Oxidative stress and inflammation have a role in the development of various diseases. Oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with many proteins, including Kelch ECH associating protein 1 (KEAP1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) proteins. The active compounds contained in Holothuria scabra have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of sea cucumber’s active compounds by targeting KEAP1 and iNOS proteins. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of H. scabra extract were measured spectrophotometrically. The 3-dimensional (3D) structures of sea cucumber’s active compounds and proteins were obtained from the PubChem and Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB) databases. Molecular docking was performed using AutoDock Vina software. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out using Yet Another Scientific Artificial Reality Application (YASARA) software with environmental parameters according to the cell’s physiological conditions. The membrane permeability test was performed using the PerMM web server. The methanol extract of H. scabra had a weak antioxidant activity against DPPH and strong activity against NO radical. Scabraside and holothurinoside G had the most negative binding affinity values when interacting with the active site of KEAP1 and iNOS proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations also showed that both compounds were stable when interacting with KEAP1 and iNOS. However, scabraside and holothurinoside G were difficult to penetrate the cell plasma membrane, which is seen from the high energy transfer value in the lipid acyl chain region of phospholipids. Scabraside and holothurinoside G are predicted to act as antioxidants and anti-inflammations, but in their implementation to in vitro and in vivo study, it is necessary to have liposomes or nanoparticles, or other delivery methods to help these 2 compounds enter the cell.
p style="text-align: justify;">The evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected various aspects of human life, with numerous activities carried out through networks, including education. Lecturers need to change their teaching strategies to make students able to accept the material provided. On the other hand, students must manage their lives without being limited by space and time to avoid stress and cyberloafing, especially in the academic field. Cyberloafing is the act of accessing the internet during study hours for personal interests. Therefore, this research aims to determine the effect of academic stress on cyberloafing and whether fatigue is a mediating variable between both factors. Data were collected from 284 students studying in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. The results showed that the academic stress felt by students has a positive and significant effect on cyberloafing behavior. Although fatigue positively affects both factors, it does not mediate the relationship between them. The managerial implications in this research are expected to be used as material for evaluating online learning methods for students, as well as to make them aware of the negative impact of cyberloafing behavior during lectures.</p
When a person identifies with a particular religion, they identify not only with the ingroup’s religious values but also with the ingroup’s evaluations towards the relevant religious outgroup. Using a theoretical notion of ethnocentrism, this study offers religiocentrism to explain how one favourably perceives their religious affiliation and unfavourably evaluates the religious outgroup. Specifically, this study is focused on the recent interreligious conflicts between Muslims and Christians in Indonesia. In carrying out the study, we employ relevant constructs to test our hypothesis that religiocentrism is indirectly related to support for interreligious violence via perceived injustice and that this relation is stronger for individuals with high collective efficacy. We perform a confirmatory factor analysis to test all the measures’ validity. In testing the hypothesis, we conduct a moderated mediation analysis to test the indirect relations between religiocentrism and support for interreligious violence via perceived injustice and to test the conditional effect of collective efficacy on the relationship. The results show that collective efficacy significantly moderates the relation between religiocentrism and support for interreligious violence. The finding contributes to the discussion of the various roles of collective efficacy in interreligious conflicts, dependent on the nature of the conflicts.
Introduction : The Covid-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges, both economically and psychologically, to most families across the world. Yet, little study has been done on this topic in Indonesia, even after the second year of the pandemic. This study examines how the Covid-19 economic impact and parental stress are related to the family quality of life (FQOL) and how the relation is moderated by family resilience. Methods : To this end, we employed previously tested measures to assess the level of parental stress, family resilience and FQOL. Especially for the latter, we modified the measure, developed by Beach Center on Disability, by including only four domains (i.e., family interaction, parenting, emotional well-being, and material well-being) to adjust to our research context. Results : Based on 169 participants, our CFA displays that all employed measures in the study are valid and reliable. Our regression analysis shows that there are significant direct relations of parental stress & family resilience with family quality of life. However, we find that family resilience only positively moderates the relation between the Covid-19 economic impact and family quality of life. Discussion : This study presents a view on how the Covid-19 pandemic affects the way families live and hence, their quality of life. In addition, the findings suggest the importance of family relationship and support in times of crisis, not limited to the Covid-19 pandemic.
Pandemi COVID-19 memaksa orang untuk lebih banyak melakukan aktivitasnya secara daring. Online disinhibition effect (ODE) adalah menurunnya hambatan psikologis selama interaksi dengan orang lain dalam lingkungan sosial secara daring. ODE memiliki dua dimensi, yaitu benign dan toxic online disinhibition. Salah satu faktor yang memengaruhi ODE adalah subjective wellbeing (SWB). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti sejauh mana SWB dapat memprediksi ODE. Sebanyak 227 mahasiswa menjadi sasaran responden penelitian ini. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan desain korelasional. Alat ukur yang dipergunakan untuk mengukur SWB adalah Satisfaction with Life Scale and Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE), dan untuk mengukur ODE adalah online disinhibition scale (ODS). Teknik analisis statistik yang digunakan adalah regresi sederhana untuk menghitung besarnya kontribusi SWB terhadap ODE. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tiap komponen SWB tidak berkontribusi signifikan terhadap benign maupun toxic online disinhibition. Simpulan penelitian ini adalah SWB bukan merupakan prediktor langsung terhadap ODE. Saran untuk penelitian selanjutnya adalah meneliti mediator yang mungkin memengaruhi ODE, seperti regulasi emosi, trait kepribadian dan tingkat keparahan kondisi pandemi.
Pada awalnya, burnout dialami oleh service workers seperti dokter, suster, dan psikolog tetapi burnout juga dapat dialami oleh mahasiswa/i yang berada di bidang health care. Ciri kepribadian individu dapat melatarbelakangi terjadinya burnout. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar kontribusi personality traits terhadap academic burnout pada mahasiswa Magister Profesi Psikologi. Penelitian ini menggunakan teknik random sampling dan melibatkan 210 partisipan. Data diolah menggunakan uji regresi linear berganda. Hasil pengolahan data menunjukkan conscientiousness dan neuroticism berkontribusi secara signifikan terhadap academic burnout. Hasil juga menunjukkan bahwa dimensi conscientiousness memiliki kontribusi secara signifikan paling besar (31.3%) terhadap academic burnout pada mahasiswa magister Profesi Psikologi di Bandung dan dimensi neuroticism memiliki kontribusi secara signifikan sebesar 15.7% terhadap academic burnout pada mahasiswa magister Profesi Psikologi di Bandung. Bedasarkan hasil tersebut, mahasiswa yang cenderung mengerjakan pekerjaan dengan penuh kehati-hatian, kedisiplinan, dan penuh kendali memiliki tingkat burnout yang paling besar.
Pengasuhan terhadap anak usia 2-6 tahun dapat menjadi tugas yang melelahkan sekaligus membahagiakan orang tua. Berbagai kondisi dalam diri baik ayah maupun ibu sebagai pengasuh dapat mengakibatkan perasaan lelah yang berkepanjangan sehingga mereka mengalami stres pengasuhan. Pengasuhan penuh perhatian dapat membuat kondisi orang tua lebih stabil dalam menghadapi tantangan dalam tugas pengasuhan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti kontribusi pengasuhan penuh perhatian terhadap stres pengasuhan pada orang tua yang mengasuh anak usia 2-6 tahun. Data diperoleh melalui 2 alat ukur, yaitu mindfulness in parenting questionnaire (MIPQ) dan parental stress scale (PSS). Responden adalah 206 orang ayah atau ibu yang memiliki anak usia 2-6 tahun yang diperoleh melalui accidental sampling dengan kriteria terlibat dalam pengasuhan anak. Teknik statistik uji regresi linear sederhana digunakan untuk menguji seberapa besar peran pengasuhan penuh perhatian terhadap stres pengasuhan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengasuhan penuh perhatian berkontribusi signifikan secara simultan terhadap stres pengasuhan sebesar 22.9%. Diikuti oleh aspek mindful discipline dalam pengasuhan penuh kesadaran memiliki kontribusi paling besar terhadap parenting stress. Penelitian selanjutnya dapat dilakukan untuk meneliti status sosial ekonomi, jumlah anak, pendapatan, karakteristik anak, kepuasan pernikahan, lamanya pernikahan dan dukungan social sebagai mediator terhadap stress pengasuhan.
This study aims to examine the relationship between calling and work engagement through the mediation of career commitment. Eighty-two junior high school teachers with a minimum working period of one year participated through purposive sampling approach. Participants’ responses of the Calling and Vocation Questionnaire, The Career Commitment Scale, and Utrecht Work Engagement instruments were collected. Through Process Macro Mediation model 4, we found that career commitment partially mediates the relationship between calling and work engagement. Teachers who believe their work is a calling will be more committed to their careers and have strong attachment to their work. Such patterns are demonstrated in teachers being energized, enthusiastic, dedicated, and enjoy their work. Schools can help teachers realize their calling, so they continue to be motivated in carrying out their roles as teachers with high enthusiasm and dedication at work.
The closed-loop supply chain inventory model is essential in the pharmaceutical industry because it promotes environmental, social, and economic sustainability. Many unused drugs are discarded, damaging the environment. At the same time some patients find it difficult to obtain expensive prescription drugs. The closed-loop supply chain can draw on the principles of the circular economy, which is concerned with the adverse effects of using new materials for environmentally harmful manufacturing processes. Re-dispensing or recycling unused drugs, is one application of the principle of the circular economy. Pharmacies can collect, inspect, and resell drugs. Pharmacies incur high inventory costs related to expensive medications and need efficient inventory management. This study focuses on the recycling of drugs to lighten the economic burden on patients in achieving social sustainability, and to prevent the waste of unused medications in achieving environmental sustainability. This study considers the impact of government incentives on patient demand for recycled and new drugs. In addition, pharmacies' optimal inventory decisions and government subsidies benefit the pharmacies in achieving economic sustainability. This environmental, social, and economic sustainability are pillars of the circular economy. This study determines the impact of inventory, incentives, and subsidy-related decisions on total benefits and costs by considering patients' willingness to use recycled drugs. The integrated pharmacy inventory and government decision model is presented in a non-linear programming model and uses the generalized reduced gradient. The results show the feasibility of the drug recycling program. The theoretical implications involve patients’ willingness to use recycled drugs and the practical implications by examining the role of non-profit pharmacies in achieving maximum environmental and social benefits.
Introduction This study examines how the Covid-19 economic impact and parental stress are moderated by family resilience to relate to the family quality of life (FQOL). Methods We modify the measure of FQOL, developed by Beach Center on Disability, by including only four domains (i.e., family interaction, parenting, emotional well-being, and material well-being) to adjust to our research context. Results Based on 169 participants, our CFA displays that all employed measures in the study are valid and reliable. Our regression analysis shows that there are significant direct relations of parental stress & family resilience with family quality of life. However, we find that family resilience only positively moderates the relation between the Covid-19 economic impact and family quality of life. Discussion This study presents a view on how the Covid-19 pandemic affects the way families live and hence, their quality of life.
Objectives: This study aims to explore the effect of mitoTEMPOL on histopathology, lipid droplet, and mitophagy gene expression of Wistar rat's liver after injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Materials and methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control (n=5); 100 mg/kg BW/day mitoTEMPOL orally (n=5); 50 mg/kg BW STZ intraperitoneal injection (n=5); and mitoTEMPOL+STZ (n=5). STZ was given a single dose, while mitoTEMPOL was given for 5 weeks after 1 week of STZ injection. Histopathological appearance, lipid droplets, mitophagy, and autophagy gene expression were examined after the mitoTEMPOL treatment. Results: We found metabolic zone shifting that might be correlated with the liver activity of fatty acid oxidation in the STZ group, a decrease of lipid droplets in mitoTEMPOL and mitoTEMPOL + STZ compared with Control and STZ groups were found in this study. We also found significant changes in PINK1, Parkin, BNIP3, Mfn1, and LC3 gene expression, but no difference in Opa1, Fis1, Drp1, and p62 gene expression, suggesting a change of mitochondrial fusion rather than mitochondrial fission correlated with mitophagy. Conclusion: All this concluded that mitoTEMPOL could act as a modulator of mitophagy and metabolic function of the liver, thus amplifying its crucial role in preventing mitochondrial damage in the liver in the early onset of diabetes mellitus.
Background and problem SDG 3.1 sets out that by 2030, the global maternal mortality ratio (MMR) should be reduced to 70 per 100,000 lives and no country should have MMR above 140 per 100,000 lives. Indonesia still has an MMR of 177 by 2017 data by the World bank. Urgent action is needed to improve the health and survival of women and babies. The main causes of MMR in Indonesia are Hemorrhage, followed by pre-eclampsia, and others, related with diabetes, stroke, etc. Importance Previous studies have shown the association between oral dysbiosis and pre-eclampsia, preterm birth and low birth weight. Oral microbiome of the mother being a key player in pregnancy outcomes. Periodontal disease is considered a possible risk factor for the health of the mother and the newborn. Solution Program goal of this program, “Innovative AnteNatal Care, Healthy Teeth, Healthy Baby”, is to create the ecology right from the start, by incorporating oral health diagnosis and prevention into routine antenatal care. This approach achieves a healthy oral condition that can improve systemic health during pregnancy. The program also achieves a healthy and resilient family through oral health empowerment and delivering healthy babies (superior generation 2045- President Joko Widodo). Processes included avocation to provincial health districts, initial survey of the perception and oral health status of pregnant mothers, module preparation, and socialization to health districts and related officers. The program has trained midwives and dental providers and secured governmental budgets for sustainable activities, including socialization and assistance to pregnant mothers and their husbands, field penetration by health professionals, and evaluation of the programs.
Sentence patterns kara, node, and te, de, are used to convey the expression of reason-result. These four sentence patterns are used to express reason-result, each with slightly different meaning nuances. As because the expression of reason-result in Indonesian is not as complex and complicated as in Japanese, the existence of these different nuances of meaning frequently causes difficulties for foreign students studying Japanese, particularly students from Indonesia. The four sentence patterns of kara, node, and te, de which are descriptors of reasoning in Japanese, will be studied from the morphosyntactic and semantic sides to produce a clear description that can be used as a reference for Indonesian learners using cause expressions - the rationale. The research method employed was qualitative, with descriptive data presentation. The distributional method and a technique of sorting out certain elements were used for the research technique, while the distributional method and a technique of sorting out certain elements were used for the study technique. According to the findings of this study, the expressions of reason-result kara, node, and te/de each have a distinct use. The use of the type of verb or type of word in the first clause and the circumstances that occur in the second clause show a difference in usage and meaning. In some contexts, kara and node can be substituted for each other, whereas for te/de, which has a unity with the first and second clauses, substitution with kara or node is subject to certain conditions.
Kendala dan kesulitan yang dialami oleh warga Kampung Stamplat, Dusun Ciparay, Desa Indragiri, Kelurahan Ciwidey, Kecamatan Rancabali, Kabupaten Bandung secara khusus dalam konteks pendidikan adalah minimnya koneksi/jaringan internet, perangkat komputer untuk sistem pembelajaran daring, serta bangunan sarana ruang belajar anak-anak. Hal ini menjadi perhatian serius mengingat pendidikan adalah hal sangat penting bagi anak-anak dan pelajar. Di satu sisi, salah satu potensi yang dimiliki warga adalah adanya pemuda dan orang tua (pria) yang dapat diberdayakan untuk secara ber-swadaya menggunakan tenaganya untuk membangun bangunan dengan fungsi untuk fasilitas publik. Berdasarkan pertimbangan bahwa Kabupaten Bandung sebagian besar wilayahnya termasuk dalam kategori wilayah gempa dengan intensitas moderat, maka implementasi bangunan kayu tahan gempa tepat untuk diterapkan di Kampung Stamplat, sekaligus menjawab kendala yang dialami warga yaitu kebutuhan terhadap bangunan sarana ruang belajar. Dalam kegiatan ini, implementasi hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan sebelumnya akan dilakukan di Kampung Stamplat. Penelitian yang dimaksud adalah rumah modular berbasis material kayu tahan gempa. Tujuan kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat (PkM) adalah implementasi hasil penelitian sebelumnya, yaitu pengembangan komponen penyusun rumah kayu tahan gempa menjadi bangunan publik yang berfungsi untuk fasilitas umum yaitu ruang belajar anak-anak dan pelajar Kampung Stamplat. Kegiatan direncanakan berjalan dalam kurun waktu bulan Desember tahun 2021. Sasaran kegiatan PkM adalah dua kelompok yaitu warga Kampung Stamplat dan Karang Taruna Desa Indragiri. Kegiatan bertempat di Kampung Stamplat, Dusun Ciparay, Desa Indragiri, Kecamatan Rancabali, Kabupaten Bandung, Provinsi Jawa Barat. Metode yang digunakan dalam kegiatan adalah implementasi hasil penelitian dalam bentuk produk rumah kayu sebagai sarana belajar/fasilitas umum. Hasil penelitian rumah kayu tahan gempa menjadi solusi yang tepat untuk mengatasi kendala Kampung Stamplat yang berada di daerah rawan gempa. Bangunan kayu yang direalisasikan dalam kegiatan ini sangat tepat untuk menyelesaikan permasalahan kebutuhan fasilitas umum untuk sarana belajar. Hasil nyata dari kegiatan ini adalah hilirisasi hasil penelitian dalam bentuk bangunan kayu gedung tahan gempa bagi warga Kampung Stamplat.
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memetakan potensi dan permasalahan Badan Usaha Milik Desa (BUMDes) di Desa Sirnajaya, Kecamatan Tarogong Kaler, Kabupaten Garut, Jawa Barat. Kemudian, penelitian ini bermaksud untuk memajukan BUMDes melalui program-program spesifik, inovatif, dan berkelanjutan yang mampu menangkap potensi dan menjawab permasalahan yang ada di desa. Melalui proses wawancara dan survei lapangan yang telah dilakukan, Saya menemukan bahwa permasalahan utama yang dihadapi oleh BUMDes Sirnajaya adalah kualitas SDM yang rendah motivasi dan kompetensi sehingga banyak usaha yang dijalankan tidak beroperasi dengan baik. Oleh karena itu, saran praktis yang dapat dilakukan adalah merancang sistem perekrutan, pendampingan, renumerasi, dan pengawasan yang baik sebelum mengaktifkan kembali usaha yang telah diinisiasi. Beberapa usaha yang dapat diaktifkan kembali adalah usaha penjualan ATK dan penjualan bensin melalui pom bensin mini. Sedangkan usaha peretanian bunga sedap malam dapat dilakukan negosiasi ulang mengenai harga dan hal-hal teknis lainnya. Alternatif lain adalah mencari pasar tanaman sedap malam dan melakukan pemasaran langsung tanpa malalui sistem ijon. Kemudian BUMDes Sirnajaya dapat melakukan investasi terhadap jenis usaha yang dapat memberikan nilai tambah atas hasil alam yang ada sebagai solusi jangka panjang untuk meningkatkan PADes.
Maintaining dental pulp vitality and preventing tooth loss are two challenges in endodontic treatment. A tooth lacking a viable pulp loses its defense mechanism and regenerative ability, making it more vulnerable to severe damage and eventually necessitating extraction. The tissue engineering approach has drawn attention as an alternative therapy as it can regenerate dentin-pulp complex structures and functions. Stem cells or progenitor cells, extracellular matrix, and signaling molecules are triad components of this approach. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are a promising, noninvasive source of stem cells for tissue regeneration. Not only can SHEDs regenerate dentin-pulp tissues (comprised of fibroblasts, odontoblasts, endothelial cells, and nerve cells), but SHEDs also possess immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive properties. The collagen matrix is a material of choice to provide structural and microenvironmental support for SHED-to-dentin pulp tissue differentiation. Growth factors regulate cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation into specific phenotypes via signal-transduction pathways. This review provides current concepts and applications of the tissue engineering approach, especially SHEDs, in endodontic treatment.
Tropical countries like Singapore are associated with high relative humidity, high temperature, and high amount of rainfall throughout the year. Therefore, flux boundary conditions of slopes are affected by rainwater infiltration and evaporation rate. The research aims to examine the stability of a residual soil slope under arid and damp period conditions. The actual evaporation was utilized in combination with rainfall as flux boundary conditions in the mathematical investigations to study the impact of actual evaporation on the distribution of pore-water pressure and factor of safety variation in residual soil slope. The significance level of actual evaporation in the stability analysis of residual soil slope was tested by performing two instances of seepage analysis on a slope subjected to (1) rainfall only and (2) rainfall and estimated evaporation. The data from the field instrumentation was compared with pore-water pressure variations in residual soil. It was observed that actual evaporation should be incorporated in the numerical analyses as a flux boundary condition in addition to rainfall loading since both actual evaporation and rainfall have a significant effect in generating accurate factor of safety variations and pore-water pressure distribution within soil layers.
Background: Electrical devices driven sonically have been found in several studies to be effective to clean root canals but the effect of the EndoActivator irrigant activation flow behavior on cleaning efficacy is not completely understood. Purpose: The study aimed to provide an initial understanding of flow behavior and velocity field generation during the irrigant activation process by EndoActivator using artificial intelligence (AI). Methods: A straight glass model was filled with a solution containing 17% EDTA. Meanwhile, a medium activator tip with 22-mm polymer noncutting #25, 0.04 file driven by an electrical sonic hand-piece at 190 Hz (highest level) was used to induce velocity field to produce micro-bubbles. The physical mechanisms involved were recorded using a Miro 320S highspeed imaging system, the hydrodynamic responses were recorded, and analyzed using a motion estimation program supported by LiteFlowNet (AI). Results: The rapid fluid flow was visualized clearly in the model when it was activated by an EndoActivator tip. It was also observed that the distal end of the EndoActivator tip generated a near-wall high gradient velocity apically in all directions of the oscillation. Conclusion: The analysis showed that the proposed motion estimation program, supported by LiteFlowNet (AI), was able to capture velocity magnitude estimation of a non-PIV experiment and visualize the bubbles generated in the solution.
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