Drinking water is a necessity for all living organisms and should be of good quality and free from hazardous contaminants. Chemical agents such as nitrate, nitrite, selenium, chromium, cadmium, manganese, cyanide, and fluoride can contaminate drinking water. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the health risks associated with these chemical agents and their potentially harmful effects on workers. The Environmental Health Risk Analysis (EHRA) method was used to evaluate the chemical agents present in the Concentrating Division area of PT Freeport Indonesia (PTFI). It was discovered that the average concentration values of all chemical agents were below the Environmental Health Quality Standards (EHQS) established in the Minister of Health Regulation Number 2 of 2023. The risk quotient (RQ) results, obtained through the division of intake and reference dose (RfD), were less than 1 Corresponding author: email@example.com /
Work stress can arise from within or from outside the organization, the cause of which is often felt by workers. Work stress is included in occupational diseases and generally comes from the amount or lack of understanding of the work. The purpose of this study is to diagnose work stress on employees in the HSE Department of the Concentrating Division of PT Freeport Indonesia, which is assessed through 6 aspects contained in the Regulation of the Minister of Manpower Number 5 of 2018. Type of research is semi-quantitative, with a cross-sectional research design. The research method uses a survey, and the sampling technique used is a saturated sample. The survey results show that the overall level of work stress on employees is 2.81. This value indicates that the level of work stress felt by employees of the HSE Division is classified as mild, because the score obtained is less than 9. The mean aspect of role ambiguity is 2.73; role conflict 2.76; quantitative work overload 2.75; qualitative work overload 2.87; career development 3; and responsibility towards others 2.74. Based on these values, it can be concluded that each employee of the HSE Department has high accountability from each function as well as the division of personal responsibility to regulate the determination of work priorities and rest periods. However, the majority of employees still feel that there are some tasks that are deemed unnecessary, the existence of high skill expectations from superiors, and the lack of opportunities for promotion or career development within the organization which can be a stressor in the department.
The government has created the National Formulary (Fornas) as a tool for control of quality and cost control. Patients’ prescriptions should be based on the national Formulary during the era of national health coverage. If prescriptions complied with the national Formulary, the cost would reduce. This research aimed to determine the factor of non-conformity between prescriptions and the national Formulary measures it and explores the need for pharmaceutical cost containment. This study applied the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method between 2014 and 2022. The search terms “Kesesuaian Fornas” were utilized on Google Scholar, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. The evaluation was organized by factor and subsequent action. Searches of the databases Google Scholar (2,246), Pubmed (0), ScienceDirect (1), and Scopus (0) yielded a total of 247 results. Following the selection procedure, 34 articles were included in the analysis. The average conformity of prescription with Fornas was 71.02%. Prescription adherence, drug availability, and formulary Conformity with Fornas were the primary factors in the conformity of prescriptions with the National Formulary. Conformity with the national Formulary for prescriptions can be enhanced through three primary actions: increasing prescription adherence, updating the Formulary, and procuring following the electronic catalog.
Produk pembersih kewanitaan dapat mengatasi permasalahan kewanitaan baik vaginosis, keputihan, maupun vaginitis. Selain memiliki efikasi yang baik, produk pembersih kewanitaan harus aman dan tidak memiliki efek samping terhadap penggunanya. Penggunaan produk alam menjadi salah satu alternatif bahan baku untuk pembuatan produk pembersih kewanitaan. Produk alam yang memiliki potensi tinggi yaitu golongan alga termasuk genus Caulerpa. Anggur laut (Caulerpa lentilifera) bersifat prebiotik yang meningkatkan pertumbuhan bakteri asam laktat, antibakteri, dan anti jamur. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji ekstrak air C. lentillifera untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan bakteri asam laktat Lactobacillus acidophilus sehingga berpotensi sebagai bahan baku sabun pembersih kewanitaan. Metode penelitian dimulai dari determinasi, ekstraksi, penapisan fitokimia, dan modifikasi koefisien fenol untuk melihat pertumbuhan Lactobacillus acidophilus. Hasil menunjukkan ekstrak air C. lentillifera dapat menumbuhkan bakteri asam laktat hingga lebih dari 100 koloni, pada konsentrasi terkecil yaitu 2%, dan waktu kontak dua menit. Apabila dibandingkan dengan pembersih kewanitaan komersil, produk ini menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri asam laktat, terutama pembersih dengan kode B yang menghambat pada konsentrasi terkecil dan waktu kontak yang lama. Pembersih dengan kode P dapat menumbuhkan bakteri asam laktat pada konsentrasi terkecil 2% dan waktu kontak dua dan empat menit, namun pada konsentrasi tinggi dan paparan yang panjang pertumbuhan bakteri terhambat. Ekstrak air C. lentillifera juga menjaga pH tetap asam sehingga dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri patogen dan menjaga keutuhan sel epitel. Pertumbuhan bakteri asam laktat dalam vagina menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri anaerob dan anaerob fakultatif penyebab vaginosis bakteri dan dapat mengurangi risiko inflamasi. Kesimpulannya ekstrak air C. lentillifera berpotensi sebagai bahan baku sabun pembersih kewanitaan. Kata kunci : Caulerpa lentillifera, Lactobacillus acidophilus, pembersih kewanitaan
COVID-19 adalah penyakit menular yang disebabkan oleh virus Sars˗cov˗2. Penelitian tentang efek jangka panjang COVID-19 pada manusia sudah banyak dilakukan khususnya pada paru karena paru merupakan organ yang paling terkena dampak. Salah satu tes yang bisa dilakukan untuk mengukur fungsi paru pada penyintas COVID-19 adalah tes faal paru. Desain penelitian ini adalah deskriptif observasional dan sampel penelitian ini sebanyak 38 mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani (FK UNJANI) angkatan 2019˗2022 yang pernah terinfeksi COVID-19. Berdasarkan usia, didapatkan bahwa 30 dari 38 subjek mengalami penyakit paru restriktif. Berdasarkan jenis kelamin, baik laki-laki maupun perempuan mengalami penyakit paru restriktif. Berdasarkan waktu terinfeksi, 88% subjek yang terinfeksi kurang dari 6 bulan mengalami penyakit paru restriksi sedangkan pada subjek yang terinfeksi lebih dari 6 bulan terdapat 81% subjek yang mendapatkan hasil restriksi. Berdasarkan gejala klinisnya, 37 dari 38 subjek yang termasuk gejala klinis ringan. Hasil tersebut dapat terjadi karena pada penyintas COVID-19, kerusakan yang terjadi saat infeksi dapat menyebabkan peradangan yang berkepanjangan dan terjadi fibrosis atau perubahan jaringan parenkim paru menjadi jaringan parut yang menyebabkan penurunan kapasitas difusi dan gangguan pengembangan paru sehingga pada pengukuran tes faal paru hasil yang didapat adalah restriksi. Kata kunci: penyakit paru restriksi, penyintas covid˗19, tes faal paru, usia muda
Gastritis adalah suatu proses inflamasi pada mukosa dan submukosa gaster yang dapat disebabkan oleh penggunaan obat anti inflamasi non-steroid (OAINS). Salah satu obat anti inflamasi non-steroid (OAINS) adalah asam asetil salisilat yang dapat menyebabkan pelepasan Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). ROS dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada mukosa gaster. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan efektivitas kulit buah kopi robusta dalam mencegah kerusakan mukosa gaster. Penelitian menggunakan hewan coba 24 ekor tikus putih jantan galur Wistar (Rattus norvegicus). Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analitik eksperimental dengan desain posttest only control group dibagi menjadi enam kelompok, kelompok 1 berupa kontrol negatif (hanya diberi pakan pelet), kelompok 2 berupa kontrol positif yang diberikan asam asetil salisilat saja dosis 150 mg/KgBB, kelompok 3,4,5,6 diberi ekstrak etanol kulit buah kopi robusta masing-masing sebanyak 250, 500, 1000, 1500 mg/KgBB dilanjutkan pemberian asam asetil salisilat dosis 150mg/KgBB. Setelah perlakuan selama 14 hari, gaster tikus dikorbankan untuk dilihat secara mikroskopis gaster yang dinilai menggunakan skor Wattimena dan Siriviriyakul Prasong, et al yang telah dimodifikasi. Hasil menunjukkan setiap kelompok perlakuan dapat mencegah kerusakan mukosa gaster terutama dosis 1000 mg/KgBB dan 1500 mg/KgBB. Terdapat perbedaan bermakna jika dibandingkan dengan kelompok kontrol positif. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa dosis efektif ekstrak etanol kulit buah kopi robusta yang dapat mencegah kerusakan mukosa gaster adalah 1000 mg/KgBB dan 1500 mg/KgBB. Kulit buah kopi robusta mengandung senyawa flavonoid sebagai antioksidan yang dapat mengurangi akumulasi ROS, sehingga dapat mencegah kerusakan mukosa gaster. Kata kunci : Asam asetil salisilat, gastritis, kulit kopi robusta
Masyarakat semakin paham mengenai pentingnya perawatan ortodonti. Ortodonti cekat terdiri dari komponen aktif dan pasif. Tekanan dari pemakaian komponen aktif dapat menginduksi sitokin proinflamasi, salah satunya TNF-α, sehingga menyebabkan nyeri. Daun katuk (Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr.) mengandung flavonoid, sehingga dapat menurunkan sitokin proinflamasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak daun katuk terhadap kadar TNF-α. Penelitian adalah eksperimental menggunakan 46 ekor marmut betina dengan kelompok kontrol dan kelompok yang diberi dosis daun katuk 78,3 mg/kgBB. Pengamatan yang dilakukan pada pengujian ini yaitu TNF-α yang diambil dari sampel darah pada jantung marmut pada hari ke-3, hari ke-7 dan hari ke-14. Sampel marmut diaplikasikan separator ortodonti pada gigi insisif kanan dan diberi ekstrak etanol daun katuk sesuai kelompok, setelah hari ke-14 dilakukan analisis TNF-α. Data dianalisis dengan uji T-independen (p>0,05). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kelompok kontrol rerata kadar TNF-α tertinggi pada hari ke-3 sebesar 630,71 dan rerata terendah kadar TNF-α pada hari ke-7 sebesar 275,86. Kelompok perlakuan, rerata kadar TNF-α tertinggi pada hari ke-3 sebesar 595,26 dan rerata terendah kadar TNF-α pada hari ke-14 sebesar 209,99. Tidak terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna pengaruh daun katuk terhadap kadar TNF-α pada hari ke-3 (p=0,822), hari ke-7 (p= 0,185) dan hari ke-14 (p=0,062). Kesimpulan yang didapat dalam penelitian ini adalah ekstrak daun katuk berpengaruh terhadap peningkatan rerata kadar TNF-α namun tidak bermakna secara statistik. Kata kunci: daun katuk, flavonoid, perawatan ortodonti, TNF-α
Children with balanced nutritional needs and intake will have good nutritional status, and vice versa; inadequate nutritional intake will affect children's growth and development. This study aims to determine the relationship between nutritional status and the development of children age 0-24 months in the Working Areaf the Cimahi Selatan Health Center in a cross-sectional way. Data on nutritional status were measured using a baby scale for body weight and a length board for body length. At the same time, children's development was assessed using the DDST II form, which consisted of four aspects of development: gross motor, fine motor, language, and personal social. There are 30 subjects in this research selected using consecutive sampling techniques. From the results of the study, it was found that disorders of gross motor development (60.00%), language (100.00%), and personal social (100.00%) were dominant in the 12-24 month age group. In comparison, disorders of fine motor development (33.30%) were found to be equally average in each age group. The results of the analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between aspects of gross motor development (p=0.031), fine motor (p=0.010), language (p=0.045), and personal social (p=0.012) with wasted nutritional status in children 0-24 months in the Cimahi Selatan Health Center Work Area, so it can be concluded that children with wasted nutritional status have a greater risk of experiencing developmental disorders. This result is in line with the theory that inadequate nutritional intake will affect the development process of brain maturity, resulting in a decline in brain function and various delays in child development.
A teeth whitening procedure is an action to get naturally bright teeth color. The teeth whitening process often has side effects on the tooth structure and its surroundings. Teeth whitening ingredients generally contain carbamide peroxide. One of the natural ingredients that can whiten teeth is Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. This study aimed to determine the effect of Averrhoa bilimbi L. gel and carbamide peroxide on the histological response of the pulp. The research method was carried out by processing Averrhoa bilimbi Linn into extracts through the maceration method and then making a gel with a concentration of 50%. The study was conducted on 27 rabbit incisors and divided into three groups (negative control group, 10% carbamide peroxide, and 50% Averrhoa bilimbi L. gel). Each group was exposed for 4 hours for 14 days, then the teeth were extracted, and the pulp was taken with K-file number 10-40 and continued to look at the histological picture. The data was processed using a one-way ANOVA statistical test; the statistical test results showed significant differences for the three groups with a p-value of 0.000 (p <0.05). It can be concluded that there is an effect of 50% Averrhoa bilimbi L. gel on the histological response of the pulp, there is an effect of 10% carbamide peroxide on the histological response of the pulp, and there is a significant difference between 10% carbamide peroxide and 50% Averrhoa bilimbi L. gel.
Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) is a common problem with various clinical signs and symptoms of the structures of the masticatory system, including the masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint, often found in the age group of 20-40 years. People with TMD symptoms can show at least one symptom of the disorder. The prevalence of TMD was reported among dental students. This study aims to determine differences in the majority of symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder in students of the Faculty of Dentistry, Jenderal Achmad Yani University class of 2020 in 2021 and 2023. This research is an analytical study using a cross-sectional approach. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test with 54 research subjects from the Faculty of Medicine class 2020. This study found that in 2021, there were 88.8% of students, while in 2023, 87% of students suffered from symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder with a score p=0.739. No significant difference in the prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorder symptoms in 2021 and 2023.
The mental foramen is a small hole located in the body of the mandible in the premolar to molar region. There are veins, arteries, and a branch of the inferior nervus alveolaris, the nervus mentalis. The blood vessels and nerves in the mental foramen supply and innervate the lower lip region, gingiva, soft tissues of the chin, and lower teeth. Various factors influence the development of the mental foramen, such as race, age, gender, and ethnicity. Determination of the position of the mental foramen can help in diagnosis, treatment, and some clinical measures related to the mental foramen. This study aims to determine the difference in the position of the mental foramen according to gender and the difference in the position of the right and left mental foramen according to gender in patients at RSGM Unjani. This study was conducted using an analytical method with a cross-sectional approach. The research object was 44 panoramic radiographs taken with a purposive sampling technique. To analyze the difference in the position of the mental foramen according to gender, the study used the Mann-Whitney test, while to analyze the difference in the right and left positions according to gender; we used the Chi-Square test. The results showed no significant difference in the position of the mental foramen towards gender (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in the position of the mental foramen between the left and right on the panoramic radiograph of the patient according to gender (p>0.05). The most common position was in line with the lower second premolar with a percentage of 62.5%, and the position of the mental foramen was symmetrical both left and right with a percentage of 52.3%. It can be concluded that there is no significant difference between the position of the mental foramen and gender on panoramic radiographs of patients aged 20–44 years at RSGM Unjani in 2021.
Grip muscle strength in toothbrushing influences the brushing results. The strength has side effects, too, such as tooth abrasion. This study aims to systematically evaluate the results of tooth surface disappearance appraisal from toothbrushing in vitro and in vivo. Research methods performed by literature review with database articles search from Clinical Trials, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Pubmed, The International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), CINAHL with keywords. Articles were based on year, title, abstract, and full text and processed to final review. This research parameter utilized Optical profilometry from study designs: crossover and cross-sectional. Two full-text articles have been chosen, including inclusion criteria, and processed for final review. The study from Bizhang et al., abrasive toothpaste and toothbrush strength 2N, proves that manual toothbrushes have significantly less lead abrasion—manual toothbrush with wavy brush head 2.50(±0.43). Hara et al., reveal regimen B (erosion + toothbrushing with fluoride) day 28 (0,77±0,79) showed less loss of enamel surface than regimen C (erosion+toothbrushing without fluoride) day 28 (2,20±1,96). Prospecting the articles about the abrasion effect from toothbrush strength that are appropriate with the aim of study is still limited relating to abstract, full text, and keywords. The evaluation value of particular toothbrushing power will increase oral dental health without leading to severe abrasion risk on the dental surface.
arly Childhood Caries (ECC) is a dental caries disease in children characterized by one or more carious lesions (cavitary or non-cavitated), primary teeth missing/removed due to caries, or primary teeth filled in children under 71 months of age. Prevention of ECC can be done from the time of pregnancy, which aims to prevent the transmission of bacteria that cause dental caries from mother to child. Prevention of ECC continues when the baby is born with the help of parents to keep the child's teeth clean and maintain the child's diet. The research aims to discover how ECC describes and practices prevention in preschool children in Pontianak City. This research design is descriptive to see an overview of ECC and its prevention practices in preschoolers. Results DMFT examination on 107 kindergarten children aged 3-5 years, 13 children were free from caries, while 94 children had caries. Caries' status in the calculation of the DMFT index was determined according to WHO criteria, namely 0.0-1.1 very low, 1.2-2.6 low, 2.7-4.4 moderate, 4.5-6.5 high, >6,6 is very high. The DMFT index status assessment results get an average DMFT index value of 7,046, which is included in the very high category. Meanwhile, the average ECC prevention practice for children in Pontianak is 63.72%, which is included in the good category. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that the caries status of kindergarten children aged 3-5 years in Pontianak City obtained the DMFT index, which includes the very high category. While preventing ECC in kindergarten children aged 3-5 years in the city of Pontianak obtained scores included in the good category. Expected with this research, parents can better maintain and improve their health and well-being by applying knowledge about how to maintain children's dental and oral health so that they can give directions to children better to maintain good oral and dental health and the age of 3-5 years are very susceptible to caries.
Katuk leaf herbal plants can be used as an anti-inflammatory drug because these contain flavonoids which be able to reduce inflammation by inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzyme formation. Katuk leaf extract is made in gel form at a 78.3 mg/kg BW dose. The gel is one of the medicinal preparations with good dispersion and longer adherence ability compared to ointments and creams. The study aimed to determine the effect of Katuk leaf extract gel as an anti-inflammatory orthodontic treatment against carrageenan-induced rat leg edema. This type of laboratory experimental research used a posttest-only control group design. This study used Katuk leaf extract gel in the treatment group and base gel for the control group, which was repeated 16 times in Wistar rat test animals in each group. The Independent variable is gel leaf Katuk extract, and volume-bound swelling on the soles of rats' feet is the dependent variable—univariate and bivariate data analysis with the Mann-Whitney test. The study showed no significant difference in the average edema between the control and treatment groups; Katuk leaf extract gel had no effect on an edema volume (p-value=0.12) compared to the control group. The conclusion is that Katuk leaf extract gel does not reduce swollen volume compared to Na-CMC 0.5%.
Fractures are often associated with considerable morbidity, leading to extended hospital stays. Disturbances due to fractures impact activity tolerance, thereby reducing productivity. Fracture is a term for loss of continuity of bone or cartilage, either total or partial. In general, a fracture is caused by trauma or physical exertion. This case report consists of four types of fractures in the Drajat Prawiranegara Hospital Serang Indonesia: transverse fractures, cumulative fractures, oblique, segmental, impacted, and spiral fractures. Causes of fractures can be divided into traumatic injuries, direct, indirect, sudden violent contractions, pathological fractures, bone tumours, chronic infections, rickets, and term bone stress. The gold standard examination used to determine the location, type, and severity is an x-ray radiology examination.
Background: Studies related to blood type in cancer patients have been conducted extensively, but they are inclined to cancer incidence or survival rate. Meanwhile, there is limited research on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV), the most disturbing side effect of chemotherapy, in relation to blood type. Purpose: This study aimed to compare CINV frequency in cancer patients by blood groups in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Methods: A descriptive comparative study with a cross-sectional approach was conducted purposively on 70 chemotherapy patients in two hospitals in Yogyakarta. Patients with anticipatory CINV and brain cancer (primary or metastases) were excluded. The data were collected between July and November 2020 using a sheet for patient characteristics and a filled-in diary from the first to the seventh day post-chemotherapy to collect CINV data. The descriptive statistics and Kruskal Wallis test were used to analyze the data. Results: Of 70 total samples, most of them were breast cancer (71.4%) and were in stage IV (50%). They received chemotherapy alone as their primary therapy (94.3%) and received moderate to high emetogenic agents (31.4% and 35.7%). Samples mostly had A blood type (34.3%) and had undergone chemotherapy for 3-18 months (min-max). As many as 64.6% of patients experienced CINV with a delayed type and experienced moderate severity (52.9%). The bivariate test showed no difference in CINV frequencies based on blood groups in general (p=0.068). However, based on the CINV onset, there was a significant difference in CINV frequencies in the A blood group against other blood groups (p=0.020) on the fourth post-chemotherapy day. Conclusions: Unless the fourth-day post-chemotherapy, the frequency of CINV based on blood groups showed no difference. Since CINV incidence is still high, the provision of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy to treat CINV has to be given to patients after chemotherapy. Blood group factors can be considered for more extensive management, especially in delayed CINV cases.
Single-stage thermal pyrolysis of plastic waste produces liquid fuel (LF) of low quality and quantity and requires high temperature and long complete pyrolysis time. Pyrolysis of plastic waste via thermal and catalytic route using an existing sequential pyrolysis reactor and catalytic reformer was addressed to overcome this issue. Each low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (Styrofoam) waste was converted plastic waste into LF at intervals of 200–400 o C and a pyrolysis time of 30–90 minutes. Low-cost and type of catalyst, such as volcanic ash was divined as important roles in the characteristics and quantity of LF produced. The volcanic ash is revisited to find a better and more effective catalyst in converting plastic waste into LF due to it contains quite high SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 . The volcanic ash was activated physically and chemically. The catalyst characteristics were observed based on Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) and Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis. The properties and influence of using this catalyst in a reformer for second-stage degradation of plastic waste were observed. The characteristics of LF were observed by flash point, smoke point, ignition point, density, viscosity, calorific value, and GC-MS analysis. The results of the BET analysis of activated volcanic ash and inactivated volcanic ash showed a surface area of 3.8475 m ² /g and 1.1188 m ² /g, respectively. The results of SEM-EDS analysis depicted that the content of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 in volcanic ash was quite high of 81.89% and 5.57%, respectively with a better adsorption rate than inactive volcanic ash. The most dominant LF composition of styrofoam and LDPE is C 8 H 8 (70.323%) and C 10 H 20 (25.831%), respectively. LF fraction of LDPE pyrolysis has the largest composition in the range of C 9 –C 14 carbon atoms of 61.27% as a high aliphatic proportion. Whereas the LF fraction from styrofoam pyrolysis has the largest composition in the range of C 5 –C 9 carbon atoms of 92.49% with a low percentage of aliphatic hydrocarbons alkanes (paraffin) and alkenes (olefin). Based on the results characteristics and GC-MS analysis, the LF of LDPE pyrolysis is the closest hydrocarbon composition to kerosene, whereas the LF fraction from styrofoam is on par with gasoline fuel, with higher quality compared to commercial gasoline.
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