Université Bretagne Sud
Recent publications
In the wake of the COVID-19 health crisis, governments around the world made educational continuity during school and university closure a priority. Many countries adopted online education as an alternative to face-to-face courses. This situation has led to an awareness of the importance of analyzing learning traces and data left by students to measure, evaluate and improve the learning process. This paper presents an interoperable online learning analytics dashboard that allows teachers to easily track the progress of their learners as well as to predict and remedy dropouts. For learners, the dashboard offers the possibility to visualize their learning process, analyze it and develop better self-regulation skills. The results of the study conducted on a blended learning course, showed that the dashboard led learners to spend more time on their online training, to perform the proposed activities much better and to respect the deadlines better, and finally to improve their academic success.
Polymicrobial infections threaten the health of humans and animals but remain understudied in natural systems. We recently described the Pacific Oyster Mortality Syndrome (POMS), a polymicrobial disease affecting oyster production worldwide. In the French Atlantic coast, the disease involves coinfection with ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) and virulent Vibrio . However, it is unknown whether consistent Vibrio populations are associated with POMS in different regions, how Vibrio contribute to POMS, and how they interact with OsHV-1 during pathogenesis. By connecting field-based approaches in a Mediterranean ecosystem, laboratory infection assays and functional genomics, we uncovered a web of interdependencies that shape the structure and function of the POMS pathobiota. We show that Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio rotiferianus are predominant in OsHV-1-diseased oysters and that OsHV-1 drives the partition of the Vibrio community observed in the field. However only V. harveyi synergizes with OsHV-1 by promoting mutual growth and accelerating oyster death. V. harveyi shows high-virulence potential and dampens oyster cellular defenses through a type 3 secretion system, making oysters a more favorable niche for microbe colonization. In addition, V. harveyi produces a key siderophore called vibrioferrin. This important resource promotes the growth of V. rotiferianus , which cooccurs with V. harveyi in diseased oysters, and behaves as a cheater by benefiting from V. harveyi metabolite sharing. Our data show that cooperative behaviors contribute to synergy between bacterial and viral coinfecting partners. Additional cheating behaviors further shape the polymicrobial consortium. Controlling cooperative behaviors or countering their effects opens avenues for mitigating polymicrobial diseases.
Let (gn)n⩾l be a sequence of independent and identically distributed positive random d × d matrices and consider the matrix product Gn = gn⋯ g1. Under suitable conditions, we establish the Berry-Esseen bounds on the rate of convergence in the central limit theorem and Cramér-type moderate deviation expansions, for any matrix norm ∥Gn∥ of Gn, its entries \(G_{n}^{i,j}\) and its spectral radius ρ(Gn). Extended versions of their joint law with the direction of the random walk Gnx are also established, where x is a starting point in the unit sphere of ℝd.
When compared to the simple shear test, the in-plane torsion test allows for large strains to be achieved without edge effects, specimen tearing from the jaws or buckling. The proposed device offers full optical access to the specimen and enables the use of 2D Digital Image Correlation. In this way, we can observe the effects of the material anisotropy on the strain all along the circumference of the specimen up to large strains. A series of radial grooves machined on the specimen’s inner clamped surface enables the transmission of large torques necessary for high-strength steels. The paper illustrates the potential of this test for the study of plasticity with a focus on anisotropy, large deformations, and cyclic testing. Two steel sheets are considered, a deep drawing low carbon steel DC01 and a stainless steel AISI304. The paper aims to establish a direct relation between Hills’ anisotropy model parameters identified from the standard uniaxial tests and the angular evolution of the effective strain along the shear gage section of the in-plane torsion specimen.
While large volumes of unlabeled data are usually available, associated labels are often scarce. The unsupervised domain adaptation problem aims at exploiting labels from a source domain to classify data from a related, yet different, target domain. When time series are at stake, new difficulties arise as temporal shifts may appear in addition to the standard feature distribution shift. In this paper, we introduce the Match-And-Deform (MAD) approach that aims at finding correspondences between the source and target time series while allowing temporal distortions. The associated optimization problem simultaneously aligns the series thanks to an optimal transport loss and the time stamps through dynamic time warping. When embedded into a deep neural network, MAD helps learning new representations of time series that both align the domains and maximize the discriminative power of the network. Empirical studies on benchmark datasets and remote sensing data demonstrate that MAD makes meaningful sample-to-sample pairing and time shift estimation, reaching similar or better classification performance than state-of-the-art deep time series domain adaptation strategies.
This paper presents the results of a round-robin testing program undertaken by RILEM TC-266-Measuring Rheological Properties of Cement-Based Materials in May 2018 at the Université d’Artois in Bethune, France. Seven types of rheometers were compared; they consisted of four ICAR rheometers, Viskomat XL rheometer, eBT-V rheometer, Sliding Pipe Rheometer (SLIPER), RheoCAD rheometer, and 4SCC rheometer, as well as the plate test. This paper discusses the results of the evolution of the static yield stress at rest of three mortar and five concrete mixtures that were determined using two ICAR rheometers, Viskomat XL, and eBT-V rheometers, as well as the plate test. For the measurements carried out with rheometers, three different structural build-up indices (i.e., structural build-up rate, critical time, and coupled effects of initial static yield stress and rate of structural build-up) were determined. The indices were established using: (i) two static yield stress values measured after 10 and 40 min of rest; and (ii) two static yield stress values measured after 10 and 40 min of rest plus the initial dynamic yield stress (no rest and obtained from the flow curves). The paper discusses the test results and highlights inaccuracies that could be encountered in determining the static yield stress. Test results indicate that the ICAR rheometers and the selected thixotropic indices can provide similar results, and that the spread of results obtained from different rheometers can be considerably reduced when using three yield stress values to calculate the rate of the static yield stress at rest. In order to enhance the accuracy of measurements, it is recommended to increase the number of measurements of the yield stress to at least three points over one hour after mixing.
Long duration spaceflights to the Moon or Mars are at risk for emergency medical events. Managing a hypoxemic distress and performing an advanced airway procedure such as oro-tracheal intubation may be complicated under weightlessness due to ergonomic constraints. An emergency free-floating intubation would be dangerous because of high failure rates due to stabilization issues that prohibits its implementation in a space environment. Nevertheless, we hypothesized that two configurations could lead to a high first-pass success score for intubation performed by a free-floating operator. In a non-randomized, controlled, cross-over simulation study during a parabolic flight campaign, we evaluated and compared the intubation performance of free-floating trained operators, using either a conventional direct laryngoscope in an ice-pick position or an indirect laryngoscopy with a video-laryngoscope in a classic position at the head of a high-fidelity simulation manikin, in weightlessness and in normogravity. Neither of the two tested conditions reached the minimal terrestrial ILCOR recommendations (95% first-pass success) and therefore could not be recommended for general implementation under weightlessness conditions. Free-floating video laryngoscopy at the head of the manikin had a significant better success score than conventional direct laryngoscopy in an ice-pick position. Our results, combined with the preexisting literature, emphasis the difficulties of performing oro-tracheal intubation, even for experts using modern airway devices, under postural instability in weightlessness. ClinicalTrials registration number NCT05303948.
Marine algae are the most abundant resource in the marine environment and are still a promising source of bioactive compounds including hydrocolloids. This study contributes to the evaluation of the biological and biotechnological potentials of two water soluble polysaccharides, namely alginates (AHS) and fucoidan (FHS), extracted and purified from Halopteris scoparia, an abundant Tunisian brown macroalgae collected in Tunisia (Tabarka region). The total sugars, neutral monosaccharides, uronic acids, proteins, polyphenols, and sulfate groups contents were quantified for both fractions, as well as their functional groups and primary structural features by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ionic and/or gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AHS and FHS showed significant anti-inflammatory (IC50 ≈ 1 mg/mL), anticoagulant (e.g., 27-61.7 for the activated partial thromboplastin time), antihyperglycemic (0.1-40 μg/mL) and anti-trypsin (IC50 ≈ 0.3-0.4 mg/mL) effects. FHS and a hydrolyzed fraction showed a very promising potential against herpes viruses (HSV-1) (IC50 < 28 μg/mL). Besides, AHS and two hydrolyzed fractions were able to stimulate the natural defenses of tomato seedlings, assessing their elicitor capacity, by increasing the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (66-422 %) but also significantly changing the polyphenol content in the leaves (121-243 %) and roots (30-104 %) of tomato plants.
Macroalgae are a potentially novel source of nutrition and biologically active molecules. Proliferative species such as Eucheuma denticulatum, Solieria chordalis (red algae) and Sargassum muticum (brown alga) constitute a huge biomass that can be exploited. In this study, we focus on the extraction of polysaccharides from these three macroalgae species and the characterization of cell wall polysaccharides such as carrageenans, fucoidans and alginates by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy with Attenuated Reflectance Module (FTIR-ATR). The comparison of purified extracts with commercial solutions of fucoidans, alginates or carrageenans shows a strong similarity between the spectra. It demonstrates that the methods of extraction that have been used are also suitable purifying technics. Moreover, it validates infrared spectroscopy as a quick, simple and non-destructive method for the accurate analysis of polysaccharides. The FTIR technique applied to samples collected at different periods of the year allowed us to highlight differences in the composition of fucoidans, alginates and carrageenans. Different classes corresponding to the season can be distinguished by statistical multidimensionnal analysis (Principal Component Analysis) showing that the structure of algal polysaccharides, related to bioactivity, depends on the period of harvest. FTIR results showed that S. chordalis and E. denticulatum possess a dominant type of carrageenan called iota-carrageenan. This type of carrageenan is in the majority when the alga is at maturity in its development cycle. During its growth phase, iota-carrageenan precursors can be detected by FTIR spectra, enabling a better control of the extraction and an application of these compounds in various economic sectors. When the alga E. denticulatum is in its juvenile stage, we found traces of kappa-carrageenan and nu-carrageenan polysaccharides in some extracts.
The optimization of energy production in renewable energy systems is crucial to improve energy efficiency. In this context, the aim of this study focuses on maximizing the efficiency of a switched reluctance generator. This paper presents a novel approach to enhance the electrical power and efficiency of a switched reluctance generator by determining the optimal operating parameters based on the mechanical input power of the system. The proposed strategy consists of the following steps: First, an algorithm was developed that provides machine data for different power modes based on control parameters, including electrical and mechanical powers such as speed, torque, and turn-on and turn-off angles. In the next step, the obtained data were analyzed to identify the optimum points corresponding to the states with maximum power and efficiency for various scenarios. An algorithm for maximum power point tracking was also developed to determine the optimal parameters as a function of mechanical energy. Finally, the data and algorithms were integrated into the switched reluctance generator control system. Simulations were conducted to compare the proposed MPPT technique with other techniques. This comparison is essential to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy in achieving enhanced electrical power generation efficiency.
To improve performances of engineered systems, laminate composite structures are widely used as they offer the best strength‐to‐weight ratio. However, maintenance and recycling of these structures still remain a challenge. One solution could be to disassemble the layers, without damaging them, so that they can be repaired, re‐used or recycled. To do so, impulsive source such as high pulsed powers are considered. In the present work, the influence of transverse or cross‐sectional effects on the wave propagation within the laminate and on its disassembly conditions is studied by the means of two‐dimensional numerical simulations performed on a model assembly using the finite element method. The specimen considered is an aluminium/steel assembly joined along a stripe. Two different modelings of the loading applied to the laminate of increasing complexity are successively considered. First, linear elastodynamic simulations show that transverse effects reduce by around 12% the maximum achievable interfacial tensile stress ratio compared with that predicted by the 1D reference model. Then, weakly coupled eddy current‐linear elastodynamic numerical analyses clarify the latter result with an estimation of about 16% with respect to the 1D analytical solution. These results permit the design of experiments serving as a proof of concept of the proposed process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Functional amyloids are commonly produced by many microorganisms and their biological functions are numerous. Staphylococcus aureus can secrete a group of peptides named phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) in their biofilm extracellular matrix. PSMs have been found inside biofilms both in their soluble form and assembled into amyloid structures. Yet, the actual biological function of these amyloids has been highly debated. Here, we assessed the ability of PSMs to form amyloids in contact with different abiotic surfaces to unravel a potential unknown bioadhesive and/or biofilm stabilization function. We combined surface plasmon resonance imaging, fluorescence aggregation kinetics, and FTIR spectroscopy in order to evaluate the PSM adsorption as well as amyloid formation properties in the presence of various surface chemistries. Overall, PSMs adsorb even on low-binding surfaces, making them highly adaptable adsorbants in the context of bioadhesion. Moreover, PSMs' aggregation potential to form amyloid aggregates is not impacted by the presence of the surface chemistries tested. This versatility regarding adsorption and amyloid formation may imply a possible role of PSMs in biofilm adhesion and/or structure integrity.
Of the digital concrete-additive-manufacturing techniques, extrusion-based systems are probably the most widespread and studied. Despite the significant potential offered by 3D printing, several challenges must still be overcome. For instance, although several solutions have already been explored, the automated reinforcement of the layer-wise printed structures represents a challenge. The inline quality control of the fresh-state properties of 3D-printed materials is also an open question that needs to be addressed to find an efficient shared practice. This study proposes a new device designed to simultaneously reinforce 3D-printed structures along and through the layers and to be used as an inline quality-control device. This device consists in a sewing system, which is composed of a rotating system, and a hollow needle, which drives a reinforcing cable or yarn and can be used to inject cement grout to fill holes and improve bonding with reinforcement. The rotation is induced by a stepper motor, which measures the torque that is required to make the needle penetrate. This measurement can be used as a quality-control index to ensure material homogeneity. This paper aims to present an original reinforcement system that can be fully automated and simultaneously create reinforcement patterns in different directions of the printed structure while controlling the material’s fresh properties.
Assistive devices are designed to enhance individuals with disabilities' functional abilities. The rise of 3D printing technology enabled the production of individualized assistive devices (IADs). A REHAB-LAB is intended for IAD provision involving technical referents and occupational therapists. This study aimed to develop the REHAB-LAB logic model; to explore its fidelity and desirability; and to explore the characteristics of arising initiatives of IAD production. The REHAB-LAB logic model development involved stakeholders throughout the research process. A pragmatic multimethod approach followed two phases 1) logic model development and 2) exploration of its fidelity and desirability. The REHAB-LAB logic model presented the resources (equipment, space, human) required to implement IAD provision in a rehabilitation center, and the expected deliverables (activities and outputs). The REHAB-LAB logic model highlights the interdisciplinarity of IAD provision including occupational therapists, doctors, engineers, managers, and technical referents and places the users at the center of the IAD production. Results confirmed the fidelity and desirability of the REHAB-LAB logic model. The REHAB-LAB logic model can be used as a reference for future healthcare organizations wishing to implement an IAD provision. This research highlighted the interest of IAD provision based on the REHAB-LAB model involving users and transdisciplinary practices.
Pathogenic bacteria and their biofilms are involved in many human and animal diseases and are a major public health problem with, among other things, the development of antibiotic resistance. These biofilms are known to induce chronic infections for which classical treatments using antibiotic therapy are often ineffective. Sponges are sessile filter-feeding marine organisms known for their dynamic symbiotic partnerships with diverse microorganisms and their production of numerous metabolites of interest. In this study, we investigated the antibiofilm efficacy of different extracts from sponges, isolated in Wallis, without biocidal activity. Out of the 47 tested extracts, from 28 different genera, 11 showed a strong activity against Vibrio harveyi biofilm formation. Moreover, one of these extracts also inhibited two quorum-sensing pathways of V. harveyi.
Objective: To validate the proton density fat fraction (PDFF) obtained by the MRQuantif software from 2D chemical shift encoded MR (CSE-MR) data in comparison with the histological steatosis data. Methods: This study, pooling data from 3 prospective studies spread over time between January 2007 and July 2020, analyzed 445 patients who underwent 2D CSE-MR and liver biopsy. MR derived liver iron concentration (MR-LIC) and PDFF was calculated using the MRQuantif software. The histological standard steatosis score (SS) served as reference. In order to get a value more comparable to PDFF, histomorphometry fat fraction (HFF) were centrally determined for 281 patients. Spearman correlation and the Bland and Altman method were used for comparison. Results: Strong correlations were found between PDFF and SS (rs = 0.84, p < 0.001) or HFF (rs = 0.87, p < 0.001). Spearman's coefficients increased to 0.88 (n = 324) and 0.94 (n = 202) when selecting only the patients without liver iron overload. The Bland and Altman analysis between PDFF and HFF found a mean bias of 5.4% ± 5.7 [95% CI 4.7, 6.1]. The mean bias was 4.7% ± 3.7 [95% CI 4.2, 5.3] and 7.1% ± 8.8 [95% CI 5.2, 9.0] for the patients without and with liver iron overload, respectively. Conclusion: The PDFF obtained by MRQuantif from a 2D CSE-MR sequence is highly correlated with the steatosis score and very close to the fat fraction estimated by histomorphometry. Liver iron overload reduced the performance of steatosis quantification and joint quantification is recommended. This device-independent method can be particularly useful for multicenter studies. Clinical relevance statement: The quantification of liver steatosis using a vendor-neutral 2D chemical-shift MR sequence, processed by MRQuantif, is well correlated to steatosis score and histomorphometric fat fraction obtained from biopsy, whatever the magnetic field and the MR device used. Key points: • The PDFF measured by MRQuantif from 2D CSE-MR sequence data is highly correlated to hepatic steatosis. • Steatosis quantification performance is reduced in case of significant hepatic iron overload. • This vendor-neutral method may allow consistent estimation of PDFF in multicenter studies.
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  • LBCM - Laboratoire de Biotechnologie et Chimie Marines
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