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- SourceAvailable from: Urip Santoso[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermented chub mackerel extract (FCME) on lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. Four week-old male Wistar rats were divided into three groups based on weight. All rats were induced with diabetes mellitus by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at 45 mg/kg body weight. Thereafter, they were randomly distributed to three treatments with 7 rats assigned to each treatment. One group was the control with no additive, and two-treatment groups were given the purified diets supplemented with 1% or 2% FCME. Experimental results showed that in comparison to the control, diabetic rats fed FCME increased feed intake (P<0.01) and body weight gain (P<0.05). FCME inclusion significantly reduced the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (P<0.01) and fatty acid synthetase (P<0.05) in diabetic rats. FCME significantly increased cholesterol 7 -hydroxylase with no effect on HMG-CoA reductase activity. FCME had no effect on hepatic triglyceride, free cholesterol and phospholipid. FCME inclusion at 1% level significantly reduced serum triglyceride. FCME significantly increased HDL-cholesterol (P<0.05) with no effect on LDL + VLDL-cholesterol, and significantly reduced atherogenic index. FCME did not significantly affect serum insulin and glucose concentration. In conclusion, FCME supplementation altered lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. FCME supplementation reduced the risk of atherosclerosis in diabetic rats.
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a first-order energy storage requirements estimation of an Archimedes wave swing park. In addition of being simple and easy to calculate, the approach has provided useful insight into the park behavior. The simulation of park output power indicated the presence of random smoothing effect. However, the signal smoothing was considered not enough. An estimation method based on first-order filter has been used to study the optimum size of energy storage. The method can also suggest an optimum maximum output power of a generator for a certain sea state.
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ABSTRACT: Production of Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculants is problematic because high inoculation rates are necessary but expensive, while production of rhizobial Nod factors (lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs)), key signal molecules in the establishment of legume-rhizobia symbioses, may be inhibited at high culture cell densities. We conducted experiments to determine the effects of growth medium N source on B. japonicum growth, LCO production, and early nodulation of soybean. We found that 1.57 mmol ammonium nitrate x L(-1) resulted in less rhizobial growth and rhizobial capacity to produce LCOs (on a per cell basis) than did 0.4 g yeast extract x L(-1), which contained the same amount of N as the ammonium nitrate. Increasing yeast extract to 0.8 g x L(-1) increased rhizobial growth and LCO production on a volume basis (per litre of culture) and did not affect cell capacity to produce LCOs; however, at 1.4 g yeast extract x L(-1) per cell, production was reduced. A mixture of 0.8 g yeast extract x L(-1) and 1.6 g casein hydrolysate x L(-1) resulted in the greatest bacterial growth and LCO production on a volume basis but reduced LCO production per cell. Changes in organic N level and source increased production of some of the measured LCOs more than others. LCO production was positively correlated with cell density when expressed on a volume basis; however, it was negatively correlated on a per cell basis. We conclude that although quorum sensing affected Nod factor production, increased levels of organic N, and specific compositions of organic N, increased LCO production on a volume basis. Greenhouse inoculation experiments showed that the medium did not modify nodule number and N fixation in soybean, suggesting that it could have utility in inoculant production.
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