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- SourceAvailable from: Kashan Pirzada[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This research aims to analyze the role of CSRD in the annual report on firm's financial performance and ERC value. The population of this research is mining corporations listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange during 2013 – 2014. This is a quantitative research which the data are analyzed by using liner regression method. The result of this research indicates that CSRD influences ROE. On the other hand, CSRD does not influence ROA and ERC. Commonly, investors tend to use short term information so that they ignore CSRD which is perceived as a source of middle and long term information.
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ABSTRACT: The plant Polygonum aviculare L. (Polygonaceae) is an annual herbaceous plant which is known to be beneficial for treating gastroduodenal ulcer, hypertension, diarrhea, hemorrhage, and hemorrhoids. Ten phenolic compounds, including nine flavonoids (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, myricitrin, desmanthin-1, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, avicularin, juglanin), and gallic acid were used for simultaneous HPLC quantification and peroxynitrite-scavenging assay. Simultaneous quantification of these substances were performed on five extracts (EtOH-, MeOH-, 70% MeOH-, 30% MeOH-, and H2O extracts) as well as on the three fractions (Et2O-, EtOAc-, and BuOH fractions), under the condition of a Capcell Pak C18 column (5μm, 250mm×4.6mm i.d.) and a gradient elution of 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and MeOHCH3CN (60:40). Of the three fractions, the EtOAc fraction displayed the highest content of flavonoids (sum, 208.9mg/g) with the strongest peroxynitrite-scavenging activity (IC50, 2.68μg/mL). The activities of the eight compounds (myricitrin, isoquercitrin, avicularin, quercitrin, myricetin, desmanthin-1, quercetin, and kaempferol) were comparable to that of the positive control (l-penicillamine; IC50: 1.03μg/mL). These results suggest that folkloric medicinal uses of P. aviculare are mainly attributed to flavonoids, such as particularly highly contained myricetin, myricitrin, and desmanthin-1.
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ABSTRACT: Hydroxyapatite is chemically related to the inorganic component of bone matrix as a complex structure with the formula of Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6. Previous studies have reported the application of microsized hydroxyapatite to bone regeneration, but the result is not satisfied. The limitation comes from the size of hydroxyapatite. In addition, the duration of treatment is very long. The advantages of hydroxyapatite nanocrystal are the osteoconduction, bioresorption, and contact in close distance. Crystal in osteoporotic bone is calcium phosphate hydroxide with the chemical formula of Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6. Crystal of normal bone is sodium calcium hydrogen carbonate phosphate hydrate with the chemical formula of Ca8H2(PO4)6 ·H2O-NaHCO3-H2O. The recent development is applying nanobiology approach to hydroxyapatite. This is based on the concept that the mineral atoms arranged in a crystal structure of hydroxyapatite can be substituted or incorporated by the other mineral atoms. In conclusion, the basic elements of hydroxyapatite crystals, composed of atomic minerals in a certain geometric pattern, and their relationship to the bone cell biological activity have opened opportunities for hydroxyapatite crystals supplement application on osteoporosis. Understanding of the characteristics of bone hydroxyapatite crystals as well as the behavior of mineral atom in the substitution will have a better impact on the management of osteoporosis.
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