Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Yogyakarta, DIY, Indonesia
Recent publications
Londo iha is a form of bride kidnapping practiced by the Muslims of Monta, a district of Bima, Indonesia, that violates sharia (i.e. Islamic law). In this practice, a man steals away with a young woman, often for the purpose of marriage. Although marriage is strongly recommended by Islamic law, such an approach to marriage is considered to be against Islamic norms. This article seeks to explain why londo iha continues to be practiced by the Muslims of Monta, even though it violates Islamic law. Observation, in-depth interviews, and document analysis are used to collect data. The observation is for Muslim wedding activity in Monta. The interview is designed to gather useful information by interviewing eight people who are involved with londo iha. Furthermore, document analysis is managed by obtaining some documents from Bima’s Ministry of Religion Office that show londo iha’s involvement in several districts. Based on the collected data, this article finds that londo iha continues to be perceived as facilitating marriage and its continued practice is driven by various customary and religious norms. However, this practice has been controversial, as its validity is only recognized under customary norms. As it lacks religious validity, this practice has thus been detrimental to the social structures of Muslim-majority Monta. This article applies a simple socio-religious perspective, and covers a relatively brief period of time; as such, it is necessary to conduct further research using a multi-disciplinary perspective and covering a broader range of cases.
Objective This research aimed to developing customized pedicle screw based on Indonesian vertebral anatomy and compare the insertion time, pull-out strength, and screw-media interface area of different screw design. We have developed 3 different types of pedicle screws (v-thread cylinder-core, square-thread cylinder-core and square-thread conical-core). The thread diameter was calculated from pedicle width of Indonesian population (6 mm). We used commercially available pedicle screw as control group (6.2 mm). Result The insertion time were significantly difference between v-thread cylinder-core pedicle screw (22.94 s) with commercially available pedicle screw (15.86 s) (p < 0.05). The pull-out strength was significantly difference between commercially available pedicle screw (408.60 N) with square-thread conical pedicle screw (836.60 N) (p < 0.05). The square-thread conical-core group have the highest interface area (1486.21 mm ² ). The data comparison showed that the square-thread conical-core customized pedicle screw group has comparable insertion time and has better pull-out strength than commercially available pedicle screw.
This paper deals with a systematic study on the co-doping N,S on TiO 2 photocatalyst to improve its activity under visible light on the removal of Pb(II) from the aqueous media. The co-doping TiO 2 by N,S atoms was conducted in an autoclave by one-step hydrothermal of TiO 2 mixed with nitric and sulfuric acids as the sources of N and S, respectively. The mole ratio of TiO 2 :nitric acid:sulfuric acid was varied as 1:1:0.5, 1:1:1, and 1:1:1.5 to find the best ratio toward the activity. The co-doped photocatalysts obtained were characterized by specular reflectance UV/Vis (SRUV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instruments. A batch experiment was carried out for oxidation of Pb(II), driven by a combination of visible light and TiO 2 -N,S photocatalyst. The research results attribute that co-doping N,S into TiO 2 has remarkably narrowed the gap in the TiO 2 structure, emerging in the visible region. It was also proven that the co-doped in TiO 2 can considerably enhance its activity in the removal of Pb(II) under visible light, and the highest activity was owned by TiO 2 -N,S (1:1:1). Furthermore, the most effective removal of Pb(II) 10 mg/L (98%) could be reached by employing 500 mg L ⁻¹ of the TiO 2 -N,S (1:1:1) dose, 45 min of the time, and the solution pH at 7. The Pb(II) removed is due to the photo-oxidation induced by OH radicals to form the handleable PbO 2 .
Objective To disseminate the portable sequencer MinION in developing countries for the main purpose of battling infectious diseases, we found a consortium called Global Research Alliance in Infectious Diseases (GRAID). By holding and inviting researchers both from developed and developing countries, we aim to train the participants with MinION’s operations and foster a collaboration in infectious diseases researches. As a real-life example in which resources are limited, we describe here a result from a training course, a metagenomics analysis from two blood samples collected from a routine cattle surveillance in Kulan Progo District, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia in 2019. Results One of the samples was successfully sequenced with enough sequencing yield for further analysis. After depleting the reads mapped to host DNA, the remaining reads were shown to map to Theileria orientalis using BLAST and OneCodex. Although the reads were also mapped to Clostridium botulinum, those were found to be artifacts derived from the cow genome. An effort to construct a consensus sequence was successful using a reference-based approach with Pomoxis. Hence, we concluded that the asymptomatic cow might be infected with T. orientalis and showed the usefulness of sequencing technology, specifically the MinION platform, in a developing country.
An indication of high‐sulfidation epithermal–porphyry transition was observed in the Kumbokarno prospect, East Java, Indonesia. The prospect is composed of two Middle Miocene intrusions with tonalitic and dioritic compositions. Tonalite, the main host‐rock was subjected to argillic, advanced argillic, and vuggy quartz alteration, whereas the juxtaposing diorite was subjected to peripheral propylitic alteration. Three types of vein exist in the research area, which are massive quartz, comb quartz, and stockwork vein. In addition, supergene alteration represented by goethite and hematite pervasively superimposed both the hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Fluid inclusion petrography and microthermometry analysis on three types of quartz veins distinguished primary fluid inclusions into two groups, that is, V30 group composed of vapor (30 vol%)–liquid (70 vol%), and the second group V30H group composed of vapor (30 vol%)–halite (30 vol%)–liquid (40 vol%). The homogenization temperatures of both the groups show a similar range of ca. 350–480°C, but the V30H group has significantly higher salinity (35–50 wt% NaCl eq.) compared to the V30 group (10–20 wt% NaCl eq.). In terms of the vein types, the massive quartz vein has the highest homogenization temperatures, followed by the comb quartz vein and lastly the stockwork veins. The presence of alunite and its sulfur isotope compositions, δ34S = 19.6 (σ = 2.1‰), indicate acidic pH and presence of SO42− in the hydrothermal fluids. The prospect is an intrusion‐centered magmatic‐hydrothermal system reflecting the porphyry‐epithermal transition. The fluid inclusions with high homogenization temperatures up to 480°C and high salinity up to 50 wt% NaCl eq. also support the transition of porphyry to high‐sulfidation epithermal mineralization. The presence of two different types of primary fluid inclusions suggests that boiling process occurred and separated the original magmatic fluid into the liquid and vapor phases. More, this fluid underwent dilution and mixing with meteoric waters. The migration of both the fluids were likely unrelated to the formation of the advanced argillic–argillic alteration halo because the quartz veins cut across this alteration. The prospect was later subjected to intensive weathering process that altered most of the sulfides into iron oxides and hydroxides. Small amounts of copper and minor gold were detected, especially in the iron oxides and hydroxides ones with colloform and bladed textures. The Kumbokarno prospect evidences the potential for high‐sulfidation to porphyry deposits at the Southern Mountain Arc, Indonesia. Map of hydrothermal alteration zones in the Kumbokarno Prospect. Tonalite is altered into vuggy‐quartz zone, quartz + alunite zone, pyrophyllite+diaspore+alunite zone, and sericite + kaolinite zone in a concentric manner. Diorite is dominantly altered into chlorite + epidote + calcite zone and minor quartz + sericite + pyrite zone. Abbreviation: alu = alunite, cal = calcite, chl = chlorite, dsp = diaspore, ep = epidote, kln = kaolinite, prl = pyrophyllite, py = pyrite, qz = quartz, ser = sericite. Mineral abbreviations from Whitney and Evans (2010).
Background Stigmatization attitudes among youths toward people living with HIV (PLWH) is still an issue and concern in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the regional disparities, levels of HIV-related knowledge, information, and contributions related to stigmatization attitudes among females aged 15–24 years in Indonesia. Methods A cross-sectional study with The 2017 Indonesian Demographic Health Survey (IDHS) was used. A total of 12,691individual records of females aged 15–24 years were recruited through two-stage stratified cluster sampling. The endpoint was stigmatization attitude. Then, bivariate and multivariate binary logistics were performed. Results The findings showed that female youths who have no HIV-related knowledge (62.15%) and some source of information (52.39%). The highest prevalence of stigmatizing attitude was 59.82%, on Java Island. Multivariate analysis showed that females living in Sulawesi and Kalimantan; those living in a rural area; and those with more HIV-related knowledge were less likely to have a stigmatizing attitude. Conversely, females with the middle- to richest-wealth index and had some HIV-related information were more likely to have a stigmatizing attitude. Conclusion An understanding of stigmatizing attitudes should be considered through demographic factors, knowledge, and source of HIV-related information. The Indonesian government should pay more attention to indicators of HIV-related knowledge and information. Moreover, we suggest that the government collaborates with youths to disseminate information and restructure and reanalyze policies about HIV.
Fly and bottom ash (FABA) produced primarily from coal combustion in a coal-fired power plant consists of fine particles of the organic and inorganic mixture and trace elements. Eight FABA samples from coal-fired power plants in Java, Indonesia, had been collected for composition and rare earth element and Yttrium (REY) mode of occurrence identification. The geochemical composition of both major and trace elements was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-MS/AES). Furthermore, the composition of FABA was identified by petrography with reflected light microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Simultaneously, scanning electron microscope determines the mode of occurrence of REY with an energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM–EDX). The study finds that the inorganic component of FABA consists of glass, Fe–Mg spinel, mullite, quartz, Fe-oxide mineral, and K-feldspar. In contrast, the organic component is dominated by unburned coal. Glass is the most abundant component with cenospheres as major and pleiospheres as minor constituents. Trace elements analysis indicates REY concentration with heavy REY (HREY) distribution pattern. Moreover, SEM–EDX analysis results show that Yttrium (Y) occurs in glass and has a low concentration in spinel. From the mode occurrence of REY, in particular Yttrium, it can be predicted that alkaline fusion followed by acid leaching will be the most appropriate extraction method to extract REY from Indonesian FABA.
This review mainly aimed to introduce the findings of research projects comparing the responses of tropical and temperate indigenes to heat. From a questionnaire survey on thermal sensation and comfort of Indonesians and Japanese, we found that the thermal descriptor “cool” in tropical indigenes connotes a thermally comfortable feeling, suggesting that linguistic heat acclimatization exists on a cognitive level. Ten male students born and raised in Malaysia were invited to Fukuoka, Japan, and compared their responses with 10 Japanese male students with matched physical fitness and morphological characteristics. Cutaneous thermal sensitivity: The sensitivities were measured at 28 °C. The forehead warm sensitivity was significantly blunted in Malaysians. The less sensitivity to the warmth of tropical indigenes is advantageous in respect to withstanding heat stress with less discomfort and a greater ability to work in hot climates. Passive heat stress: Thermoregulatory responses, especially sweating, were investigated, during the lower leg hot bathing (42 °C for 60 min). The rectal temperature at rest was higher in Malaysians and increased smaller during immersion. There was no significant difference in the total amount of sweating between the two groups, while the local sweating on the forehead and thighs was lesser in Malaysians, suggesting distribution of sweating was different from Japanese. Exercise: Malaysian showed a significantly smaller increase in their rectal temperature during 55% maximal exercise for 60 min in heat (32 °C 70% relative humidity), even with a similar sweating and skin blood flow response in Japanese. The better heat tolerance in Malaysians could be explained by the greater convective heat transfer from the body core to the skin due to the greater core-to-skin temperature gradient. In addition, when they were hydrated, Malaysian participants showed better body fluid regulation with smaller reduction in plasma volume at the end of the exercise compared to the non-hydrated condition, whereas Japanese showed no difference between hydration conditions. We further investigated the de-acclimatization of heat adaptation by longitudinal observation on the heat tolerance of international students who had moved from tropical areas to Fukuoka for several years.
Background Saline land in coastal areas has great potential for crop cultivation. Improving salt tolerance in rice is a key to expanding the available area for its growth and thus improving global food security. Seed priming with salt (halopriming) can enhance plant growth and decrease saline intolerance under salt stress conditions during the subsequent seedling stage. However, there is little known about rice defense mechanisms against salinity at seedling stages after seed halopriming treatment. This study focused on the effect of seed halopriming treatment on salinity tolerance in a susceptible cultivar, IR 64, a resistant cultivar, Pokkali, and two pigmented rice cultivars, Merah Kalimantan Selatan (Merah Kalsel) and Cempo Ireng Pendek (CI Pendek). We grew these cultivars in hydroponic culture, with and without halopriming at the seed stage, under either non-salt or salt stress conditions during the seedling stage. Results The SES scoring assessment showed that the level of salinity tolerance in susceptible cultivar, IR 64, and moderate cultivar, Merah Kalsel, improved after seed halopriming treatment. Furthermore, seed halopriming improved the growth performance of IR 64 and Merah Kalsel rice seedlings. Quantitative PCR revealed that seed halopriming induced expression of the OsNHX1 and OsHKT1 genes in susceptible rice cultivar, IR 64 and Merah Kalsel thereby increasing the level of resistance to salinity. The expression levels of OsSOS1 and OsHKT1 genes in resistant cultivar, Pokkali, also increased but there was no affect on the level of salinity tolerance. On the contrary, seed halopriming decreased the expression level of OsSOS1 genes in pigmented rice cultivar, CI Pendek, but did not affect the level of salinity tolerance. The transporter gene expression induction significantly improved salinity tolerance in salinity-susceptible rice, IR 64, and moderately tolerant rice cultivar, Merah Kalsel. Induction of expression of the OsNHX1 and OsHKT1 genes in susceptible rice, IR 64, after halopriming seed treatment balances the osmotic pressure and prevents the accumulation of toxic concentrations of Na ⁺ , resulting in tolerance to salinity stress. Conclusion These results suggest that seed halopriming can improve salinity tolerance of salinity-susceptible and moderately tolerant rice cultivars.
This paper proposes the performance investigation of a standalone wind power system equipped with sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) power inverter for household consumption in rural areas of Indonesia. Indonesia, which is in the tropics, has the potential for developing wind power plants. One of the potential areas is the South Coast, Bantul, Yogyakarta Special Region, the location of this research. This work has designed, assembled, and tested a 4-kW wind power plant using a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) driven by a horizontal type of turbine. The test results show that the power plant can generate electrical energy suitable for meeting the electricity needs of residents’ homes. This success indicates that the generator’s voltage is good enough and feasible to be stored in the battery. Although the voltage’s value depends on the wind speed, it is adequate because it is close to the nominal voltage that the PMSG generator should produce. The electrical energy generated by this power plant is stored in the battery bank. Also, the performance of the SPWM power inverter has been demonstrated in the experimental tests of resistive and inductive loading. This power plant’s development follows the government’s commitment to utilizing renewable energy sources as priority energy as a strategy to reduce dependence on fossil energy and overcome the environment.
A transplanting device is a part of a vegetable transplanter that performs a key role and receives a large load during the transplanting work. The load characteristics affect the static and dynamic safety of the transplanting device. The aim of this research was to experimentally investigate the load and safety of the transplanting device of the cam-type semi-automatic vegetable transplanter commonly used in Korea. A strain-based load measurement system was constructed using 15 strain gauges attached to selected measurement spots on the transplanting device. Field tests were conducted at 4 levels of engine speed and 12 levels of planting distance. Measured strain data were converted into stress values to analyse the static safety factor and fatigue life of the transplanting device. The results showed that the stress acting on the transplanting device tended to increase with the increase in the engine speed or the decrease in the planting distance. The static safety factors of the transplanting device under various working conditions were greater than 1.0 for all the measurement spots. The minimum fatigue life was 66,416 h at the upper side of the hopper which is sufficient lifetime, considering 25.5 h of annual usage time in Korea.
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38,320 members
Setyobudi Eko
  • Department of Fishery
Hardyanto Soebono
  • Department of Dermatology and Venerology
Endang Baliarti
  • Department of Animal Production
Widodo Hadisaputro
  • Graduate School of Biotechnology; Department of Animal Products Technology
Andri Prima Nugroho
  • Department of Agricultual and Biosystems Engineering
PO BOX 21 Bulaksumur, 55281, Yogyakarta, DIY, Indonesia
Head of institution
Prof. Ir. Panut Mulyono, M.Eng., D.Eng.