Among the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems, Guided Waves (GW) based ones have been increasingly investigated by both research community and industry since their reliability in damage detection, requirement of a lower power consumption and capability in the monitoring of extended areas with a reduced number of transducers. However, their use in real applications is still challenging. Among the critical aspects that can compromise the effectiveness of such SHM systems in the identification of structural anomalies, the operating conditions (temperature, loads, vibration, corrosion, etc.) require a particular attention. Damage detection algorithms and methods are thought mainly by referring to lower Technology Readiness Levels, typical of laboratory conditions where real scenarios cannot be easily reproduced. For this purpose, the Finite Element (FE) models find a key role for the understanding of the physics of governing phenomena driving the GW also in scenarios closer to the real one. In this paper, an experimentally validated FE model has been used to investigate on the effects of GW propagation mechanisms in a composite plate at 65 ℃. The effects of this in-service temperature have been highlighted by comparing GW dispersive behavior as well as polar plots with respect to the room temperature (20 ℃). According to the results, it has been observed a decrease of GW propagation velocity at 65 ℃.
This paper introduces some considerations regarding the geometric principles that lead the configuration of precious gems. Geometry crosses and characterises different aspects of precious gems: from the atomic composition of its raw structure, to the classification of the crystalline system, up to defining shapes and configurations of possible cuts, as well as to control the functioning of the instruments that allow its execution. From age to age, geometry is leading the lapidary art that bases its foundations and rules on it, mainly in order to cut and manufacture the stones, and also to identify the rules that could enhance the brightness or minimize the wastefulness of precious material during the processing. Starting from research still in progress by the authors, this paper will outline the role of geometry in the fields of crystallographic classification, the cuts classification, the methods for design and execution, also through the conspicuous iconography and the digital modelling.
The study presents the results of graphic modelling and development of digital models for on-site and remote use. The case study is the church complex of Panagia Paraportiani on the island of Mykonos in southern Greece. The religious complex, built in the 15th Century A.D., is very popular with tourists and the curious who visit the Cyclades islands during the summer season. This activity determines the need for graphic and geometric knowledge and possible remote access in order to guarantee the conservation of the asset. Graphic and iconographic documentation is poor, and the study intervened to fill the gaps in graphic knowledge through 3D modelling. The survey process involved the architectural survey using drone photogrammetric technology and subsequent modelling of the architecture. The results were collected in a digital database, which contains the knowledge phases, point clouds and digital models. The activities allow an on-site and remote fruition of the asset, through online apps, for tourists who need to visit the closed spaces.
The proposed study is part of a wider research concerning the analysis of indirect survey methodologies used in ancient times to measure the heights of slender architectures, that is, characterized by a strong development in height. For the definition of these techniques, whose geomechanical principles act as a foundation for the current instrumental survey methodologies, we have resorted to the detailed study of the main treatises written since the 15th century. This paper examines the treatise by Latino Orsini and commissioned by Egnazio Danti entitled “Radio Latino […], of 1583, which focuses on the analysis of the instrument of the radio latino, and its different case studies, through the use of which it is possible to obtain measurements of slender and inaccessible architectural elements, exploiting the principles of Euclidean geometry. The analysis carried out combines the study of the author’s writings with the realisation of graphic schemes for the understanding of the analogical techniques, allowing to: verify the degree of accuracy of the calculation methods proposed by the author, and of the measurement practices, in order to define and enrich with the different case studies the conditions for the determination of the heights of inaccessible architectures.
The end of the 18th century sets a significant date for the masonry bridges construction technique evolution. Studies regarding the thickness of the pillars and shape of the arches configure innovative theories towards the traditional practice that for centuries has produced masonry bridges characterized by large pillars and round arches by modest span. The masonry bridges construction technique evolution is linked to the design experimentation of the French engineer Jean Rodolphe Perronet (1708–1794), whose program on the construction of bridges includes not only the simultaneous construction of all the arches, but also a considerable reduction of the rise-clear span ratio which, through the adoption of polycentric curves, generates very low arches and the consequent reduction of the pillars number in the water. In this sense, this contribution aims to investigate the treatise sources on the geometric tracing modalities of the semi-oval arches ‘with n centers’ of the masonry bridges by Jean Rodolphe Perronet focusing attention on the analysis of the developments and applications in the 18th-20th centuries of the rule of semi-oval arches ‘with n centers and on the geometric analysis of the project for the Neuilly bridge described by Perronet in the volume Description des Projets et de la Construction des Ponts de Neuilly, de Mantes, d’Orléans, […], edites in Paris in the 1788.
As regioisomers/bioisosteres of 1a, a 4-phenylbenzamide tranylcypromine (TCP) derivative previously disclosed by us, we report here the synthesis and biological evaluation of some (hetero)arylbenzoylamino TCP derivatives 1b-6, in which the 4-phenyl moiety of 1a was shifted at the benzamide C3 position or replaced by 2- or 3-furyl, 2- or 3-thienyl, or 4-pyridyl group, all at the benzamide C4 or C3 position. In anti-LSD1-CoREST assay, all the meta derivatives were more effective than the para analogues, with the meta thienyl analogs 4b and 5b being the most potent (IC50 values ¼ 0.015 and 0.005 lM) and the most selective over MAO-B (selectivity indexes: 24.4 and 164). When tested in U937 AML and prostate cancerLNCaP cells, selected compounds 1a,b, 2b, 3b, 4b, and 5a,b displayed cell growth arrest mainly in LNCaPcells. Western blot analyses showed increased levels of H3K4me2 and/or H3K9me2 confirming the involvement of LSD1 inhibition in these assays.
Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of liver disease and represents a global burden, as treatment options are scarce. Whereas 90% of ethanol abusers develop alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), only a minority evolves to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Alcohol increases lipogenesis and suppresses lipid-oxidation implying steatosis, although the key role of intestinal barrier integrity and microbiota in ALD has recently emerged. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) is a prominent member of human and murine intestinal microbiota, and plays important functions in metabolism, gut immunity, and mucosal barrier. We aimed to investigate the role of Bt in the genesis of ethanol-induced liver steatosis. Bt DNA was measured in feces of wild-type mice receiving a Lieber-DeCarli diet supplemented with an increase in alcohol concentration. In a second step, ethanol-fed mice were orally treated with living Bt, followed by analysis of intestinal homeostasis and histological and biochemical alterations in the liver. Alcohol feeding reduced Bt abundance, which was preserved by Bt oral supplementation. Bt-treated mice displayed lower hepatic steatosis and triglyceride content. Bt restored mucosal barrier and reduced LPS translocation by enhancing mucus thickness and production of Mucin2. Furthermore, Bt up-regulated Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) expression and restored ethanol-induced Fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) down-regulation. Lipid metabolism was consequently affected as Bt administration reduced fatty acid synthesis (FA) and improved FA oxidation and lipid exportation. Moreover, treatment with Bt preserved the mitochondrial fitness and redox state in alcohol-fed mice. In conclusion, recovery of ethanol-induced Bt depletion by oral supplementation was associated with restored intestinal homeostasis and ameliorated experimental ALD. Bt could serve as a novel probiotic to treat ALD in the future.
China, North Korea, and Viet Nam are three essentially socialist countries that have survived the collapse of the Soviet Union. A salient commonality among them is the homogeneity of their cultural roots and the socialist legal tradition, which have continued to influence every facet of government and society. These lingering cultural and legal affinities have generated a different understanding of constitutional rights in relation to liberal counterparts. For strategic purposes, China and Viet Nam have faced a pressing need to remodel their rights conceptions to a certain universalist degree, while North Korea has remained almost immune to the globalization of constitutional rights. To overcome historical negligence and cultural insensitivity, this article seeks to probe the interplay of various strands of values in shaping constitutional rights of socialist East Asia. It also demonstrates various implications from the study of socialist constitutional rights that could contribute heuristically and practically to the rights discourse.
Background The role of allergic sensitization seems to be protective against SARS CoV2 infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using online surveys, the impact of COVID-19 on Italian allergic children, comparing the prevalence of AR and asthma symptoms between the first and second pandemic wave. Methods Both surveys were emailed to Italian pediatricians in April 2020 (first survey) and in March 2021 (second survey). The first one was related to the impact of COVID-19 and the most frequently reported symptoms. The second one was superimposed on the previous one, taking into account some additional aspects in the management of disease. Results A total of 99 pediatricians participated in the first survey and 267 in the second one. The first survey showed that, asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence was mostly between 0 and 20% throughout the country. The second survey showed a lower prevalence of both diseases nationwide in comparison to the first one. Comparing the two surveys, statistically significant differences were reported only in the distribution of asthma prevalence in Southern Italy while no differences were highlighted in the North and in the Center. Finally regarding allergic rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence, no differences were noticed nationwide. Conclusions Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma, if under control, did not represent risk factors for the susceptibility to SARS CoV2. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to continue therapies during COVID-19 outbreak, according to the international guidelines. However, being COVID-19 a new disease, actual knowledge will undergo continuous improvements over time.
Background The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), MALAT1, plays a key role in the development of different cancers, and its expression is associated with worse prognosis in patients. However, its mechanism of action and its regulation are not well known in prostate cancer (PCa). A general mechanism of action of lncRNAs is their interaction with other epigenetic regulators including microRNAs (miRNAs). Methods Using lentiviral stable miRNA transfection together with cell biology functional assays and gene expression/target analysis, we investigated the interaction between MALAT1 and miR-423-5p, defined as a target with in silico prediction analysis, in PCa. Results Through bioinformatic analysis of data available from TCGA, we have found that MALAT1 expression correlates with high Gleason grade, metastasis occurrence, and reduced survival in PCa patients. These findings were validated on a TMA of PCa showing a significant correlation between MALAT1 expression with both stage and grading. We report that, in PCa cells, MALAT1 expression and activity is regulated by miR-423-5p that binds MALAT1, downregulates its expression and inhibits its activity in promoting proliferation, migration, and invasion. Using NanoString analysis, we unraveled downstream cell pathways that were affected by miR-423-5p expression and MALAT1 downregulation and identified several alterations in genes that are involved in metastatic response and angiogenic pathways. In addition, we showed that the overexpression of miR-423-5p increases survival and decreases metastases formation in a xenograft mouse model. Conclusions We provide evidence on the role of MALAT1 in PCa tumorigenesis and progression. Also, we identify a direct interaction between miR-423-5p and MALAT1, which results in the suppression of MALAT1 action in PCa.
Purpose This study aimed to report the clinical and functional results of a series of patients with isolated primary patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) treated with intraarticular injection of microfragmented autologous adipose tissue plus knee arthroscopy. The results were also analyzed in relation to the age and body mas index (BMI) of patients, and to the stage of PFOA. Methods Twenty-three patients with early-to-moderate (stage 1–3 according to the Iwano classification system) PFOA who received this treatment were retrospectively analyzed, with a mean follow-up of 22.1 ± 4.2 months. Patients were assessed using the International Knee Society (IKS) knee and function and visual analog scale (VAS) scores, and relative to their capacity for climbing stairs. Differences in improvements of IKS and VAS scores in relation to age (< 60 versus ≥ 60 years), BMI (< 30 versus ≥ 30 kg/m ² ), and stage of PFOA (stages 1–2 versus stage 3) were finally analyzed. Results The mean IKS knee score significantly improved from 35.6 ± 14.9 points preoperatively to 61.9 ± 17.8 points at the latest follow-up, while the mean IKS function score significantly improved from 52.0 ± 14.7 points preoperatively to 82.3 ± 19.1 points at the latest follow-up. The mean VAS score significantly decreased from 8.7 ± 2.2 preoperatively to 5.2 ± 2.5 at the latest follow-up. A significant improvement in the capacity to climb stairs was found. No significant differences in improvements of IKS knee and function and VAS scores were found in relation to age, BMI, or stage of PFOA. Conclusion Intraarticular injection of microfragmented autologous adipose tissue following arthroscopic debridement significantly improved overall clinical and functional scores in patients with early or moderate isolated primary PFOA at a mean follow-up of almost 2 years. Improvements were not significantly affected by age, BMI, or stage of PFOA. Level of evidence Level IV, retrospective case series.
Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents an unmet clinical need due to the very poor prognosis and the lack of effective therapy. Here we investigated the potential of domatinostat (4SC-202), a new class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, currently in clinical development, to sensitize PDAC to first line standard gemcitabine (G)/taxol (T) doublet chemotherapy treatment. Methods Synergistic anti-tumor effect of the combined treatment was assessed in PANC1, ASPC1 and PANC28 PDAC cell lines in vitro as well as on tumor spheroids and microtissues, by evaluating combination index (CI), apoptosis, clonogenic capability. The data were confirmed in vivo xenograft models of PANC28 and PANC1 cells in athymic mice. Cancer stem cells (CSC) targeting was studied by mRNA and protein expression of CSC markers, by limiting dilution assay, and by flow cytometric and immunofluorescent evaluation of CSC mitochondrial and cellular oxidative stress. Mechanistic role of forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and downstream targets was evaluated in FOXM1-overexpressing PDAC cells. Results We showed that domatinostat sensitized in vitro and in vivo models of PDAC to chemotherapeutics commonly used in PDAC patients management and particularly to GT doublet, by targeting CSC compartment through the induction of mitochondrial and cellular oxidative stress. Mechanistically, we showed that domatinostat hampers the expression and function of FOXM1, a transcription factor playing a crucial role in stemness, oxidative stress modulation and DNA repair. Domatinostat reduced FOXM1 protein levels by downregulating mRNA expression and inducing proteasome-mediated protein degradation thus preventing nuclear translocation correlated with a reduction of FOXM1 target genes. Furthermore, by overexpressing FOXM1 in PDAC cells we significantly reduced domatinostat-inducing oxidative mitochondrial and cellular stress and abolished GT sensitization, both in adherent and spheroid cells, confirming FOXM1 crucial role in the mechanisms described. Finally, we found a correlation of FOXM1 expression with poor progression free survival in PDAC chemotherapy-treated patients. Conclusions Overall, we suggest a novel therapeutic strategy based on domatinostat to improve efficacy and to overcome resistance of commonly used chemotherapeutics in PDAC that warrant further clinical evaluation.
Background Imprinting disorders are a group of congenital diseases which are characterized by molecular alterations affecting differentially methylated regions (DMRs). To date, at least twelve imprinting disorders have been defined with overlapping but variable clinical features including growth and metabolic disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, abdominal wall defects and asymmetry. In general, a single specific DMR is affected in an individual with a given imprinting disorder, but there are a growing number of reports on individuals with so-called multilocus imprinting disturbances (MLID), where aberrant imprinting marks (most commonly loss of methylation) occur at multiple DMRs. However, as the literature is fragmented, we reviewed the molecular and clinical data of 55 previously reported or newly identified MLID families with putative pathogenic variants in maternal effect genes (NLRP2, NLRP5, NLRP7, KHDC3L, OOEP, PADI6) and in other candidate genes (ZFP57, ARID4A, ZAR1, UHRF1, ZNF445). Results In 55 families, a total of 68 different candidate pathogenic variants were identified (7 in NLRP2, 16 in NLRP5, 7 in NLRP7, 17 in PADI6, 15 in ZFP57, and a single variant in each of the genes ARID4A, ZAR1, OOEP, UHRF1, KHDC3L and ZNF445). Clinical diagnoses of affected offspring included Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome spectrum, Silver–Russell syndrome spectrum, transient neonatal diabetes mellitus, or they were suspected for an imprinting disorder (undiagnosed). Some families had recurrent pregnancy loss. Conclusions Genomic maternal effect and foetal variants causing MLID allow insights into the mechanisms behind the imprinting cycle of life, and the spatial and temporal function of the different factors involved in oocyte maturation and early development. Further basic research together with identification of new MLID families will enable a better understanding of the link between the different reproductive issues such as recurrent miscarriages and preeclampsia in maternal effect variant carriers/families and aneuploidy and the MLID observed in the offsprings. The current knowledge can already be employed in reproductive and genetic counselling in specific situations.
Background Monoclonal antibodies acting on the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or its receptor have changed migraine preventive treatment. Those treatments have led to reconsidering the outcomes of migraine prevention. Available data mostly considered benefits in terms of relative efficacy (percent or absolute decrease in monthly migraine days [MMDs] or headache days compared with baseline). However, not enough attention has been paid to residual MMDs and/or migraine-related disability in treated patients. In the present study, we aimed at comparing the relative and absolute efficacy of erenumab. Methods ESTEEMen was a collaborative project among 16 European headache centers which already performed real-life data collections on patients treated with erenumab for at least 12 weeks. For the present study, we performed a subgroup analysis on patients with complete data on MMDs at baseline and at weeks 9-12 of treatment. Starting from efficacy thresholds proposed by previous literature, we classified patients into 0-29%, 30-49%, 50-74%, and ≥75% responders according to MMD decrease from baseline to weeks 9-12 of treatment. For each response category, we reported the median MMDs and Headache Impact test-6 (HIT-6) scores at baseline and at weeks 9-12. We categorized the number of residual MMDs at weeks 9-12 as follows: 0-3, 4-7, 8-14, ≥15. We classified HIT-6 score into four categories: ≤49, 50-55, 56-59, and ≥60. To keep in line with the original scope of the ESTEEMen study, calculations were performed in men and women. Results Out of 1215 patients, at weeks 9-12, 381 (31.4%) had a 0-29% response, 186 (15.3%) a 30-49% response, 396 (32.6%) a 50-74% response, and 252 (20.7%) a ≥75% response; 246 patients (20.2%) had 0-3 residual MMDs, 443 (36.5%) had 4-7 MMDs, 299 (24.6%) had 8-14 MMDs, and 227 (18.7%) had ≥15 MMDs. Among patients with 50-74% response, 246 (62.1%) had 4-7 and 94 (23.7%) 8-14 residual MMDs, while among patients with ≥75% response 187 (74.2%) had 0-3 and 65 (25.8%) had 4-7 residual MMDs. Conclusions The present study shows that even patients with good relative response to erenumab may have a clinically non-negligible residual migraine burden. Relative measures of efficacy cannot be enough to thoroughly consider the efficacy of migraine prevention.
Background We recently conducted Cetuximab-AVElumab-Lung (CAVE-Lung), a proof-of-concept, translational and clinical trial, to evaluate the combination of two IgG1 monoclonal antibodies (mAb): avelumab, an anti-PD-L1 drug, and cetuximab, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) drug, as second- or third-line treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We have reported clinically relevant anti-tumor activity in 6/16 patients. Clinical benefit was accompanied by Natural Killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). Among the 6 responding patients, 3 had progressed after initial response to a previous treatment with single agent anti-PD-1, nivolumab or pembrolizumab. Methods We report long-term clinical follow-up and additional findings on the anti-tumor activity and on the immune effects of cetuximab plus avelumab treatment for these 3 patients. Results As of November 30, 2021, 2/3 patients were alive. One patient was still on treatment from 34 months, while the other two patients had progression free survival (PFS) of 15 and 19 months, respectively. Analysis of serially collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) revealed long-term activation of NK cell-mediated ADCC. Comprehensive genomic profile analysis found somatic mutations and germline rare variants in DNA damage response (DDR) genes. Furthermore, by transcriptomic analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset we found that DDR mutant NSCLC displayed high STING pathway gene expression. In NSCLC patient-derived three-dimensional in vitro spheroid cultures, cetuximab plus avelumab treatment induced additive cancer cell growth inhibition as compared to single agent treatment. This effect was partially blocked by treatment with an anti-CD16 mAb, suggesting a direct involvement of NK cell activation. Furthermore, cetuximab plus avelumab treatment induced 10-, 20-, and 20-fold increase, respectively, in the gene expression of CCL5 and CXCL10 , two STING downstream effector cytokines, and of interferon β , as compared to untreated control samples. Conclusions DDR mutations may contribute to DDR-induced STING pathway with sustained innate immunity activation following cetuximab plus avelumab combination in previously treated, PD-1 inhibitor responsive NSCLC patients.
Background Vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are used to reduce the risk of developing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite the significant benefits in terms of reduced risk of hospitalization and death, different adverse events may present after vaccination: among them, headache is one of the most common, but nowadays there is no summary presentation of its incidence and no description of its main features. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE covering the period between January 1 st 2020 and August 6 th , 2021, looking for record in English and with an abstract and using three main search terms (with specific variations): COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2; Vaccination; headache/adverse events. We selected manuscript including information on subjects developing headache after injection, and such information had to be derived from a structured form (i.e. no free reporting). Pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Analyses were carried out by vaccine vs. placebo, by first vs. second dose, and by mRNA-based vs. “traditional” vaccines; finally, we addressed the impact of age and gender on post-vaccine headache onset. Results Out of 9338 records, 84 papers were included in the review, accounting for 1.57 million participants, 94% of whom received BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1. Headache was generally the third most common AE: it was detected in 22% (95% CI 18–27%) of subjects after the first dose of vaccine and in 29% (95% CI 23–35%) after the second, with an extreme heterogeneity. Those receiving placebo reported headache in 10–12% of cases. No differences were detected across different vaccines or by mRNA-based vs. “traditional” ones. None of the studies reported information on headache features. A lower prevalence of headache after the first injection of BNT162b2 among older participants was shown. Conclusions Our results show that vaccines are associated to a two-fold risk of developing headache within 7 days from injection, and the lack of difference between vaccine types enable to hypothesize that headache is secondary to systemic immunological reaction than to a vaccine-type specific reaction. Some descriptions report onset within the first 24 h and that in around one-third of the cases, headache has migraine-like features with pulsating quality, phono and photophobia; in 40–60% of the cases aggravation with activity is observed. The majority of patients used some medication to treat headache, the one perceived as the most effective being acetylsalicylic acid.
This study investigated the performance of 24 commercial disinfectants present on the market during last year according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Recently, national and international organizations of public health performed studies on disinfection products due to the increasing awareness of the potential and growing risks on human health, such as skin damage and reactions in the mucosal lining, especially for the healthcare workers in their frequent daily use. However, there are many limitations in the common cleaning/disinfection products on market as in the selection of effective disinfectants to decontaminate inanimate surfaces. We analyzed the disinfection power of hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, alcohols, phenols and aldehydes used as active principles according to international guidelines. The antimicrobial properties were assessed by broth microdilution, and antibiofilm properties against Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) and Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ); their virucidal efficacy was tested against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The quaternary ammonium compounds demonstrated better efficacy than others and in some cases ready to use products had also virucidal and antimicrobial activities after dilution at 0.125%. The scientific evidence indicates that many commercial products are used at high concentrations and high doses and this could have deleterious effects both on human health and the environment. A lower concentration of active ingredients would avoid the excessive release of chemicals into the environment and improve skin tolerance, ensuring the health and safety protection of workers, including the healthcare operators at their workplace.
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