Universität Koblenz-Landau
  • Koblenz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
Recent publications
The effects of bilingualism on executive functions (EFs) and intelligence are still controversially discussed. Most studies have focused on performance differences without considering the underlying structure of cognitive abilities. Thus, we examined whether the structure of EFs and the relations of EFs with intelligence differ between mono- and bilingual children. A total of 240 elementary school children (mean age = 8 years 6 months; 133 monolinguals and 95 bilinguals) performed two tasks measuring working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and fluid intelligence, respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that one common EF factor provided the best fit to the data in both language groups, indicating that bilingualism is not associated with differences in the EF structure at this age. Moreover, there were no latent performance differences in either EFs or intelligence between mono- and bilingual children. However, we found a stronger relation between a common EF factor and fluid intelligence in bilingual children as compared with monolingual children, implying a closer coupling of EFs and intelligence abilities in bilingual children. This contributes to explaining the previous heterogeneous findings on the task level because more closely coupled cognitive functioning can be slightly beneficial for some tasks and irrelevant or even slightly obstructive for others.
The current rise of right-wing populism in Germany has manifested itself in two major events: the mobilizations following the sexual assaults in Cologne on New Year's Eve 2015 and the ‘Demonstrations for all’ against sexual diversity education from 2014 to 2016. Remarkably, however, they seem to propagate contrary gender policies: while the former focuses on the fight for women's (sexual) self-determination, the latter blames feminism for destroying the family. The article analyzes these events as two of the most important right-wing populist mobilizations to better understand right-wing gender policies as a means to intervene in ongoing negotiations about the meaning of gender and family. We argue, that despite their differences, these mobilizations share certain problem definitions, a need for action and gender positions. They mobilize by articulating a comprehensive worldview. Especially the propagated female subject positions must not be reduced to mere conservativism. Rather, they articulate a specific image of white, reproductive, yet politically mobilized and supposedly emancipated femininity.
Several lines of research have examined whether people with depressive symptoms have deficits in social-cognitive abilities, such as emotional reasoning skills. While many depressed people report having such deficits, it is less clear whether depressive symptoms are related to actual objective performance deficits. We examined the relationship between emotional reasoning skills (as assessed with the TEMINT) and depressive symptoms (i.e., BDI-II) in a mini meta-analysis of 11 studies with data from 1503 participants with varying levels of depression, from healthy people to clinical samples with severely depressed people. Using a random effects approach, we found a small but significant correlation between depressive symptoms and TEMINT performance (mean rz = 0.065), indicating that depressive symptoms were associated with higher emotional reasoning skills. These findings suggest that depression is unrelated to deficits in emotional reasoning, though assessed with only one test. If anything, depressive symptoms are associated with improved performance in the TEMINT. The current results point to a discrepancy between depressed people's self-evaluation of their abilities (as shown in previous research) and their actual performance. Our findings also have practical implications as they suggest that clinicians may focus on modifying depressed people's negative views of themselves, rather than on improving their skills.
Prior research has shown that being excluded by computer-agents in experimental exclusion paradigms threatens individuals' basic needs to a similar extent as being excluded by humans. It is less clear, however, why this similarity between computer and human exclusion occurs, and whether it applies only to reactions immediately after the exclusion event (reflexive stage), or also to reactions that occur further downstream (e.g., reflective stage). Four studies (N = 1048) with three different exclusion paradigms provide several key insights: First, the similarity between computer and human exclusion is robust and pervasive, as Bayesian analyses provide consistent support that the source of exclusion (human vs. computer) does not affect reflexive need satisfaction. Second, this similarity also extends to reflective reactions and punishing behavior. Finally, the present studies extend our knowledge about the processes underlying this similarity by uncovering the role of anthropomorphism. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Nimmt man die spezifische Ästhetik von Pop mit ihrer Kraft, Stilgemeinschaften zu konstituieren, ernst, dann lässt sich methodisch begründet daran zweifeln, dass Rammstein überhaupt Diskurse – etwa über Deutschland – führen, die in einem engeren Sinne als politisch bezeichnet werden können.
In diesem Kapitel werden die Affektstrategien in Deutschland als Teil einer politischen Ästhetik untersucht. Angesichts kalkulierter Empröungswellen beim Publikum einerseits und der im Songtext dargestellten Hassliebe zu Deutschland andererseits, stellt sich die Frage, wie verschiedene Emotionen angesteuert werden und ob dies Deutschland zu einem politischen Kunstwerk macht.
Als Rammstein 1995 ihr Debütalbum Herzeleid veröffentlichen, lösen sie eine Reihe heftiger Reaktionen von Empörung bis Euphorie aus. Ihr Industrial-Metal-Sound mit deutschen Texten ist neu, aufregend und provokativ. Rammstein finden in ihrem Sound eine Balance zwischen Konformität und einzigartiger Andersartigkeit, was sie von konventionelleren Rock- und Metal-Bands unterscheidet. Sie spielen mit allzu gängigen deutschen Stereotypen – insbesondere auch in Deutschland –, verweben sie aber behutsam zu einem internationalen Sound von höchster Qualität.
Nicht nur werden Songs und Musikvideos in der globalen und digitalen Popkultur über vielfältige Kanäle bereitgestellt. Diese zeitlichen, räumlichen und letztlich auch ästhetischen Entgrenzungen der Rezeption ließen sich in den großen Feuilletons, in Musikmagazinen, TV-Beiträgen oder in den Sozialen Medien genauer betrachten. Dieses Kapitel konzentriert sich auf eine Analyse der nationalen und der internationalen Pressebeiträge sowie einzelner Beiträge aus Musikmagazinen hinsichtlich der Frage, welche Effekte die Provokation des Deutschland-Teasers für den Erinnerungsdiskurs und die Reproduktion nationaler Stereotypen in diesen unterschiedlichen Diskursen hat.
Rammsteins Song heißt nicht ohne Grund Deutschland. Im Song sowie in dem monumentalen Video steht eine Frage bei aller Vielschichtigkeit und Ambiguität unzweifelhaft im Zentrum: die Frage nach der deutschen Identität.
Aus einer Perspektive, die die oftmals mehrdeutigen Textstellen und Bildbezüge der Rammstein-Produktion als strukturelle Ambiguität identifiziert, kann das Politische Deutschlands nicht in eindeutig realpolitischen Bezügen bestimmt werden: Wie der Aufbau von Sinn schillert auch das Politische zwischen Nationalmythos und Popästhetik; die Frage nach einer politischen Positionierung läuft gewissermaßen ins Leere.
Mit der offiziell unbetitelten Deutschland-Tournee präsentieren Rammstein das achte Mal ein Album bzw. ihr Programm im Rahmen einer ausgedehnten Konzertreise. Die Inszenierungsstrategien von Rammstein in diesen Live-Shows, so die These dieses Kapitels, zielen vorrangig auf das popmusikalische Feld, kaum je auf das Feld der Politik, und erfüllen folglich interne (d. h. genre-bezogene), und keine externen (also auf die Außenseite des künstlerischen Diskurses gerichtete) Funktionen.
Theory Digital technologies have become an integral part of everyday life that children are exposed to. Therefore, it is important for children to acquire an understanding of these technologies early on by teaching them computational thinking (CT) as a part of STEM. However, primary school teachers are often reluctant to teach CT. Expectancy-value theory suggests that motivational components play an important role in teaching and learning. Thus, one hindrance to teachers’ willingness to teach CT might be their low expectancies of success and high emotional costs, e.g., anxiety towards CT. Thus, introducing preservice teachers to CT during their university years might be a promising way to support their expectancies and values, while simultaneously alleviating their emotional costs. Prior CT competences might contribute to these outcomes. Aims We investigated whether a specifically designed seminar on CT affected preservice teachers’ expectancies and values towards programming.Method: A total of 311 German primary school and special education preservice teachers took part in the study. The primary school preservice teachers received a seminar on CT and programming with low-threshold programming tasks, while the special education teachers served as a baseline group. The seminar was specifically designed to enhance expectancies and values and decrease emotional costs, following implications of research on expectancy-value theory. Results The preservice teachers who visited the seminar gained higher expectancies and values towards CT and programming compared to the baseline group. Moreover, their emotional costs decreased. CT was positively related to change in expectancies and values and negatively related to emotional costs. Discussion Interventions with low-threshold programming tasks can support primary school preservice teachers in finding trust in their abilities and values towards CT. Moreover, their anxiety towards CT and programming can be alleviated. Thus, first steps in preparing preservice teachers to teach CT in their future classrooms can be taken in university.
Only scarce information is available about the abundance of microplastics (MPs) in Nordic lakes. In this study, the occurrence, types, and distribution of MPs were assessed based on the lake water and sediment samples collected from a sub-basin of Lake Saimaa, Finland. The main goal was to estimate the possible effect of the local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) on the abundance of MPs in different compartments of the recipient lake area. Collected bottom sediment samples were Cs-137 dated and the chronological structure was utilized to relate the concentrations of MPs to their sedimentation years. Raman microspectroscopy was used for the MPs’ identification from both sample matrices. In addition, MPs consisting of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) were quantified from lake water samples by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to provide a complementary assessment of MPs based on two different analysis methods, which provide different metrics of the abundance of microplastics. MPs concentrations were highest in sediment samples closest to the discharge site of WWTP effluents (4400 ± 620 n/kg dw) compared to other sites. However, such a trend was not found in lake water samples (0.7 ± 0.1 n/L). Overall, microplastic fibers were relatively more abundant in sediment (70%) than in water (40%), and the majority of detected microplastic fibers were identified as polyester. This indicates that a part of textile fibers passing the WWTP processes accumulate in the sediment close to the discharge site. In addition, the abundance of MPs was revealed to have increased slightly during the last 30 years.
Climate warming is a ubiquitous stressor in freshwater ecosystems, yet its interactive effects with other stressors are poorly understood. We address this knowledge gap by testing the ability of three contrasting null models to predict the joint impacts of warming and a range of other aquatic stressors using a new database of 296 experimental combinations. Despite concerns that stressors will interact to cause synergisms, we found that net impacts were usually best explained by the effect of the stronger stressor alone (the dominance null model), especially if this stressor was a local disturbance associated with human land use. Prediction accuracy depended on stressor identity and how asymmetric stressors were in the magnitude of their effects. These findings suggest we can effectively predict the impacts of multiple stressors by focusing on the stronger stressor, as habitat alteration, nutrients and contamination often override the biological consequences of higher temperatures in freshwater ecosystems.
The rapid transformation of forest landscapes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been a key trigger to social conflicts among forest management actors. This development has a governance undertone with institutions playing a central role in shaping the dynamics. This Special Issue synthesizes nine published articles which address questions on the perceptions, attitudes and transaction costs linked to forest management institutions, institutional bricolage and the interaction between state-facilitated (formal) and community-facilitated (informal) institutions. The Special Issue also provides empirical evidence on gendered perspectives in institutional change processes, partnership reforms in forestland systems, institutional coordination and the (un) intended outcomes of decentralized forest management. The contributions to this Special Issue provide a glimpse on the separate treatise of actors and institutions, and on manifest social conflicts in forestry settings in SSA. The synthesis led to the definition of the following future lines for research and policy: Firstly, future studies should reemphasize the links between forestry and social conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa. Secondly, fostering the "marriage" between actors and institutions will ensure a holistic appreciation of forest use and management processes. Thirdly, the literature on the links between pandemics and forest-linked institutional change in sub-Saharan Africa is still scanty. Fourthly, studies to uncover the governance of forced migrants and their role in shaping forest use and management institutions are required. Finally, there is a need for multi-country studies, employing mixed-methods approaches to analyze actor-institutions dynamics in forest use and management in sub-Saharan Africa.
Der Ausdruck φιλία (philia) hat im Griechischen ein weites Bedeutungsspektrum. Der Beitrag zeichnet die Wandlungen dieses schillernden Begriffs von der archaischen Dichtung und der vorsokratischen Naturphilosophie über die klassische Philosophie bis in den Hellenismus nach. Bei Platons wird die Freundschaft als gemeinsames Streben nach dem Guten bestimmt. Aristoteles unterscheidet Formen der Freundschaft als „gelebtem Vollzug“ (ἐνέργεια). Ähnlich wie Platon kultiviert Epikur in seinem Garten das philosophische Ideal des Freundschaftsbundes und akzentuiert in seiner Ethik die Bedeutung von Nahbeziehungen. Im Rückgriff auf diese Tradition deutet Cicero die amiticia als Transfer der Eigen- zur Fremdliebe. Die Anziehungskraft des Guten, die wahre Freundschaft stiftet, vermag über die Distanz lebendig zu bleiben und in der Erinnerung sogar den Tod zu überdauern.
In recent decades, randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) have established a broad evidence base of psychotherapy with moderate-to-large effects for various mental disorders. In addition to determining the efficacy of psychotherapy, studies examining its effectiveness under everyday conditions historically paved the way for developing a practice-oriented research paradigm. This paper argues that, within this paradigm, practice-based studies are a valuable complement to RCTs as they can address existing problems in psychotherapy research. In current practice-oriented research, new approaches from personalized medicine and methods from computational psychiatry provide important clues for optimizing effects in psychotherapy. In the context of personalization, for example, clinical multivariable prediction models are being developed that enable evidence-based outcome monitoring through feedback loops to practitioners in the short term and strengthen the German practice-research network in the long term. In conclusion, the paper derives and discusses future directions for practice-oriented research in terms of the “precision mental health care” paradigm.
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5,589 members
Tina In-Albon
  • Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology and Psychotherapy
Klaus G Troitzsch
  • Department of Economic and Administrative Computer Science
Maria A. Wimmer
  • Faculty of Computer Science
Klaus Schwenk
  • Department of Environmental Sciences
Mirco Bundschuh
  • Department of Environmental Sciences
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76829, Koblenz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
Website
https://www.uni-koblenz-landau.de/