Das Handbuch Organisationssoziologie liefert einen umfassenden Überblick über die Entwicklung, den Stand und die Zukunft der Organisationssoziologie als wissenschaftliche Disziplin. Dabei geht es sowohl um die systematische Aufnahme relevanter Theoriestränge, Methoden und Konzepte als auch um die Wechselbeziehungen, Überschneidungen und Komplementaritäten zu Nachbardisziplinen, die in einem Dialog aufgenommen werden. Das Handbuch vermittelt so einen eigenständigen Zugriff auf die Organisationssoziologie und bündelt gleichzeitig dessen Wissen auf dem neuesten Stand. Darüber soll es zu einem Standardwerk zur Organisationssoziologie im deutschsprachigen Raum werden.
Background: Increasing numbers of primary care physicians (PCPs) are reducing their working hours. This decline may affect the workforce and the care provided to patients. Objectives: This scoping review aims to determine the impact of PCPs working part-time on quality of patient care. Methods: A systematic search was conducted using the databases PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Peer-reviewed, original articles with either quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods designs, published after 2000 and written in any language were considered. The search strings combined the two concepts: part-time work and primary care. Studies were included if they examined any effect of PCPs working part-time on quality of patient care. Results: The initial search resulted in 2,323 unique studies. Abstracts were screened, and information from full texts on the study design, part-time and quality of patient care was extracted. The final dataset included 14 studies utilising data from 1996 onward. The studies suggest that PCPs working part-time may negatively affect patient care, particularly the access and continuity of care domains. Clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction seem mostly unaffected or even improved. Conclusion: There is evidence of both negative and positive effects of PCPs working part-time on quality of patient care. Approaches that mitigate negative effects of part-time work while maintaining positive effects should be implemented.
Objective Post‐traumatic growth (PTG) describes perceived positive changes following a traumatic event. We describe (i) PTG in parents of long‐term childhood cancer survivors (CCS‐parents) compared to parents of similar‐aged children of the general population (comparison‐parents), (ii) normative data for the Swiss population, and (iii) psychological, socio‐economic, and event‐related characteristics associated with PTG. Methods CCS‐parents (aged ≤16 years at diagnosis, ≥20 years old at study, registered in the Childhood Cancer Registry Switzerland (ChCR), and the Swiss population responded to a paper‐based survey, including the PTG‐Inventory (total score 0–105). We carried out (i) t ‐tests, (ii) descriptive statistics, and (iii) multilevel regression models with survivor/household as the cluster variable. Results In total, 746 CCS‐parents (41.7% fathers, response‐rate = 42.3%) of 494 survivors (median time since diagnosis 24 (7–40) years), 411 comparison‐parents (42.8% fathers, 312 households), and 1069 individuals of the Swiss population (40.7% male, response‐rate = 20.1%) participated. Mean [ M ] total PTG was in CCS‐parents M = 52.3 versus comparison‐parents M = 50.4, p = 0.078; and in the Swiss population M = 44.5). CCS‐parents showed higher ‘relating‐to‐others’ (18.4 vs. 17.3, p = 0.010), ‘spiritual‐change’ (3.3 vs. 3.0, p = 0.038) and ‘appreciation‐of‐life’ (9.3 vs. 8.4, p = 0.027) than comparison‐parents, but not in ‘new‐possibilities’ and ‘personal‐strength’. Female gender, older age, higher post‐traumatic stress, and higher resilience were positively associated with PTG. Individuals reporting events not typically classified as traumatic also reported growth. Conclusions Our findings highlight that mothers and fathers can experience heightened growth many years after their child's illness. Being able to sensitively foreshadow the potential for new‐possibilities and personal development may help support parents in developing a sense of hope.
The contribution approaches methodological problems and issues of philosophy of science from the perspective of economics of convention (EC, also named convention theory). EC is part of the new French pragmatic social sciences, which recombine the two megaparadigms structuralism and pragmatism in a new way, making pragmatism again a much stronger influence. Convention theory emphasizes the pragmatic and pluralist normativity of social coordination. For EC conventions as logics of interpretation, evaluation and valuation are necessary foundational structures for actors and processes. The contribution introduces the concept of quality conventions and the model of worlds of production. Scientific collectivities, paradigms and scientific movements can be seen as moral collectivities, grounding research and scientific practices on conventions as normative orders. This way, convention theory links data to values and measurement to normativities, instead of separating them. EC is then applied to problems of measurement, quantification, categorization and the coordination of surveys, arguing that these are based on conventions. Also, big data as phenomena is discussed from EC’s perspective.
Objective To understand the knowledge and awareness of palliative care in the Italian-speaking Swiss general population, describing main misconceptions or false beliefs and their relationship with attitudes towards palliative care. Methods Cross-sectional representative population survey (N = 313). Results We observed a high awareness of «palliative care,» although it is mainly associated with pain management and the very last days of life. While false beliefs are relatively rare, there is low awareness of goals, targets, and services offered by palliative care. Overall the Italian-speaking Swiss population has a good predisposition towards palliative care, but negative attitudes are more common among those who lack knowledge. More than one-third of respondents are interested in receiving more information about palliative care, especially from their healthcare providers or through dedicated information points. Conclusion and practice implications Health communication interventions to promote palliative care are needed because there is still significant unclarity about the goals of palliative care, which negatively affects its acceptance. This study instructs on how to intervene specifically in the Italian-speaking part of Switzerland, including what to communicate and how. Further, our findings can inspire similar studies in other Swiss regions or countries that can optimize recognition, knowledge, and understanding and contribute to filling gaps in populations’ health service demand and utilization.
Muscular strength represents a specific component of health-related fitness. Hand grip strength is used as a simple and dynamic marker of maximum voluntary force of the hand and to estimate overall strength. Today, little is known about the relationship between grip strength and health in forcibly displaced populations. In the present study, we examined whether grip strength is associated with various health outcomes in a sample of forcibly displaced people living in a Greek refugee camp. The present analyses are part of a larger pragmatic randomized controlled trial. In this paper, cross-sectional baseline data of 143 participants (71 men, 72 women) will be presented. In addition to grip strength, the following physical and mental health outcomes were assessed: body weight and body composition, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose levels (HbA1c), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive and anxiety symptoms, pain, and quality of life. Linear regression analyses were carried out to examine how grip strength is associated with the health outcomes, separately for absolute and normalized grip strength scores. Grip strength was positively and strongly associated with percentage muscle mass (normalized grip strength: Stand. B = 0.58, p < .001), whereas a negative association existed for percentage body fat (normalized grip strength: Stand. B = − 0.58, p < .001). No statistically significant associations occurred between grip strength and the other cardiovascular risk markers. In contrast, we found that participants with higher normalized grip strength reported higher levels of PTSD (normalized grip strength: Stand. B = 0.36, p < .05) and depressive symptoms (normalized grip strength: Stand. B = 0.29, p < .05). No significant association occurred between grip strength, anxiety, pain and quality of life. Measuring grip strength in forcibly displaced people can be a useful way to assess their overall muscle strength. Grip strength tests are easy to implement, and results can be used to assess the effects of specific intervention measures. Nevertheless, our results question the usefulness of grip strength as a marker of cardiovascular health and mental wellbeing in a refugee camp setting.
Background Automated feature selection methods such as the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) have recently gained importance in the prediction of quality-related outcomes as well as the risk-adjustment of quality indicators in healthcare. The methods that have been used so far, however, do not account for the fact that patient data are typically nested within hospitals. Methods Therefore, we aimed to demonstrate how to account for the multilevel structure of hospital data with LASSO and compare the results of this procedure with a LASSO variant that ignores the multilevel structure of the data. We used three different data sets (from acute myocardial infarcation, COPD, and stroke patients) with two dependent variables (one numeric and one binary), on which different LASSO variants with and without consideration of the nested data structure were applied. Using a 20-fold sub-sampling procedure, we tested the predictive performance of the different LASSO variants and examined differences in variable importance. Results For the metric dependent variable Duration Stay, we found that inserting hospitals led to better predictions, whereas for the binary variable Mortality, all methods performed equally well. However, in some instances, the variable importances differed greatly between the methods. Conclusion We showed that it is possible to take the multilevel structure of data into account in automated predictor selection and that this leads, at least partly, to better predictive performance. From the perspective of variable importance, including the multilevel structure is crucial to select predictors in an unbiased way under consideration of the structural differences between hospitals.
Background In Switzerland, the national surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance program showed a modest decrease in SSI rates for different procedures over the last decade. The study aimed to determine whether a multimodal, targeted intervention program in addition to existing SSI surveillance is associated with decreased SSI rates in the participating hospitals. Methods Prospective multicenter pre- and postintervention study conducted in eight Swiss acute care hospitals between 2013 and 2020. All consecutive patients > 18 years undergoing cardiac, colon, or hip/knee replacement surgery were included. The follow-up period was 30 days and one year for implant-related surgery. Patients with at least one follow-up were included. The intervention was to optimize three elements of preoperative management: (i) hair removal; (ii) skin disinfection; and (iii) perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis. We compared SSI incidence rates (main outcome measure) pre- and postintervention (three years each) adjusted for potential confounders. Poisson generalized linear mixed models fitted to quarter-yearly confirmed SSIs and adjusted for baseline differences between hospitals and procedures. Adherence was routinely monitored through on-site visits. Results A total of 10 151 patients were included, with a similar median age pre- and postintervention (69.6 and IQR 60.9, 76.8 years, vs 69.5 and IQR 60.4, 76.8 years, respectively; P = 0.55) and similar proportions of females (44.8% vs. 46.1%, respectively; P = 0.227). Preintervention, 309 SSIs occurred in 5 489 patients (5.6%), compared to 226 infections in 4 662 cases (4.8%, P = 0.09) postintervention. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) for overall SSI after intervention implementation was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.96, P = 0.02). For cardiac surgery (n = 2 927), the aIRR of SSI was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.32 to 0.72, P < 0.001). For hip/knee replacement surgery (n = 4 522), the aIRR was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.52 to 1.48, P = 0.63), and for colon surgery (n = 2 702), the aIRR was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.14, P = 0.49). Conclusions The SSI intervention bundle was associated with a statistically significant decrease in SSI cases. A significant association was observed for cardiac surgery. Adding a specific intervention program can add value compared to routine surveillance only. Further prevention modules might be necessary for colon and orthopedic surgery.
One of the winning teams of the EU AI Act Grand Challenge analyzes how the AI Act will regulate robots.
Objectives Biological products have contributed to extraordinary advances in disease treatments over the last decade. However, the cost-saving potential of imitator products, so-called biosimilars, is still under-researched in Switzerland. This study aims to assess biosimilars’ prescriptions at treatment initiation and their determinants, as well as biological therapy switches. Design The study included all patients who had at least one biosimilar available on the market at the time when they were prescribed a biological product. We analysed longitudinal data for biosimilar prescriptions in Switzerland using descriptive statistics and logistic regression to quantify the associations with individual, pharmaceutical and provider-related variables. Setting The analysis is based on de-identified claims data of patients with mandatory health insurance at Helsana, one of the Swiss health insurance companies with a substantial enrollee base in mandatory health insurance. Participants Overall, 18 953 patients receiving at least one biological product between 2016 and 2021 were identified. Outcome measures We differentiated between initial prescriptions and follow-up prescriptions. Our regression focused on initial prescriptions due to evidence indicating that patients tend to follow the medication prescribed at therapy initiation. Results Although biosimilars’ market share was low (28.6%), the number of prescriptions has increased (from 1016 in 2016 to 6976 in 2021). Few patients with medication switches (n=1492, 8.5%) were detected. Increased relative price difference (difference in the price of available biosimilars relative to price of corresponding reference product) was associated with decreased probability of biosimilar prescriptions, whereas male sex, an increase of available imitator drugs on the market, larger packaging sizes, and prescriptions from specialists or physicians in outpatient settings were associated with increased biosimilar use. Conclusion The low number of biosimilar prescriptions, despite the proliferating biosimilar market, indicates a high potential for biosimilar diffusion. The findings indicate that patients typically adhere to the therapy options initially chosen and are less inclined to make changes following the initiation of treatment. Our research highlights the need for awareness initiatives to improve understanding among patients and physicians, enabling informed, shared decision-making about biosimilar prescriptions.
The high recurrence and complications associated with severe pressure injuries (PI) necessitate the exploration of advanced treatments, such as cell-based therapies, to facilitate wound healing. Such techniques harness the ability of different cell types to promote angiogenesis, re-epithelialization of the skin, and tissue regeneration. This systematic review explores the efficacy of cell-based therapies and tissue engineering in treating deep PI. We searched for interventional studies using cells in the treatment of PI in adults in four online libraries (PubMed, Embase, Ovid Medline, and Cochrane; latest search 10th June 2023). We found one randomized clinical trial (RCT), two non-RCT, and three pre-post studies, comprising 481 study participants with PI (253 intervention/228 controls). The risk of bias was categorized as moderate due to minimal bias in outcome measurements, or high owing to unclear patient randomization methods, as assessed by the ROBINS-I, NIH, and RoB-2 tools. Four cell types were identified in the context of cell-based therapies of PI: bone marrow mononuclear stem cells (BM-MNCs, n = 2); hematopoietic derived stem cells (HSC, n = 1); macrophages and activated macrophage suspensions (AMS, n = 2); and cryopreserved placental membrane containing viable cells (vCPM, n = 1). Wound healing outcomes were observed in patients undergoing cell-based therapies, including complete wound closure (AMS, vCPM; n = 142), faster healing rate (BM-MNCs, AMS; n = 146), improved granulation tissue formation (HSC, n = 3) and shorter hospitalization time (BM-MNCs; n = 108) compared to standard of care, with no adverse reactions. PI healing rate decreased only in one study with BM-MNC therapy, compared to control ( n = 86). Based on the available data, though with limited evidence, it seems that macrophage deployment showed the most favorable outcomes. The results indicate that cell-based therapies offer a potential avenue for enhancing wound healing and tissue repair in PI; however, more extensive research is needed in this domain.
Background Venous leak appears to be the most common cause of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (ED), which can be treated with venous embolization. Traditionally, conventional cavernosography was used for the diagnosis and treatment planning of venous leak. Recently, computed tomography (CT) cavernosography was introduced as a novel cross-sectional imaging method proposed to be advantageous over conventional cavernosography. We created a novel management algorithm for diagnosing venous leak including CT cavernosography as an imaging modality. In order to provide a broader basis for our management algorithm, a systematic literature review was conducted. Main body In this article we systematically review relevant literature on using CT cavernosography for the diagnosis and treatment planning in ED patients with venous leak following the PRISMA selection process. Nine full-text articles were included in the review and assigned a level of evidence grade (all grade II). Two studies (2/9) compared the results of conventional cavernosography with those of CT cavernosography which was superior for site-specific venous leak identification (19.4% vs. 100%, respectively). CT cavernosography is a more detailed imaging method that is faster to perform, exposes the patient to less radiation, and requires less contrast material. In one study (1/9), CT cavernosography was used for diagnostic purposes only. Eight studies (8/9) cover both, diagnostic imaging and treatment planning including embolization (1/9) and sclerotherapy (2/9) of venous leak in patients with venogenic ED. Three studies (3/9) describe anatomical venous leak classifications that were established based on CT cavernosography findings for accurate mapping of superficial and/or deep venous leak and identification of mixed or more complex forms of venous leak present in up to 84% of patients. In addition to treatment planning, one study (1/9) used CT cavernosography also for follow-up imaging post treatment. Conclusion CT cavernosography is superior to conventional cavernosography for diagnosis and treatment planning in patients with ED caused by venous leak (grade II levels of evidence). Consequently, CT cavernosography should be included in management algorithms for ED patients with suspected venous leak.
Background Dual plating of comminuted distal femoral fractures allows for early patient mobilization. An additional helically shaped medial plate avoids the medial vital structures of the thigh. Aim: to investigate the biomechanical competence of augmented lateral locking compression plate distal femur (LCP‐DF) using an additional straight versus a helically shaped medial LCP of the same length. Methods Ten pairs of human cadaveric femora were instrumented with a lateral anatomical 15‐hole LCP‐DF. Following, they were pairwise instrumented with either an additional medial straight 14‐hole LCP (group1) or a 90°‐helical shape LCP (group2). All specimens were biomechanically tested under quasi‐static and progressively increasing combined cyclic axial and torsional loading until failure. Results Initial interfragmentary axial displacement and flexion under static compression were significantly smaller in group1 (0.11±0.12mm and 0.21±0.10°) versus group2 (0.31±0.14mm and 0.68±0.16°), p≤0.007. Initial varus deformation under static compression remained not significantly different between group1 (0.57±0.23°) and group2 (0.75±0.34°), p=0.085. Flexion movements during dynamic loading were significantly higher for group2 (2.51±0.54°) versus group1 (1.63±1.28°), p=0.015, however, no significant differences were observed in terms of varus, internal rotation, axial and shear displacements between the groups, p≥0.204. Cycles to failure and load at failure were higher in group2 (25172±6376 and 3017N±638N) compared to group1 (22277±4576 and 2728N±458N) with no significant differences between them, p=0.195. Conclusion From a biomechanical perspective, helical double plating may be considered as useful alternative to straight double plating, demonstrating ameliorated damping capacities during flexion deformation and safer application as the medial neurovascular structures of the thigh are avoided. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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