# Université Hassan II de Casablanca

• Casablanca, Morocco
Recent publications
The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
Cellulose-based biopolymers have emerged as one of the most promising components to produce sustainable composites as a potential substitutes to fossil-based materials. Herein, the aim of this study is to investigate the reinforcing effect of cellulose microfibers (CMFs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), extracted from alfa fibers (Stipa tenacissima), on the properties of starch biopolymer extracted from potato. The as-extracted CMFs (D = 5.94 ± 0.96 μm), CNCs (D = 14.29 ± 2.53 nm) and starch were firstly characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties. Afterwards, CMFs and CNCs were separately dispersed in starch at different concentrations, and their reinforcing effects as well as the chemical, thermal, transparency and mechanical properties of the resulted starch-based films were evaluated. Thus, CMFs and CNCs incorporation into starch resulted in a minor impact on the films thermal stability, while a considerable impact on the transparency property was observed. In terms of mechanical properties, the addition of up to 20 wt% CMFs reduced the film's elongation but drastically increased its stiffness by 300 %. On the other hand, in the case of CNCs, a loading of 10 wt% was found to be the most effective in increasing film stiffness (by 57 %), while increasing the loading up to 20 wt% CNCs enhanced the film's ductility (strain-to-failure) by 52 %. This study showed that introduction of cellulosic fibers having different sizes into starch can produce biocomposite materials with a wide range of properties for food packaging application.
Even if substantial efforts have been made to produce coated fertilizers with more efficient nutrients release, the development of simple processes using greener materials is still challenging to date. Herein, designed biobased formulations, prepared using biochar materials and oxidized cellulose nanofibers filled into methyl hydroxyethyl cellulose, were developed and then used as coating agents of phosphate fertilizer (triple superphosphate). Biochars were elaborated via direct pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. In the case of the so-called engineered biochar (i.e., montmorillonite modified), a co-pyrolysis process of montmorillonite (MT) and biomass was performed. Nanocomposite films were then prepared from the as-prepared coating formulations prior to examine their surface wetting, swelling capacity, and biodegradability in the soil medium. Collected results show that biochar materials significantly reduce the hydrophilicity of cellulosic materials. Furthermore, the addition of MT during the biomass pyrolysis impacts reaction yield (by 54.54%) and also tunes the porous structure of biochar. Moreover, this MT addition induces a decrease of the swelling capacity and degradation rate of cellulose/biochar films by a factor of 45.74 and 44.48%, respectively. Interestingly, the developed cellulose/engineered biochar coating material induces an increase of the crushing strength of fertilizer granules by 30.29% in comparison with the uncoated fertilizer. Furthermore, the soil water holding capacity was also considerably improved by 7.78% with a water retention capacity of 3.00% after 25 days when cellulose/engineered biochar-coated fertilizer was added into the soil. In fact, this fertilizer impacts considerably on the release of phosphorus (P) in the soil with a reduction of 43.90% of P leaching within 80 days of soil incubation. These findings indicate that the biobased developed nanocomposite formulations of cellulosic biochars are suitable to produce slow-release phosphate fertilizers with reduced P leaching and water-saving properties.
The molybdenum-based binary oxides CoMoO4 have been synthesized using the sol–gel method. Thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Rietveld refinement data were used to characterize the nanocrystalline powders that were produced. A simple grinding of the purple β-CoMoO4 molybdate leads to the formation of the green polymorph α-CoMoO4 (piezochromism phenomenon). Heating the green α-CoMoO4 powder to 500 °C at room pressure allows obtaining the purple β-CoMoO4 variety (thermochromism phenomenon). The T1/2 transition temperature which corresponds to the transformation of half of the phase α into β is about 435.5 °C. According to the Rietveld refinement results, the refinement parameters showed that the observed and refined XRD patterns are in good agreement and the CoMoO4 (α and β) monoclinic molybdate samples are totally pure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) of β-CoMoO4 powder obtained from cobalt nitrate (G1 gel) showed a mixture of porous agglomerates with dispersed nanoparticles. Meanwhile, pre-sintering was observed in the powders obtained from cobalt chloride (G2 gel). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of β-CoMoO4 molybdate indicated quasi-spherical particles with nanometric sizes ranging from 10 to 60 nm. The analysis of the UV–Visible spectra allows us to affirm that the thermochromism phenomenon is due to the displacement of the O2–→Mo⁶⁺charge transfer band towards high energies.
Purpose/Objective(s) Verification of Single Isocenter Multitarget SRS treatments (SIM-SRS) is uniquely challenging due to the combination of high dose, steep dose gradients and the requirement for very high spatial accuracy. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of a novel 3D dosimetry system for uniquely comprehensive dosimetry validation and commissioning of this exceptionally challenging technique. Materials/Methods The 3D dosimetry system utilizes a new commercially available radiochromic gel dosimeter and a state-of-art in-house telecentric optical-CT readout system DLOS (Duke Large Field of View telecentric Optical CT Scanner). The system was used to quantify the accuracy in 3D and in high resolution (isotropic 1mm) of two SIM-SRS treatments: a simpler two target treatment, and a more complex 5 target treatment. The SIM-SRS plans were created on patient anatomy and then recalculated on a CT of a 15cm diameter dosimeter, with isocenter placed such that each target was located within the dosimeter. Both treatments were delivered to the dosimeters which are gellan gum based radiochromic dosimeters containing a water-soluble tetrazolium salt which reduces into an insoluble formazan dye (with associated color change) under ionizing radiation. Optical-CT readout of the dosimeters pre and post irradiation enabled a high-resolution comprehensive evaluation of the accuracy of delivery. The DLOS is a bi-telecentric system which enables highest accuracy optical-CT readout through strong scatter and stray light rejection. The measured optical density distribution was spatially registered to the dose from the planning system and converted to dose via a calibration curve. Independent verification of treatment accuracy was also performed with a commercial Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm. Results For the 2-target plan, the measured dose agreed with the planning system with a Gamma-Index passing rate of 99.88%, 99.27%, and 92.75%, using a 3%/3mm, 3%/2mm, 5%/1mm criteria, respectively. For the 5-target plan, the Gamma-Index passing rate was 99.59%, 97.35%, and 93.82%, using a 3%/3mm, 3%/2mm, 5%/1mm criteria, respectively. In comparison, the dose calculated using Monte Carlo agreed with the planning system with a Gamma-Index passing rate of 100.0% using 3%/1mm for both the 2 target and 5 target plans. Mean dose for the PTVs of the 2-target plan was within –0.71% and –1.53%. Mean dose for the PTVs of the 5-target plan was within (1.08±0.97)%. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of a new 3D dosimetry tool for verification of advanced radiation treatments. Application to SIM-SRS treatments has demonstrated excellent agreement between measured and predicted dose in the phantom. The combination of DLOS optical-CT with Clearview dosimeters was found to be important in obtaining accurate 3D dosimetry. The method introduced here is anticipated to be applicable to a wide range of clinically challenging treatment techniques.
Résumé Le distichiasis est une anomalie du bord libre de la paupière se caractérisant par la présence d’une seconde rangée de cils, située sur la lamelle postérieure. C’est une affection rare dont la gravité est liée aux complications cornéennes. On distingue deux formes : congénitale et acquise, qui reste la plus fréquente dans notre contexte et dont l’étiologie est dominée par une inflammation chronique. Il existe plusieurs moyens thérapeutiques dont le choix est laissé au soin du praticien en fonction des moyens dont il dispose et de la balance bénéfices-risques. Nous rapportons une série de 104 yeux (90 patients) opérés pour distichiasis par la technique de marginoplastie avec autogreffe de muqueuse labiale, colligée entre janvier 2000 et septembre 2021. La principale indication était tout distichiasis dont le nombre de cils est supérieur à sept par paupière. La moyenne d’âge des patients était de 65,5 ans. Avec un recul moyen supérieur à 24 mois, on note une diminution des signes fonctionnels dans plus de 95 % des cas. Le taux de succès après marginoplastie avec autogreffe de muqueuse labiale seule est de 82,7 %. Il y a eu 17,3 % de récidives, qui ont bénéficié de traitement complémentaire par photo-ablation au laser argon, avec des très bons résultats finaux (taux de succès final à 96 %). La marginoplastie avec autogreffe de muqueuse labiale représente une technique de choix dans les distichiasis menaçant la cornée notamment les distichiasis de large étendue avec un nombre important de cils à traiter.
Structural and morphological analyses of the Ti1-xCa2xO2 solid solutions and their complete linear and non-linear optical properties were investigated. Ti1-xCa2xO2 (0≤x≤0.5) powders were successfully synthesized via solid-state reaction route. The XRD patterns confirmed that the pure and doped samples exhibited anatase TiO2 phase. The crystallite size of TiO2 decreased to 82 nm after Ca doping. Furthermore, the dislocation density and lattice deformation are increased with increasing calcium concentration. SEM analysis revealed that Ti1-xCa2xO2 (0≤x≤0.5) powders have a granular structure and with doping, atom aggregations take on softer shapes. Energy dispersive x-ray Analysis (EDX) showed the appropriate composition for the ions depicted in the structure. Using spectrophotometric data, linear and nonlinear optical parameters were obtained and associated with the Ca content. The band gap of TiO2 has shifted from 3.1 to 2.8 eV with dopant concentration. As the percentage of Ca increased, the dielectric constant and optical conductivity also increased. The dispersion energy, plasma frequency, non-linear refractive index and Sellmeier’s parameters were also calculated and discussed with respect to Ca doping. The optical results obtained revealed the potential of the
In Morocco, the flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum L (Clove) from Myrtaceae are essential in traditional medicine; they are used in many forms (infusion, maceration, and essential oil) and are suggested to mitigate inflammatory conditions such as muscle and dental pain as well as rheumatic diseases. This study aims to chemically characterize the aqueous and ethanolic extracts as well as the essential oil from cloves; also, we aimed to evaluate their effects on the bactericidal activity of human neutrophils compared with eugenol. The chemical composition of extracts was evaluated via qualitative phytochemical screening followed by quantitative screening using spectrophotometry and HPLC technique. The essential oil was analyzed by the GC-MS technique. The PMNs bactericidal activity of extracts, essential oil, and eugenol was carried out by MTT assay. The screening of extracts showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, flavones aglycones, coumarins, and tannins. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of numerous phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, rutin, and quercetin while the GC-MS analysis of essential oil showed that the main components are eugenol (78.67%), eugenyl acetate (11.77 %), and caryophyllene (6.85 %). The aqueous, ethanolic extracts and essential oil showed an immunomodulatory activity by exerting a significant inhibition of neutrophil bactericidal activity in a dose dependent-manner reaching maximal inhibition at the concentration of 200 µg/ml with only 29.92%, 32.24%, and 48.15%, respectively (p < 0.001). Our study showed the immunomodulatory virtues of cloves as a natural anti-inflammatory agent. The strength of this effect is related to the presence of eugenol and the extraction forms used.
Background: The objectives of our study are to evaluate our surgical experience of mediastinal bronchogenic cyst (MBC) and to determine the results of resection by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and posterolateral thoracotomy (PLT). Methods: The demographic characteristics, clinical and radiological features intraoperative data, outcomes and fol- low-up information were reviewed and analyzed from 38 patients who underwent resection of a MBC between 2008 and 2019. Results: cystectomy was performed for thirty eight patients included in the present study. Seventeen of them, benefited from VATS cystectomy (VATS group) with 1 conversion to thoracotomy (5.9%) and 21 underwent PLT cystectomy (PLT group). In our series 27 (71.1%) were male. Their average age was 42.6 years. While 09 patients (23.7%) had no symptoms pre-operatively, 29 patients (76.3%) were symptomatic. There were no operative deaths and 3 patients (7.9%) presented postoperative complications. The average duration of hospital stay was 3.2 days for patients who had VATS, but 5.8 days for those who had thoracotomy. Long-term follow-up (range, 1 to 8 years) showed no late complications and no recurrence. Conclusion: VATS and PLT are main approaches for the surgical resection of MBCs VATS is a safe procedure, with less pain and time spent at the hospital. Early surgical procedures of MBCs may be recommended to prevent complications. Surgical adhesions are unfavorable conditions to thoracoscopic treatment.
Trichiasis is a common misdirection of the eyelashes, creating a sharp point responsible for decreased vision, blepharospasm and corneal irritation. It may cause neurotrophic corneal disease leading to blindness. The etiology of trichiasis remains largely undetermined in our patient base. Treatment is based on pragmatic methods that take into account the ciliary ecosystem and the static and dynamic examination of the eyelids. For this, several therapeutic modalities exist: mechanical epilation, cryotherapy, surgery and electrolysis. Each of these techniques has its indications, advantages, and complications. Destruction of the lash follicles with argon laser has many advantages: it is an outpatient procedure, rapid, reproducible, well tolerated, and above all, effective in the long term. The aim of our study is to examine the advantages, technique, indications and results of argon laser trichiasis treatment. This was a retrospective study including 201 patients (230 eyelids) treated in our ophthalmology department over a period of 9years (from January 2011 to March 2020), all of whom were seen for various lash-related symptoms and treated with argon laser electrolysis. Results were considered satisfactory when no lash regrowth occurred within six months of the last laser session. Eighty-two percent of our patients (n=188) showed a good therapeutic response after the first session, 9% (n=21) needed an additional session, and only 6% of the patients (n=14) required a 3rd and/or 4th session, without resorting to surgery. The indications for this treatment should be limited to trichiasis of fewer than or equal to 7 per eyelid, without associated lid malposition (entropion), the treatment of which should be surgical and entirely different. Treatment of trichiasis with argon laser can be an alternative or complement to surgery. Results are excellent but require rigorous adherence to the technique and indications.
Our goal for this study was to adapt the Mindfulness Inventory for Sport (MIS) into written Arabic that would be easily understood in North African countries (Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco or TAM). Assessment tools in Arabic, such as this MIS-TAM version, are rare but essential for evaluating the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions. We adopted a committee approach to obtain a first Arabic version of the MIS. We asked a team of translators to adapt the items to the level of understanding of 13-year-old athletes by selecting words common to the culture of the three countries. The validation process underwent three phases. In Study 1, we tested MIS-TAM for clarity and deemed it acceptable. In Study 2 we tested the construct validity of two different models with confirmatory factorial analyses. These analyses confirmed that the structure of the 15-item MIS-TAM was psychometrically similar to the original version; it had a first order model encompassing three dimensions: Awareness, Non-Judgement and Refocusing. Analyses also found the internal consistency of the MIS-TAM acceptable. We assessed convergent validity in Study 3 with the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, but no correlations between the two instruments were significant. In conclusion, the MIS-TAM has acceptable psychometric properties, though further work is needed regarding convergent validity. The rigorous work of translation and adaptation focused on shared linguistics in three target countries, and this questionnaire will also prove useful in other countries where Arabic is the main language.
In this work, we investigate the existence and nonexistence of nonnegative solutions to a class of nonlocal elliptic systems set in a bounded open subset of R N , where the gradients of the unknowns act as source terms (see $$(S)$$ below). Our approach can be also used to treat other nonlinear systems with different structures. This work extends previous results obtained in the local case by the fourth author and his coworkers, and points to significant differences between the local and the nonlocal cases.
Analogs of pyrimidine and 1,3,4-oxadiazole are two well established class of molecules proven as potent antiviral and anticancer agents in the pharmaceutical industry. We envisioned designing new molecules where these two heterocycles were conjugated with the goal of enhancing biological activity. In this vein, we synthesized a series of novel pyrimidine-1,3,4-oxadiazole conjugated hybrid molecules as potential anticancer and antiviral agents. Herein, we present a new design for 5-fluorocytosine-1,3,4-oxadiazole hybrids (5a-h) connected via a methylene bridge. An efficient synthesis of new derivatives was established, and all compounds were fully characterized by NMR and MS. Eight compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against fibrosarcoma (HT-1080), breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), lung carcinoma (A-549), and for their antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Among all compounds tested, the compound 5e showed marked growth inhibition against all cell lines tested, particularly in HT-1080, with IC50 values of 19.56 µM. Meanwhile, all tested compounds showed no anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, with EC50 >100 µM. The mechanism of cell death was investigated using Annexin V staining, caspase-3/7 activity, and analysis of cell cycle progression. The compound 5e induced apoptosis by the activation of caspase-3/7 and cell-cycle arrest in HT-1080 and A-549 cells at the G2M phase. The molecular docking suggested that the compound 5e activated caspase-3 via the formation of a stable complex protein-ligand.
Librarians and conservators have a hard time restoring and preserving written history and archives. The written heritage is subject to many factors of degradation, affecting its state of conservation, especially cellulosic manuscripts. This research proposes a new technique to improve the processes already used to restore written heritage, and develop a new and straightforward method for preserving and protecting, and protecting precious objects Although current methods are precise but are expensive and require several steps Therefore, it is important to develop new method which is simple, direct, and inexpensive, and effective for restoring, and preserving the heritage in clean condition on a cellulosic backing. This technique allows for the deposit of cellulosic polymers with a trace of a deacidifier, Ca(OH)2, in the matrices of the supports of the samples to be repaired. The cellulosic polymer is fixed by the handwritten support to strengthen and enrich it, and the Ca(OH)2 is inserted inside the cellulosic material to deacidify it. This study focused on old cellulosic materials like paper, papyrus, and wood. A three-step analytical methodology based on infrared spectroscopy, Young's modulus, and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry analysis were developed before and after treatment by this new restoration method to determine the effect of the consolidation treatment on the structure of cellulosic material. The results obtained indicate that the physicochemical and morphological properties of the treated samples have been well perfected, as the acidity studies show promising results. Also, antifungal research is mandatory for this new restoration technique to know the antifungal and antibacterial effects on the old contaminated cellulosic materials. In this case, this new restoration technique has proven to be very useful and adequate for the treatment without deterioration of the writings and the contents of the written heritage.
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly used pain relievers and fever reducers due to the high stability, solubility, and hydrophilicity; it is mainly detected in pharmaceutical releases. Its presence in aquatic systems is a serious ecological concern. The pharmaceutical industries are using several technologies for separation, extraction, and control such as membrane processes because of their numerous advantages. In the present work, a polymer inclusion membrane containing Tween 20 (TW20) as an extractive agent was fabricated for the treatment and recovery of effluents loaded with emerging pollutants (paracetamol). After characterization of the morphology and porosity, the membrane was adopted to carry out the extraction and recovery processes of paracetamol, assisted by activated carbon. Kinetic and thermodynamic models were applied to determine the values of permeability (P), initial flux (J0), association constant (Kass), and diffusion apparent coefficient (D*) parameters. Subsequently, activation parameters energy (Ea), association and dissociation enthalpies (ΔH#ass and ΔH#dis, respectively), and entropy (ΔS#) were measured. For this original technique, the effects of activated carbon on the evolution of processes carried out across the membrane have been investigated and indicate a significant optimization and intensification of the membrane performance and total paracetamol extraction rate. In addition, this technique is clean and does not affect the structure or the stability of the membrane.
The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the merits of a joint response in tackling both the health crisis emergency and the development challenges. This joint response involves the establishment of the welfare state in Morocco (part 1). The argument adopted to justify it is based on the theoretical framework established by Michal Kalecki and goes against the precepts of the Washington Consensus and the dominant macroeconomics (the New Synthesis). The credibility of economic policies proposals with regard to the requirements of the welfare state depends on the internal coherence guaranteed by the theoretical framework adopted. It also depends on the capacity to finance these policies: after having demonstrated that the monetization of public debt is not risk free for the Morocco economy, the remain of the second part of the paper will be devoted to the presentation and analysis of three new alternative means of financing the welfare state. These means will allow for the re-establishment of the central role that fiscal policy must play in the country’s development, and the way monetary policy could support it. JEL codes: H1, H6, O1, P16
Amorphous Fe x Ni[Formula: see text]B[Formula: see text]Si 8 alloys ([Formula: see text] to 16) were fabricated by employing wheel melt spinning process. Measurements of magnetization were made over temperature range of 4.20–360[Formula: see text]K and with an applied magnetic field up to 160[Formula: see text]kOe. By making a substitution Ni by Fe, the [Formula: see text] (Curie temperature) was actually discovered to rise. The spin wave (SW) theory was used to examine the magnetism at low temperatures. At low temperatures (4.20[Formula: see text]K), magnetization curves were found to obey Bloch’s [Formula: see text] law. Certain important parameters were determined, such as the constant D (SW stiffness) and the distance between interatomic transition metals [Formula: see text] for the different compositions. We employed the law of approach to magnetic saturation to obtain some important parameters, including a random magnetic anisotropy constant [Formula: see text] and then the anisotropy local correlation length. So, it’s worth noting that as Fe concentration rises, the exchange constants, random magnetic anisotropy constant [Formula: see text], and also the ferromagnetic correlation [Formula: see text] rise.
A bstract Measurements of the production cross-sections of the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson ( H ) decaying into a pair of τ -leptons are presented. The measurements use data collected with the ATLAS detector from pp collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of $$\sqrt{s}$$ s = 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb − 1 . Leptonic ( τ → ℓν ℓ ν τ ) and hadronic ( τ → hadrons ν τ ) decays of the τ -lepton are considered. All measurements account for the branching ratio of H → ττ and are performed with a requirement |y H | < 2 . 5, where y H is the true Higgs boson rapidity. The cross-section of the pp → H → ττ process is measured to be 2 . 94 ± $$0.21{\left(\mathrm{stat}\right)}_{-0.32}^{+0.37}$$ 0.21 stat − 0.32 + 0.37 (syst) pb, in agreement with the SM prediction of 3 . 17 ± 0 . 09 pb. Inclusive cross-sections are determined separately for the four dominant production modes: 2 . 65 ± $$0.41{\left(\mathrm{stat}\right)}_{-0.67}^{+0.91}$$ 0.41 stat − 0.67 + 0.91 (syst) pb for gluon-gluon fusion, 0 . 197 ± $$0.028{\left(\mathrm{stat}\right)}_{-0.026}^{+0.032}$$ 0.028 stat − 0.026 + 0.032 (syst) pb for vector-boson fusion, 0 . 115 ± $$0.058{\left(\mathrm{stat}\right)}_{-0.040}^{+0.042}$$ 0.058 stat − 0.040 + 0.042 (syst) pb for vector-boson associated production, and 0 . 033 ± $$0.031{\left(\mathrm{stat}\right)}_{-0.017}^{+0.022}$$ 0.031 stat − 0.017 + 0.022 (syst) pb for top-quark pair associated production. Measurements in exclusive regions of the phase space, using the simplified template cross-section framework, are also performed. All results are in agreement with the SM predictions.
Purpose The first molecular evidence of a monogenic predisposition to mycobacteria came from the study of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). We aimed to study this Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases in Moroccan kindreds through clinical, immunological and genetic analysis. Methods Patients presented with clinical features of MSMD, were recruited into this study. We used whole blood samples from patients and age-matched healthy controls. To measure IL-12 and IFN-γ production, samples were activated by BCG plus recombinant human IFN-γ or recombinant human IL-12. Immunological assessments and genetic analysis were also done for patients and their relatives. Results Our study involved 22 cases from 15 unrelated Moroccan kindreds. The average age at diagnosis is 4 years. Fourteen patients (64%) were born to consanguineous parents. All patients were vaccinated with BCG vaccine, twelve of them (55%) developed loco-regional or disseminated BCG infections. The other symptomatic patients had severe tuberculosis and/or recurrent salmonellosis. Genetic mutations were identified on the following genes: IL12RB1 in 8 patients, STAT1 in 7 patients, SPPL2A, IFNGR1 and TYK2 in two patients and TBX21 in one patient, with different modes of inheritance. All identified mutations/variants altered production or response to IFN-γ or both. Conclusion Severe forms of tuberculosis and complications of BCG vaccination may imply a genetic predisposition present in the Moroccan population. In front of these infections, systematic genetic studies became necessary. BCG vaccination is contraindicated in MSMD patients and should be delayed in newborns siblings until the exclusion of a genetic predisposition to mycobacteria.
Teacher assessment in higher education is a widely used strategy in Western countries, but it is not common practice in Moroccan academia. In consequence, the establishment of a new assessment policy in higher education creates a new dynamic in teaching practices, teacher assessment and professional career development. This type of major change, however, is likely to generate anxiety among staff regarding the learning of new practices, and uncertainty in respect of their involvement in the process of teacher assessment. The objective of the present study was thus to explore the perceptions of professors concerning the implementation of teacher assessment in Moroccan universities (Mohamed V University and Ibn Tofeil), through a survey and interviews carried out among the professors. The majority of professors expressed a positive attitude towards the usefulness of teaching evaluation. According to them, teacher assessment helps them identify strengths and weaknesses in their teaching. In contrast, there is a recurring issue among the respondents, namely the crisis of trust towards the parties involved in the evaluation process and apprehension regarding consequences of these evaluations’ results on faculty status and rank progression. The majority were very suspicious of using student assessment for administrative purposes.
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