Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely used methodology for quantifying the environmental impacts of products, including the carbon footprint. However, conducting LCA studies for complex systems, such as the palm oil industry in Indonesia, can be challenging due to limited data availability. This study proposes a novel approach called the Anonymization Through Data Synthesis (ADS-GAN) based on a deep learning approach to augment carbon footprint data for LCA assessments of palm oil products in Indonesia. This approach addresses the data size limitation and enhances the comprehensiveness of carbon footprint assessments. An original dataset comprising information on various palm oil life cycle stages, including plantation operations, milling, refining, transportation, and waste management. The number of original data is 195 obtained from the Sustainable Production Systems and Life Assessment Research Centre of Indonesia's National Innovation Research Agency (BRIN). To measure the performance of prediction accuracy, this study used regression models: Random Forest Regressor (RFR), Gradient Boosting Regressor (GBR), and Adaptive Boosting Regressor (ABR). The best-augmented data size is 1000 data. In addition, the best algorithm is the Random Forest Regressor, resulting in the MAE, MSE, and MSLE values are 0.0031, 6.127072889081567e-05, and 5.838479552074619e-05 respectively. The proposed ADS-GAN offers a valuable tool for LCA practitioners and decision-makers in the palm oil industry to conduct more accurate and comprehensive carbon footprint assessments. By augmenting the dataset, this technique enables a better understanding of the environmental impacts of palm oil products, facilitating informed decision-making and the development of sustainable practices.
Background Regulatory sandboxes offer an alternative solution to address regulatory challenges in adopting disruptive technologies. Although regulatory sandboxes have been widely implemented in the financial sector across more than 50 countries, their application to the health sector remains limited. Objective This study aims to explore stakeholders’ perspectives on introducing a regulatory sandbox into the Indonesian health system using e-malaria as a use case. Methods Using a participatory action research approach, this study conducted qualitative research, including desk reviews, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews with stakeholders. This study sought to understand stakeholders’ concerns and interests regarding the regulatory sandbox and to collaboratively develop a regulatory sandbox model to support the malaria program. Results The study revealed that most stakeholders had limited awareness of the regulatory sandbox concept. Concerns have been raised regarding the time required to establish regulations, knowledge gaps among stakeholders, data protection issues, and limited digital infrastructure in malaria endemic areas. Existing regulations have been found to be inadequate to accommodate disruptive healthtech for malaria. Nevertheless, through a collaborative process, stakeholders successfully developed a regulatory sandbox model specifically for e-malaria, with the crucial support of the Ministry of Health. Conclusions The regulatory sandbox holds the potential for adoption in the Indonesian health system to address the limited legal framework and to facilitate the rapid and safe adoption of disruptive healthtech in support of the malaria elimination program. Through stakeholder involvement, guidelines for implementing the regulatory sandbox were developed and innovators were successfully invited to participate in the first-ever trial of a health regulatory sandbox for e-malaria in Indonesia. Future studies should provide further insights into the challenges encountered during the e-malaria regulatory sandbox pilot study, offering a detailed account of the implementation process.
Objective One of the adverse effects of in-office bleaching is tooth hypersensitivity, which could be neutralized with a desensitizing agent. In-office bleaching and the application of desensitizing agents will affect the morphology of the enamel surface. These morphological changes have potential effects on the shear bond strength (SBS) and bonding of orthodontic brackets. This study analyzed the effects of fluoride and nonfluoride desensitizing agents after in-office bleaching on the SBS of metal brackets with resin composite cementation. Materials and Methods Twenty-seven postextraction premolars (n = 27) were bleached with 37% hydrogen peroxide and then divided into three groups: control group (group 1), fluoride-based desensitizing agent (group 2), and nonfluoride-based desensitizing agent (group 3). After treatment, the brackets were bonded using Transbond, and then the SBS test was performed using a universal testing machine. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was analyzed after the SBS test, whereas enamel morphological changes were observed under a scanning electron microscope. After this assessment, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was conducted to determine calcium and phosphorus elements in the enamel surface after treatments. SBS data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey test, whereas ARI scores were subjected to the Kruskal–Wallis test and the Mann–Whitney test with a significance level of 5%. Results The SBS increased significantly in group 2 compared with groups 1 and 3 (p < 0.05). In group 2, an ARI of 2 (55.56%) was frequent, whereas in group 3, an ARI of 3 (55.56%) appeared most frequently. Conclusion The application of the desensitizing agent fluoride after in-office bleaching increased the SBS and more adhesive remains on the tooth surface compared with that when nonfluoride desensitizing agents were applied on metal brackets with composite resin cementation.
Correction for ‘Functionalized cellulose nanofibrils in carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite nanorod-based scaffold from long-spined sea urchin ( Diadema setosum ) shells reinforced with polyvinyl alcohol for alveolar bone tissue engineering’ by Muhammad Amir Jamilludin et al. , RSC Adv. , 2023, 13 , 32444–32456, https://doi.org/10.1039/D3RA06165E.
Accidents and disasters can potentially affect most elementary school students. Accordingly, comprehensive school safety is important to ensure children’s safety. This study aimed to identify the key indicators of the minimum standards for Disaster Preparedness and Safety School programs as a conceptual framework of comprehensive school safety in Indonesian elementary schools. This exploratory study was conducted with nine key informants using a qualitative descriptive approach. The data from semi-structured interviews with experts in disaster risk reduction were analyzed using content analysis. This study identified 23 key indicators, namely: commitment, policy and regulation, planning, budgeting, risk assessment, teamwork, coordination, standard operating procedure, technical guideline, monitoring and evaluation, resource mobilization, infrastructures, information system, assembly points, safe zones, sister schools, curriculum integration, integration to learning activities, simulation training programs, trained teachers, dissemination of information, student cadres, and safety competition. There were nine indicators identified as school disaster management pillars, five indicators for safe school facilities, and nine indicators for risk reduction education.
This study examines the collaboration between non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the government in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, to shed light on their dynamics and fill the existing gaps in the literature. Focusing on financial dependence, legitimization, and other motivating factors, this study explores the motivations behind NGO-government collaboration and their practical implications. The utilization of a two-stage purposive sampling method and conducting interviews with executive directors allowed for a rich and nuanced understanding of the motivations , challenges, and dynamics of NGO-government collaboration in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It also uncovers factors such as access to resources, networks, advocacy efforts, and grants and supports that shape collaborative relationships. These findings contribute to the understanding of the relationship between NGOs and the government and provide insights for policymakers and practitioners to foster effective and sustainable partnerships. This study contributes to the existing literature on NGO-government collaboration and offers valuable implications for future research and policy considerations.
An afford to enhance TiO2 activity under visible light as well as to utilize the iron rusty waste, has been conducted by doping Fe from the waste into TiO2. The doping was performed by sol-gel method of titania tetra isopropoxide with Fe3+ ions dissolved from the iron rust waste. In the doping, the concentration of Fe3+ was varied giving various mole ratios of TiO2:Fe. The doped TiO2 photocatalysts were characterized using FTIR, XRD, SRUV, and SEM-EDX instruments. The photocatalytic activity of the doped TiO2 was evaluated by photodegradation of Congo red under visible light. The effect of some parameters that govern the photodegradation process such as the amount of Fe dopant, reaction time, photocatalyst mass, solution pH, and initial concentration of dye was also studied. The characterization results reveal that Fe3+ ions from the rusty waste have been doped into TiO2 which can remarkably narrow the band gap energy (Eg), shifting into the visible zone. In accordance, the activity of TiO2 under visible light in the dye photodegradation is considerably enhanced. The Eg decreasing and actively improving the doped TiO2 are controlled by the amount of Fe dopant, and the most effective Eg decreasing is shown by TiO2–Fe (1:0.8), but the highest activity is observed for TiO2–Fe (1:0.4). It is also found that the highest photodegradation of Congo red 5 mg/L in 50 mL of the solution over TiO2–Fe (1:0.4) under visible light, that is about 99%, can be reached by applying 60 mg of the photocatalyst mass, in 60 min, and solution pH 5. It is implied that the rusty waste can be utilized to prepare the visible responsive photocatalyst that can be used for preventing dye pollution.
Numerous concerns, including environmental impact and public health issues, drive the urgent need to replace nonrenewable fossil fuels with renewable energy sources, with biomass emerging as a viable alternative globally. In this comprehensive review, the urgent need to transition from nonrenewable fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is addressed, focusing on biomass as a global alternative. It examines the role of zirconium-based catalysts in converting biomass into biofuels and hydrogen. Various biomass extraction methods based on the thermochemical processes (pyrolysis, gasification, hydrothermal liquefaction, hydrocracking, and steam reforming) are explored, including their merits and limitations. Additionally, the properties of zirconium-based catalysts and their catalytic efficiency in biomass conversion are assessed, highlighting the factors influencing their performance. In this literature review, the promising potential of zirconium-based catalysts in enhancing the sustainability and efficiency of global biofuel production from biomass is revealed. It underscores the critical role of biomass as a renewable energy source and highlights the significance of zirconium-based catalysts in advancing sustainable biofuel production. It offers insights into addressing environmental concerns, promoting public health, and supporting the global transition toward renewable energy solutions.
Objective Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive fibro-obliterative disease of the biliary tract, which results in end-stage liver disease. However, liver fibrosis progression may continue even after Kasai surgery. Recent evidence showed that collagen plays a pivotal role in the progression of liver fibrosis in BA. However, most studies were conducted in developed countries. We investigated the expressions of the collagen gene cluster ( COL6A1, COL6A2, COL6A3 , and COL1A1 ) in BA patients in Indonesia. Results There was a significant down-regulated expression of COL6A1 (ΔC T 9.06 ± 2.64 vs. 5.42 ± 2.41; p = 0.0009), COL6A2 (ΔC T 8.25 ± 2.07 vs. 5.77 ± 3.51; p = 0.02), COL6A3 (ΔC T 11.2 ± 6.08 vs. 6.78 ± 3.51; p = 0.024), and COL1A1 (ΔC T 3.26 ± 1.71 vs. 0.19 ± 2.76; p = 0.0015) in BA patients compared to controls. Interestingly, the collagen gene cluster expressions were significantly associated with the presence of cirrhosis ( p = 0.0085, 0.04, and 0.0283 for COL6A1, COL6A2 , and COL6A3 , respectively). In conclusion, our study shows the changes in the collagen gene cluster, particularly collagen type I and VI, expressions in patients with BA in a particular developing country. Our findings suggest the role of these collagen gene clusters in the liver fibrogenesis of BA.
Purpose To present a modified technique of 4-point scleral fixation using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) 2 eyelets intraocular lens (IOL) with 8-0 polypropylene sutures. Methods A 270-degree conjunctival peritomy is done, and 4 sclerotomies (2 nasal and 2 temporal) are created. Lamellar scleral or clear corneal incision is made at superior site (6 mm wide for sclera or 5.5–6 mm for corneal). A short segment of 8-0 polypropylene is inserted into each eyelet, each thread of the suture is externalized through the sclerotomy site, and the lens is inserted. The suture is tightened evenly, and the knot is rotated and internalized. Scleral incision and conjunctival peritomy are sutured with 8-0 vicryl. Results We have performed this technique in 6 patients with excellent visual outcomes and no reported complications over 1 year of follow-up. This technique has practical advantages including rigid and stable PMMA IOL, high tensile, and slim 8-0 polypropylene suture which is easily internalized and less irritated, and affordable and widely available overall consumables. Conclusion We present a modified 4-point scleral fixation technique for posterior chamber IOL placement using PMMA IOL with 2 eyelets and 8-0 polypropylene as compared to previous studies that used foldable IOL with 4 eyelets and 10-0 polypropylene or Gore-Tex sutures. This procedure has moderate technical complexity, comparable to previously reported techniques with good overall clinical outcomes and several practical advantages, particularly related to the affordability and availability of the consumables.
Reductions in the supply of labor and wages occur to people with disabilities. Disability conditions cause a decline in productivity so that the probability of being a labor is small, risk of unemployment and loss of income. The high prevalence of disabilities in Indonesia causes inequality of labor participation and wages for disabilities in Indonesia based on the type of disabilities. The data used is Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) waves 4 and 5 by pooled cross-section. The analysis methods are logit and tobit models. The results showed that communicative disabilities have a higher chance of labor participation and wages. Factors of the degree of severity, age, male, head of household, education, urban, chronic disease, ownership of insurance, and ownership of assets also affect labor participation and wages for disabilities. The labor activation program for disabilities is a succession and initiative as welfare reform, poverty alleviation and an indicator of inclusive development.
This research presents autoethnography study of a wheelchair-users named Zo during her journey in Bali, Indonesia. Her documentations and field notes are analyzed in four main themes: information accessibility, public facilities accessibility, destinations accessibility as well as cultural and social issues. This research provides personal deeply personal view on her experience, her way to adapt with accessibility issues, as well as multiple accessibility issues that needs to be improved to ensure that all travelers are able to enjoy Bali.
Splenomegaly frequently occurs in patients with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) or P. vivax (Pv) malarial anemia, but mechanisms underlying this co‐occurrence are unclear. In malaria‐endemic Papua, Indonesia, we prospectively analyzed red blood cell (RBC) concentrations in the spleen and spleen‐mimetic retention in 37 subjects splenectomized for trauma or hyperreactive splenomegaly, most of whom were infected with Plasmodium. Splenomegaly (median 357 g [range: 80–1918 g]) was correlated positively with the proportion of red‐pulp on histological sections (median 88.1% [range: 74%–99.4%]; r = .59, p = .0003) and correlated negatively with the proportion of white‐pulp (median 8.3% [range: 0.4%–22.9%]; r = −.50, p = .002). The number of RBC per microscopic field (>95% uninfected) was correlated positively with spleen weight in both Pf‐infected (r = .73; p = .017) and Pv‐infected spleens (r = .94; p = .006). The median estimated proportion of total‐body RBCs retained in Pf‐infected spleens was 8.2% (range: 1.0%–33.6%), significantly higher than in Pv‐infected (2.6% [range: 0.6%–23.8%]; p = .015) and PCR‐negative subjects (2.5% [range: 1.0%–3.3%]; p = .006). Retained RBCs accounted for over half of circulating RBC loss seen in Pf infections. The proportion of total‐body RBC retained in Pf‐ and Pv‐infected spleens correlated negatively with hemoglobin concentrations (r = −.56, p = .0003), hematocrit (r = −.58, p = .0002), and circulating RBC counts (r = −.56, p = .0003). Splenic CD71‐positive reticulocyte concentrations correlated with spleen weight in Pf (r = 1.0; p = .003). Retention rates of peripheral and splenic RBCs were correlated negatively with circulating RBC counts (r = −.69, p = .07 and r = −.83, p = .008, respectively). In conclusion, retention of mostly uninfected RBC in the spleen, leading to marked congestion of the red‐pulp, was associated with splenomegaly and is the major mechanism of anemia in subjects infected with Plasmodium, particularly Pf.
Sponges (Porifera) harbor a diversity of microorganisms that contribute largely to the production a vast array of bioactive compounds. The microorganisms associated with sponge have an important impact on the chemical diversity of the natural products. Herein, our study focuses on an Aaptos suberitoides commonly found in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to investigate the profile of prokaryotic community and the presence of aaptamine metabolites in sponge Aaptos suberitoides. Sponges were collected from two site locations (Liberty Wreck and Drop Off) in Tulamben, Bali. The sponges were identified by barcoding DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. The profile of prokaryotic composition was investigated by amplifying the 16S rRNA gene using primers 515f and 806r to target the V4 region. The metabolites were analyzed using LC-MS, and dereplication was done to identify the aaptamines and its derivates. The barcoding DNA of the sponges confirmed the identity of samples as Aaptos suberitoides. The prokaryotic communities of samples A. suberitoides were enriched and dominated by taxa Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria. The chemical analysis showed that all sponges produce aaptamine and isoaaptamine except A. suberitoides S2421 produce analog of aaptamines. This is the first report on the profile of prokaryotic community and the aaptamine of tropical marine sponges, A. suberitoides, from Tulamben, Bali.
This study examines the budgetary response to the COVID-19 pandemic by Indonesia’s local governments. It specifically looks at the role of key local government players in executing the Covid-related budgeting instructions from central government, a perspective that has not been adequately addressed by previous studies. A qualitative case study approach was employed, drawing on practice theory. The qualitative data were collected through interviews via video conferences, WhatsApp chats, and documentary analysis. Using practice theory as the framework, this paper provides an in-depth analysis of how budgeting practitioners responded to the pandemic budget policy, conditioned by the rules, practical understanding, and teleoaffective structure that oriented them, and shedding new light on budgetary responses to COVID-19. The findings show that the budget instructions from central government to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic (what was intended) did not match the responses of the key budgeting actors at the local government level (what actually happened). Instead, the budgeting actors tended to prioritise doing their normal everyday bureaucratic activities, rather than implementing central government’s instructions to combat the pandemic.
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