financial instability, it may also be shaped by it. Moreover, such causal links may differ over time, in crisis and non-crisis periods. This is a groundbreaking paper that tests these two hypotheses from a macro-financial perspective using the bootstrap rolling window sub-sample Granger causality approach to look at the case of the U.S. financial market between January 1990 and January 2021. We find that bullish sentiment can reduce financial instability as it promotes financial market entry and then liquidity during non-crisis periods, while higher financial instability is associated with less bullish sentiment leading to a shift to crisis periods. The results also reveal a positive (negative) effect of bearish (bullish) investor sentiment on financial instability during crisis periods, including the 2007–2008 financial crisis, the 2010 flash crash, the 2015–2016 Chinese stock market turbulence, and the February 2020 stock market crash. Finally, the study highlights the important role of the “betting against beta” strategy in the U.S. financial market, showing a negative effect of financial instability on bearish investor sentiment during several pre- and post-crisis periods.
This research studies the online consumer experience and, more specifically, the role of design e-personalisation of e-commerce websites adapted to the needs of consumers with disabilities (perceptual, cognitive or physical). It examines the roles of ease of use and pleasure of use as explanatory mechanisms for the effects of design e-personalisation on e-commerce website reuse and positive word-of-mouth intentions. We propose an online consumer experience model based on perceived design e-personalisation and test it empirically with structural equations on a sample of 117 participants from a panel of French Internet users who are more than 55 years old and have disabilities. The results highlight a serial double mediation of design e-personalisation on reuse and word-of-mouth intentions via ease of use and pleasure of use.
Background The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is responsible for the transmission of many arboviruses worldwide and is well adapted to thrive in urban environments. In mainland France, a nonendemic area, this mosquito is responsible for several autochthonous and imported cases of chikungunya and dengue each year. Better management and prevention of mosquito-borne disease transmission in nonendemic areas is thus of global concern. In this context, the aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of mosquito–human interactions as well as human behavior and beliefs in regard to this mosquito species in urban areas. Methods We focused on people who participate in community gardens, which are increasingly popular initiatives in metropolitan France and are conducive to the development of tiger mosquitoes. To evaluate community gardeners’ knowledge and practices in relation to mosquito management and control, we conducted a knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) survey. Results In contrast to previous KAP studies, we showed that attitudes, more than knowledge, influence the practices of community gardeners in relation to mosquitoes. Interestingly, all gardeners who participated in the survey were concerned about the Asian tiger mosquito and were motivated to incorporate mosquito control methods in their gardens. Moreover, mosquitoes were perceived as nuisances rather than disease vector species. A change in community gardeners’ perceptions could facilitate more appropriate behavior to control this species. Conclusions This survey reveals the lack of knowledge and awareness of good practices for the efficient control of the Asian tiger mosquito in green urban areas. Graphical Abstract
The current context, with the many changes occurring in both local and distant environments, raises ethical questions that challenge our emotions, our relationships, and our vision of the world and our place in it. These changes require us to be capable of apprehending a complex set of problems so as to understand and analyse them, grasp the individual and societal challenges they present, and, with full awareness of the issues, decide how to behave. This aim of enabling every citizen to be capable of making informed choices and acting responsibly is found in the curricula of many countries, including Switzerland. Education about changes, for systemic and forward-looking vision and for action is rooted in particular in the Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) approach. Our study aims to better define what is conducive in compulsory schooling to the development of cross-cutting competences and their assessment.
IoT devices have become increasingly popular in the last few years due to the potential of their sensors to feed data and provide insights into various applications in many fields. Today, such sensors are used in health care, environmental forecasting, and finance systems, to name a few. Predictive algorithms can leverage the temporal data provided by IoT sensors to enrich real-time applications to, for example, predict CO2 and temperature levels in a given region and provide public alerts. In this context, to find out the best solution for predicting time series generated from data collected by IoT devices, this work evaluates two machine learning approaches: federated learning and centralized learning. Federated learning implies training the algorithms in a distributed way across devices, while centralized learning takes data from devices into a server and focuses training on it. We performed experiments using Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) to predict the time series with federated and centralized strategies. The results show that the Federated Learning model predicts five time-steps of a time series with, on average, 78% less mean squared error and intakes 86% less communication load in the network than a Centralized solution.
This article investigates the influence of the use of sales force automation (SFA) on the performance of business-to-business (B2B) salespersons, given its growing importance and much discussed effects. We examine the underlying mediating mechanisms between the use of SFA and salesperson outcomes (i.e. job satisfaction and salesperson performance). Based on a sample of 196 B2B salespeople, our results confirm the existence of a direct effect between the use of SFA and salespeople’s performance, as well as the existence of indirect effects via (1) interpersonal mediators, that is, successively adaptive selling behavior and relationship quality and (2) intrapersonal mediators, that is, successively role overload and the risk of salesperson burnout. The results also show the positive influence of job satisfaction on salespeople’s performance, and vice versa.
Self-compassion (SC) seems to play an important role in improving Emotion Regulation (ER). Nevertheless, the results of previous studies regarding the links between SC and ER are not consistent, especially facing diverse models of ER (strategy-based vs skill-based). The goal of this prospective study was to evaluate the links between these three concepts, by testing the predictive roles of SC and ER skills on both ER adaptive and maladaptive strategies, using standardised questionnaires and visual analogue scales. Results of regression analysis showed that self-compassion positively predicts cognitive reappraisal, acceptance, problemsolving, relaxation, self-support, tolerance and ER skills and negatively predicts behavioural avoidance, expressive suppression and ruminations. Results also showed that ER skills positively predict cognitive reappraisal, expression, acceptance, relaxation, self-support and tolerance and negatively predicts behavioural avoidance, expressive suppression and ruminations. Results from a mediation model are also promising regarding both the role of ER skills on the effect of SC on adaptive ER strategy use. Even if this study can be associated with common limits of self-report measures, it highlights the role of SC in a model of ER.
Throughout Kenya, new governance regimes that are designed to sustain habitat connectivity for wildlife populations outside of national parks have gained increasing prominence. Though these new regimes often center a discursive emphasis on the synergies between wildlife conservation and pastoralist land use, it often remains unclear how they have interacted with colonial and post-colonial legacies that influenced pastoralists' relationships with land. As an effort to gain an improved understanding of the practices that conservation governance regimes deploy, and their underlying rationales, I present an empirically-driven account drawn from ethnographic field work in Kenyan Ilkisongo Maasai land surrounding Amboseli National Park. I argue that to understand recent configurations of land, it is essential to consider the multiple types of interlocking practices deployed by international wildlife conservation NGOs and the Kenyan state. Under a range of pressures to subdivide collectively titled land, a new territorial and governance configuration is emerging where land tenure will retain characteristics of being both private and collective. I argue that a discursive emphasis that frames conservation interventions as producing welfare for populations of wildlife and pastoralists alike has created new potentials to center the concerns of politically marginalized pastoralists, but has also raised risks of an ‘anti-politics’ that can reproduce and reinforce multiple dimensions of power asymmetries.
Studies on media multitasking behavior and task-switching performance have yielded mixed results. The present preliminary study ( N = 40) focused on task management, and not performance, by allowing participants to choose the switching frequency between tasks all along the experiment. This design revealed two different patterns of organization, with many participants choosing no variation at all and sticking to this organization throughout the entire experiment. We found no impact of organization type on performance. The participants who switched more often scored higher on polychronicity (i.e., preference for multitasking) and media multitasking scales. We did not find any relationship between executive functioning and task organization or media multitasking scores, but this result should be regarded with caution given the limited sample size. In broad terms, individuals tend to declare a media multitasking tendency in line with their spontaneous organization on multiple tasks, with more sequentially organized participants reporting lower media multitasking behavior. These results point to a seemingly global individual strategy to approach multiple tasks.
La notion d’enveloppes psychiques est actuellement très présente dans les publications, congrès et colloques psychanalytiques. Assiste-t-on à un approfondissement de la notion s’appuyant sur de nouvelles recherches, avancées cliniques ou croisements transdisciplinaires ? Ou alors, assiste-t-on à un appauvrissement de la spécificité clinique d’une notion dont la théorisation et les applications cliniques et thérapeutiques faisaient référence par le passé ? Faire la différence entre une augmentation du savoir et des connaissances par la plus grande diffusion d’une notion ou de son affaiblissement par une réduction de sa spécificité envers des concepts plus limites et charnières est une question essentielle lorsqu’on s’intéresse au développement des sciences. Dans ce numéro d’In Analysis (2022-3), sobrement intitulé « Cliniques des enveloppes », nous proposons au débat, et à la réflexion, une lecture historique, critique et transdisciplinaire de cette notion, avant de poursuive, dans le premier numéro de l’année 2023, une réflexion sur ses liens avec le politique, le social, l’institutionnel et l’environnement. Pour ce premier numéro sur le sujet, In Analysis propose aux lecteurs cliniciens et chercheurs une réflexion épistémologique, métapsychologique et clinique sur la notion d’enveloppe, en psychanalyse certes, mais surtout en lien avec d’autres sciences connexes comme les neurosciences, l’histoire, la sociologie ou encore les sciences cognitives, et leurs résonnances avec une clinique actuelle et institutionnelle.
We investigated the effect of very high pressure on the sintering temperature, phase transition and the grain growth during Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of a 15 nm TiO2 nanopowder. Using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction during sintering at 1.5 and 3.5 GPa, we followed the evolution of the crystalline phases and the crystallite size as a function of temperature. In comparison, in the laboratory, SPS experiments were performed on two original facilities: A Paris-Edinburgh press and a high-pressure module adapted to standard SPS equipment. We studied the effect of the pressure on the sintering in the range 76 MPa to 3.5 GPa. We have shown that highly dense nanostructured ceramics can be prepared under very high pressure at low sintering temperatures. At 1 GPa, we limited the grain growth to an average size of 233 nm by heating at only 560 °C, and achieved a relative density of 98%.
L’alcool est plus délétère que protecteur sur le système nerveux. Il existe de fréquents troubles cognitifs associés aux troubles de l’usage d’alcool, présents jusque chez 50 à 80 % des malades. Les troubles cognitifs liés à l’alcool sont répartis entre des formes légères, modérées ou sévères (incluant le rare syndrome de Korsakoff), ils sont le plus souvent méconnus à leur début. Leur repérage repose sur des échelles. Les soins relèvent de programmes de réhabilitation psychosociale. Des actions soignantes sont possibles par tous les intervenants de soin, avec une place pour les aides-soignants du repérage à l’accompagnement et la remédiation.
The COVID‐19 pandemic has deeply affected the mental health of millions of people. We assessed which of many leisure activities correlated with positive mental health outputs, with particular attention to music, which has been reported to be important for coping with the psychological burden of the pandemic. Questionnaire data from about 1000 individuals primarily from Italy, Spain, and the United States during May–June 2020 show that people picked music activities (listening to, playing, singing, etc.) most often as the leisure experiences that helped them the most to cope with psychological distress related with the pandemic. During the pandemic, hours of engagement in music and food‐related activities were associated with lower depressive symptoms. The negative correlation between music and depression was mediated by individual differences in sensitivity to reward, whereas the correlation between food‐related activities and improved mental health outputs was explained by differences in emotion suppression strategies. Our results, while correlational, suggest that engaging in music activities could be related to improved well‐being with the underlying mechanism being related to reward, consistent with neuroscience findings. Our data have practical significance in pointing to effective strategies to cope with mental health issues beyond those related to the COVID‐19 pandemic. The COVID‐19 pandemic has deeply affected the mental health of millions of people. We assessed which leisure activities correlated with positive mental health outputs, with particular attention to music, which has been reported to be important for coping with the psychological burden of the pandemic. We show that people picked music activities most often as the leisure experiences that helped them the most to cope with psychological distress related with the pandemic. We further demonstrate that greater engagement with music during the pandemic is linked to lower levels of depression.
In the United States, almost half of the workers who separated from their jobs ended their unemployment spell by returning to work for their last employer. In this study, we explore the impact of the experience rating (ER) system on recalls. In states using reserve ratio ER, and for a firm that is not at the minimum or the maximum tax rate, each layoff of a worker receiving unemployment benefits increases the future tax rate while each recall reduces it. This provides a natural incentive for firms to recall former workers receiving unemployment benefits. We use the Quarterly Workforce Indicators dataset, which provides information on recalls at the county level, and exploit the differences in tax schedule across states to estimate the impact of ER on recalls. We show that the recall share from hires increases with the degree of ER. We then develop a search and matching model with different unemployment insurance (UI) status, endogenous UI take-up, endogenous separations, recalls, and new hires. We illustrate that this model reproduces the effects of ER on recalls admirably. We show that an increase in the intensity of ER translates into a higher recall share at the steady state, especially for unemployed workers collecting unemployment benefits. We then use this model to analyze the labor market dynamics under alternative financing schemes. We show that ER has stabilization virtues—the higher the degree of ER, the less volatile the unemployment rate.
Varieties of English in the Caribbean have been claimed to have characteristic pitch patterns. However, there is little empirical research on prosodic aspects of English in the region. This paper provides a comparative phonetic analysis of several pitch parameters (pitch level, range, dynamism, rate of change, variability in rate of change, and tone rate) in English language data from Dominica, Grenada, and Trinidad that comprises read and spontaneous speech from 243 speakers. The results show that a wide pitch range and a high degree of variability in pitch, as mentioned in previous works, are not necessarily characteristic of English in the Caribbean overall, but that there are considerable cross‐territorial prosodic differences, with English in Trinidad showing more variability than in Dominica and Grenada, particularly among female speakers. Socioprosodic variation, largely specific to Trinidad, was also identified.
Molecular evolution is often conceptualised as adaptive walks on rugged fitness landscapes, driven by mutations and constrained by incremental fitness selection. It is well known that epistasis shapes the ruggedness of the landscape's surface, outlining their topography (with high-fitness peaks separated by valleys of lower fitness genotypes). However, within the strong selection weak mutation (SSWM) limit, once an adaptive walk reaches a local peak, natural selection restricts passage through downstream paths and hampers any possibility of reaching higher fitness values. Here, in addition to the widely used point mutations, we introduce a minimal model of sequence inversions to simulate adaptive walks. We use the well known NK model to instantiate rugged landscapes. We show that adaptive walks can reach higher fitness values through inversion mutations, which, compared to point mutations, allows the evolutionary process to escape local fitness peaks. To elucidate the effects of this chromosomal rearrangement, we use a graph-theoretical representation of accessible mutants and show how new evolutionary paths are uncovered. The present model suggests a simple mechanistic rationale to analyse escapes from local fitness peaks in molecular evolution driven by (intragenic) structural inversions and reveals some consequences of the limits of point mutations for simulations of molecular evolution.
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Muhammad Fahad
  • CERRAL - Centre d’Etudes, de Recherche et de Recherche-Action Lumière
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Daniel Dufourt
  • Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Lyon
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