Following an embedded sequential explanatory mixed-method research design in which quantitative and qualitative data were merged, this paper examines teachers' experiences of stress and job satisfaction and their relation to the DI practice. The quantitative study uses data from the National Educational Panel Study in Germany (N = 209 teachers), while the qualitative study analyses interview responses of 24 secondary school teachers. Findings reveal that teachers experience positive effects from implementing DI, but also perceive the practice as slightly stressful. Additionally, the paper discusses teachers’ DI training needs and the implications of the results, and calls for further research. Open Access link: https://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0742051X22003377
The number line estimation task is an often-used measure of numerical magnitude understanding. The task also correlates substantially with broader measures of mathematical achievement. This raises the question of whether the task would be a useful component of mathematical achievement tests and instruments to diagnose dyscalculia or mathematical giftedness and whether a stand-alone version of the task can serve as a short screener for mathematical achievement. Previous studies on the relation between number line estimation accuracy and broader mathematical achievement were limited in that they used relatively small nonrepresentative samples and usually did not account for potentially confounding variables. To close this research gap, we report findings from a population-level study with nearly all Luxembourgish ninth-graders (N = 6484). We used multilevel regressions to test how a standardized mathematical achievement test relates to the accuracy in number line estimation on bounded number lines with whole numbers and fractions. We also investigated how these relations were moderated by classroom characteristics, person characteristics, and trial characteristics. Mathematical achievement and number line estimation accuracy were associated even after controlling for potentially confounding variables. Subpopulations of students showed meaningful differences in estimation accuracy, which can serve as benchmarks in future studies. Compared with the number line estimation task with whole numbers, the number line estimation task with fractions was more strongly related to mathematical achievement in students across the entire mathematical achievement spectrum. These results show that the number line estimation task is a valid and useful tool for diagnosing and monitoring mathematical achievement.
Portable visible to near-infrared (VNIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) soil spectroscopy holds great potential to support field applications in soil science and management by complementing conventional soil analytical methods. Under field conditions, however, soil moisture can critically affect the quality of reflectance measurements. In this study, we examined the effects of soil moisture on VNIR and MIR soil spectra and how its magnitude and variation impact the accuracy and robustness of predictive spectral models. We carried out a systematic re-wetting experiment on two soil datasets of different scale and origin that were measured at four gravimetric moisture levels (air-dried, 5 %, 10 %, 15 %) with portable VNIR and MIR instruments. The spectral data of each moisture class, as well as randomized combinations of different moisture contents, were then used to calibrate VNIR, MIR and combined PLSR models to estimate soil organic carbon (SOC) and clay content, where combined models included spectra concatenation (VNMIR) and model output average (MOA). The overall shape of MIR spectra was more significantly distorted by soil moisture than VNIR spectra, while the general impact of soil water content in both spectral domains was texture-dependent. In terms of predictive accuracy, MIR models were generally superior for air-dried sample material, while VNIR models fared better for uniformly moist samples. With increasing soil moisture variability, comparative estimation accuracies between individual VNIR and MIR models were dependent on the underlying dataset. VNMIR and MOA models proved beneficial and yielded the most accurate and robust predictions for SOC and clay content when soil moisture was variable, irrespective of the considered dataset (regional dataset: RMSESOC = 0.22–0.27 %, RMSECLAY = 2.67–3.14 %; field dataset: RMSESOC = 0.09–0.11 %, RMSECLAY = 0.87–1.15 %). Predictive mechanisms, as evaluated by variable importance in the projection (VIP) of PLSR models, changed substantially with variation in soil water content, especially in the MIR, where important absorption bands for SOC and clay minerals could be heavily attenuated or completely masked. Our study highlights the advantages of employing both VNIR and MIR instruments for spectral data collection on soils in field condition and the potential of integrating VNIR and MIR spectra collected at different soil moisture levels into soil spectral libraries.
Die Geschichte der Psychotherapie begann gegen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts und verlief seither eher diskontinuierlich. Es entstanden zahlreiche Verfahren bzw. Therapieschulen (einige Zählungen gehen von weit über 100 aus) mit eigenen psychopathologischen Konzepten, psychologischen Veränderungsmodellen und Fachorganisationen . Die großen Therapieschulen, welche aus dieser Entwicklung hervorgegangen sind, trugen einerseits zur Etablierung des Feldes im Gesundheitssystem sowie zu Fortschritten in der Versorgung von PatientInnen bei [2, 3]. Dennoch besteht bisher in keiner der Therapieschulen ein wissenschaftlich fundiertes und klar definiertes kausales Netz zwischen Veränderungsmechanismen und Behandlungsergebnissen [4, 5]. Hinderlich ist hierbei auch ein Mangel an konkreter, nicht nur sprachlicher sondern auch theoretischer, Abgrenzung und Operationalisierung zentraler therapeutischer Konstrukte .
Mechanisms related to ecological or sexual selection have favoured sympatric speciation events in African and Central American lake cichlids. Allopatric divergence is the predominant speciation process observed in Amazonia, although, to the best of our knowledge, no study to date has attempted to determine whether speciation processes could exist under sympatric conditions in Amazonian cichlids. The Apistogramma agassizii species complex is an excellent model for investigating the existence of sympatric divergence events in the Amazon, as it shares many common life history characteristics with African Haplochromine cichlids in which sympatric speciation mechanisms are well documented. The genetic structure of A. agassizii was analysed by genotyping 889 individuals with ten microsatellite loci, collected from 26 sites distributed among small streams in 11 micro-basins in a very small portion of the Peruvian Amazon. It revealed 22 genetic populations identified according to panmictic criteria (FIS estimator) and strongly differentiated: FST estimator (0.034 to 0.356). Such a strong genetic structuring on such small geographical areas has never been demonstrated before in an Amazonian fish. Several of these populations may have diverged sympatrically and repeatedly in small stream networks. The results are discussed with respect to divergence processes, including sympatric speciation, which may be associated with the observed genetic structure.
In this paper, the relation between the signs of recent returns (an up-down pattern) and the net trading of individual investors is studied. Using our comprehensive dataset from the Taiwan Stock Exchange, we find that following positive days, individual investors sell more stocks than they buy — a negative buy-sell imbalance — while following negative days, this imbalance is positive. The signs of more recent returns have stronger impacts on imbalance. The subsequent performance of this trading behavior is poor, indicating that individual investors in Taiwan make suboptimal decisions, and they are unlikely to make information-based trades. Thus, the liquidity provision explanation in the literature is not applicable to our sample.
We study the effects of the Dominican Republic–Central America–United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), signed in 2004, on the trade flows of its member states. Relying on the structural gravity model of trade framework, we find evidence of both increases and decreases in members’ bilateral trade, but also of significant differences in these effects depending on the direction of trade and the trading members. Using a counterfactual analysis, we are also able to measure the general equilibrium effects of CAFTA-DR, finding that it has, in general, increased both total exports and income levels for El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. However, we also find evidence of sizable trade diversion and welfare losses for Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic.
With the rapid spread of the Coronavirus (COVID-19), schools around the world came to a shutdown. This resulted in an abrupt transition from face-to-face instruction to emergency remote teaching (ERT), resulting in numerous challenges that have greatly affected teachers. Even though research has identified key factors for teachers to effectively implement ERT in the context of the COVID-19 school shutdown, there is still little research on the factors (and their interrelations) that account for the differences between teachers’ experiences. Following a theoretical model of technology readiness, this study aimed to investigate teacher profiles based on domains of technology acceptance, technology competence and technology control. In addition, this study seeks to explore whether teachers’ emotional state during ERT varies between the teacher technology readiness profiles. A total of 124 teachers participated voluntarily in an online survey stemming from the research project “Students-Parents-Teachers in Homeschooling” in Germany. Results from a two-step cluster analysis revealed three distinct teacher technology readiness profiles. Moreover, the findings also revealed gender differences between the three technology readiness profiles. Lastly, an analysis of variance indicated that teachers’ positive emotional state during ERT varied significantly across the clusters. Implications of the results for teacher education and teacher professional development, as well as further lines of research are discussed.
The cognitive system readily detects and corrects erroneous actions by establishing episodic bindings between representations of the acted upon stimuli and the intended correct response. If these stimuli are encountered again, they trigger the retrieval of the correct response. Thus, binding and retrieval efficiently pave the way for future success. The current study set out to define the role of the erroneous response itself and explicit feedback for the error during these processes of goal-based binding and retrieval. Two experiments showed robust and similar binding and retrieval effects with and without feedback and pointed towards sustained activation of the unbound, erroneous response. The third experiment confirmed that the erroneous response is more readily available than a neutral alternative. Together, the results demonstrate that episodic binding biases future actions toward success, guided primarily through internal feedback processes, while the erroneous response still leaves detectable traces in human action control.
In northwestern North America, montane meadows fed by vernal ground‐flow seepage occur scattered throughout an otherwise forested landscape on shallow soils over bedrock. Although their significance for biodiversity has been known, they have never been subject to systematic scientific research and thus, are not included in regional or national vegetation classification schemes. We provide the first vegetation survey of bedrock meadows and compare them to other major non‐forest vegetation types in the region. Northwestern North America (United States, Canada) We surveyed 110 plots of bedrock meadow vegetation in Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia and compared them with data from 1052 plots from six studies of other open vegetation in the region: prairie and foothill grasslands, maritime mountain, alpine, and timberline meadows. We used cluster analysis to identify groups based on vascular plant composition, related abiotic and structural characteristics to clusters using non‐metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and compared proportions of plant growth forms and life spans. Cluster analysis identified five groups, with bedrock meadows forming a distinct community. According to the NMDS, bedrock meadows had a high cover of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens and a low cover of litter. Their climate was intermediate between maritime mountain and interior timberline meadows. A distinct functional feature of bedrock meadows was their high proportions of annual plants (therophytes) and plants regenerating from bulbs and corms (geophytes) – a functional composition they shared with maritime mountain meadows. Bedrock meadows have distinct floristic, functional, and environmental features, are important hotspots for biodiversity, and host several rare plant species. They are an important habitat for conservation and environmental impact assessment and should be incorporated into regional and national classification schemes. Future research priority should be given to understanding their spatial extent, ecological functioning, and drivers of non‐vascular and vascular species richness.
There is increasing debate about whether worktime and workplace autonomy lead to employees coping with high workloads at the expense of their private lives, thereby willingly endangering themselves. This article also discusses the competencies required to balance job and home demands. We tested a moderated indirect effect model that assumes that both worktime and workplace autonomy amplify and self-leadership weakens the indirect relationship between work overload and emotional exhaustion via (job-to-home) spillover. The results of an online survey with 1,000 employees only supported the moderating role of worktime and workplace autonomy. Work autonomy amplified the indirect positive relationship between work overload and emotional exhaustion via spillover. Explorative analyses supported these findings only for worktime autonomy and indicated that self-leadership buffered the positive indirect association between qualitative – but not between quantitative – work overload and emotional exhaustion via spillover. These results call for differential approaches to prevent spillover and emotional exhaustion.
Self-concept related to the use of information and communication technology (ICT-SC) is reflected in how people feel and behave when confronted with digital technologies. Although evidence from variable-centered analyses suggests a hierarchical and multidimensional structure of ICT-SC in heterogeneous populations, it is not yet known whether different profiles of general ICT-SC and specific ICT-SC domains (communicate, process and store, generate content, safe application, solve problems) exist. This study aims to extend previous research using person-centered analyses and to examine whether different profiles of ICT-SC can be identified in a heterogeneous adult population (18–69 years) from Germany and how these profiles relate to gender. Results of a latent profile analysis (German quota sample, N = 369) indicate a reliable three-profile solution. Profile I (n = 48) is characterised by rather low ICT-SC with relative profile strengths in the verbal-interactive domains (communicate, process and store). Profile II (n = 149) is characterised by low to average ICT-SC across ICT-SC domains. Profile III (n = 172) is characterised by high ICT-SC with profile strengths in the technical-analytical domains (safe application, solve problems). Gender did not correlate significantly with profile membership. We discuss the practical implications of the results for ICT-SC interventions and suggest directions for future research.
Soils interact in many ways with metal ions thereby modifying their mobility, phase distribution, plant availability, speciation, and so on. The most prominent of such interactions is sorption. In this study, we investigated the sorption of Pb, Cd, and Cu in five natural soils of Nigerian origin. A relatively sparsely used method of modelling soil-metal ion adsorption, i.e. adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), was applied comparatively with multiple linear regression (MLR) models. The isotherms were well described by Freundlich and Langmuir equations ( R ² ≥ 0.95) and the kinetics by nonlinear two-stage kinetic model, TSKM ( R ² ≥ 0.81). Based on the values delivered by the Langmuir equation, the maximum adsorption capacities ( Q m *) were found to be in the ranges 10,000–20,000, 12,500–50,000, and 4929–35,037 µmol kg ⁻¹ for Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively. The study revealed significant correlations between Q m * and routinely determined soil parameters such as soil organic carbon ( C org ), cation exchange capacity (CEC), amorphous Fe and Mn oxides, and percentage clay content. These soil parameters, combined with operational variables (i.e. solution/soil pH, initial metal concentration ( C o ), and temperature), were used as input vectors in ANFIS and MLR models to predict the adsorption capacities ( Q e ) of the soil-metal ion systems. A total of 255 different ANFIS and 255 different MLR architectures/models were developed and compared based on three performance metrics: MAE (mean absolute error), RMSE (root mean square errors), and R ² (coefficient of determination). The best ANFIS returned MAE test 0.134, RMSE test 0.164, and R ² test 0.76, while the best MLR returned MAE test 0.158, RMSE test 0.199, and R ² test 0.66, indicating the predictive advantage of ANFIS over MLR. Thus, ANFIS can fairly accurately predict the adsorption capacity and/or distribution coefficient of a soil-metal ion system a priori. Nevertheless, more investigation is required to further confirm the robustness/generalisation of the proposed ANFIS.
Global wildfire activities are expected to increase substantially in the near future. Existing techniques for spaceborne burn severity estimation often rely on bi-temporal spectral indices, which are related to in-situ burn severity data. However, due to cloud coverage and limited revisit frequency, in combination with the date of field surveys, it is a challenge to find suitable and phenologically comparable pre- and -post-fire images. To overcome these issues and to improve the accuracy of burn severity estimations by incorporating ecologically relevant spectral information, we investigated the capability of using Land Surface Phenology (LSP) metrics and incorporating red edge spectral information. We examined the well-researched Jasper fire (September 2000, Black Hills, USA) with a dense time series of Landsat-5 and -7 data. We generated synthesized red edge spectral bands through a recently proposed spectral harmonization technique and computed several bi-temporal vegetation indices. Additionally, we derived various bi-annual LSP metrics from the same indices. We used linear regression between composite burn index (CBI) ground truth data and the various indices to measure the performance of each approach, and intercompared estimated burn severity maps. We found added value of both incorporating red edge spectral information into bi-temporal indices and into LSP metrics. Among the indices, NDVI and NDVIre1n performed best, with the latter being the overall winner. This was observed for both the bi-temporal indices and the bi-annual LSP metrics, wherein best estimation performance was found with Value of Peak of Season and Value of Green Mean metrics. Although the correlation between CBI point measurements and bi-temporal index data is similar to the LSP approach, the LSP-based burn severity maps show more robustness with regard to clouds and cloud shadows, altitude gradients and pre-processing uncertainty. The results are not only relevant for sensors with native red edge bands like Sentinel-2 but also suggest that back-casting the red edge spectral information to the Landsat archive combined with an LSP based estimation approach may improve existing burn severity maps, especially in more frequently clouded regions.
European policy recommends that biomass production occur on marginal land, such as poorly draining Stagnosols. Compared to annual cropping, perennial crops may better mitigate N2O emissions at such sites, through more complete denitrification. To test that hypothesis, we compared N2 and N2O fluxes from the soils of a perennial crop (cup plant, Silphium perfoliatum L.) and an annual crop (silage maize, Zea mays L.). Intact soil columns (35 cm height, 14.4 cm diameter) were incubated for 37 days. The soils were fertilized with 60 or 120 kg N ha⁻¹ and exposed to successive phases of waterlogging: free drainage, waterlogging of 1/3-, and waterlogging of 2/3- of the column. Source-specific N2O and N2 fluxes were measured using the ¹⁵ N gas flux method. Denitrification was higher in cup plant than maize soil and total N losses from denitrification were dominated by emissions from the third phase. Cup plant soil emitted 33.6 ± 78.1 mg N m⁻² and 95.8 ± 64.4 mg N m⁻² more N2O than maize soil in the low and high N treatments, respectively. The product ratio of denitrification (N2Oi = N2O/(N2 + N2O)) increased with waterlogging in maize soil, while remaining stable in cup plant soil. Emissions from the top 10 cm dominated the N2Oi rather than N2 fluxes from the saturated soil. This study did not show N2O mitigation in cup plant soil, instead highlighting the complexity of plant-soil effects on denitrification. We clearly showed that the application of a general N2Oi for agricultural soils across annual and perennial cropping is not recommended.
When facing particular combinations of stimuli and responses, people create temporary event-files integrating the corresponding stimulus and response features. Subsequent repetition of one or more of these features retrieves the entire event-file, which impairs performance if not all features are repeated (partial-repetition costs). In the literature, different decay functions have been reported presumably dependent on the type of feature that is repeated (e.g. target vs. distractor features). Here, we use a variant of the S1R1-S2R2 and distractor-response binding task and analyze for the first time target-based and distractor-based event-file decay functions within the same task and sample. While we found evidence for decay functions and also stronger retrieval due to target than distractor repetitions, slopes of the decay functions were comparable suggesting that the decay process itself is equal irrespective of the type of stimulus feature that is repeated. Our study thereby confirms overarching approaches that summarize paradigm specific findings with the same set of core processes.
In interprofessional emergency response teams, firefighters, police, and paramedics must communicate efficiently (i.e., request the correct expert) to avoid life-threatening consequences. However, this communication is sometimes inefficient, for example, when a wrong expert is requested due to the lack of meta-knowledge. Team research has shown that meta-knowledge of “who knows what” improves team communication, so that members correctly request each other according to their expertise. Advances in technology, such as software agents holding meta-knowledge, can be used to improve team communication. In this paper, we analyze the effects of meta-knowledge on expert seeking, mistakes in requesting experts, and (adaptive) team performance by comparing manual and automated agent-based team communication. Using a control-center simulation, 360 students in 120 three-person teams had the interdependent task of handling emergencies in three phases. We manipulated meta-knowledge in advance, with 61 teams learning and 59 teams not learning other team members’ expertise. Furthermore, in phases 1 and 3, team members had to communicate manually. In phase 2, communication was automated by a software agent taking over expert requesting. In line with our hypotheses, results showed that software agents can compensate the lack of meta-knowledge, so that there were no performance differences between teams with and without meta-knowledge with automated team communication. Our findings provide implications for research and practice that established team constructs should also be considered in human-automation teams.
Formulations of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics such as moxidectin are regularly administered to sheep to combat parasites. A disadvantage of these pharmaceuticals are their side effects on non-target organisms when entering the environment. Little is known about anthelmintic effects on plant reproduction and whether the effects depend on environmental factors. For ecological and methodological reasons, we aimed at testing whether temperature affects the efficacy of a common moxidectin-based formulation on seed germination. We carried out a germination experiment including three typical species of temperate European grasslands ( Centaurea jacea , Galium mollugo , Plantago lanceolata ). We applied three temperature regimes (15/5, 20/10, 30/20°C), and a four-level dilution series (1:100–1:800) of formulated moxidectin (i.e., Cydectin oral drench). These solutions represent seed-anthelmintic contacts in the digestive tract of sheep shortly after deworming. In addition, a control was carried out with purified water only. We regularly counted emerging seedlings and calculated final germination percentage, mean germination time and synchrony of germination. Formulated moxidectin significantly reduced percentage, speed and synchrony of germination. A 1:100 dilution of the formulation reduced germination percentage by a quarter and increased mean germination time by six days compared to the control. Temperature moderated effects of the anthelmintic drug on germination in all response variables and all species, but in different patterns and magnitudes (significant anthelmintic x temperature x species interactions). In all response variables, the two more extreme temperature regimes (15/5, 30/20°C) led to the strongest effects of formulated moxidectin. With respect to germination percentage, G . mollugo was more sensitive to formulated moxidectin at the warmest temperature regime, whereas P . lanceolata showed the highest sensitivity at the coldest regime. This study shows that it is important to consider temperature dependencies of the effects of pharmaceuticals on seed germination when conducting standardised germination experiments.
Schumpeterian entrepreneurs are considered agents of innovation and technology transfer. However, to fulfill this role, they need entrepreneurial finance. From the perspective of digital identity, we examine the relationship between a Schumpeterian digital identity and venture capital (VC) funding. Because the VC industry celebrates innovative and visionary entrepreneurship, we posit that a founder’s digital identity as a Schumpeterian-type entrepreneur influences the venture’s chances of receiving VC funding. A quantitative analysis of the language used by 3,313 founders in a large sample of Twitter messages, however, provides a mixed picture. While some dimensions of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship have a positive relationship with the acquisition of resources from VC firms (entrepreneurial vision and optimism), other dimensions seem to have no (uncertainty tolerance and rationality) or even a decreasing (achievement motivation) effect. The negative relationships observed can be explained by the particularities of the VC business model, which does not align with Schumpeterian entrepreneurship in all respects. Our study contributes to research on Schumpeterian entrepreneurship, the financing of technology transfer, and the link between entrepreneurial digital identity and entrepreneurial finance. From a practical perspective, the results of our study demonstrate the limits of VC with regard to the financing of technology transfer and highlight the need for public funding through governmental VC or agencies for (disruptive) innovation.
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