Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is subjected to different frauds. This work aimed at integrating the untargeted phenolic and sterol signatures with supervised multivariate discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for tracing the authenticity (as a function of variety, origin, and the blending) of Taggiasca Ligure, a renowned Italian EVOO. Overall, 408 samples from three consecutive growing seasons were used. Despite the cultivar, season, growth altitude, and geographical origin were all contributing to phytochemical profile, OPLS-DA models allowed identifying specific markers of authenticity. Cholesterol-derivatives and phenolics (tyrosols and oleuropeins, stilbenes, lignans, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were the best markers, based on statistics. Thereafter, ANN was used to discriminate authentic Taggiasca, and the sensitivity was 100% (32/32) thus indicating an excellent classification. Our results strengthen the concept of “terroir” for EVOO and indicate that profiling sterols and phenolics can support EVOO integrity if adequate data treatments are adopted.
Novel insights on the valorisation of onion (Allium cepa L.) are required to decipher its potential as nutritional and health-promoting agent. Wood vinegar (WV) was exogenously applied to onion plants to determine its effectiveness as an elicitor. An untargeted UHPLC-QTOF-MS metabolomics approach was combined with evaluating the bioactivities of onion extracts. WV promoted tissue and dose-specific effects on onion metabolome, involving both primary and secondary metabolites. Accordingly, the antioxidant and enzyme-inhibiting properties of onion were significantly enhanced after WV treatment. Moderate to high WV concentrations, ranging 250 – 500 µL L⁻¹, were found optimal at conferring the highest rates of biological activities. Polyphenols were related to the bioactivities of onion extracts since phenolic acids, flavanols, and flavonols were suggested as the contributors to their health-enhancing properties. This approach provides insight into the characterisation of WV as a natural elicitor and opens wide perspectives on the research of onion tissues as biofactories of functional ingredients.
In a previous work, authors have proposed a medico-legal definition of femicide as the murder due to the failure to recognize the right of self-determination of women. The aim of this paper was to apply the proposed definition to a cohort of cases to characterise femicides and female homicides and assess whether femicides can be considered a distinct entity or not. A comparison between female and male homicides was performed to assess common and distinctive features. Femicides were identified and compared to the cohort of non-femicide female murder. Results were compared to those reported in published forensic studies. Significant associations between female and male homicides were found for sex and partner/ex-partner offender, sex and indoor homicide and sex and asphyxia as dynamic of death emerged. A higher prevalence of indoor homicides and asphyxiation and of partner relationships were documented in female homicides. Gunshot, blunt injuries and cut wounds are well represented in both types of homicides. Most affected sites are back and chest in male homicides, and head, breasts, pubis, and limbs in female homicides. When comparing femicides and female homicides, a positive association between strangulation as harmful mean and a negative one between femicides and indoor homicides were found. Male and female homicides can be considered as two distinct victimological phenomena. Focusing on femicide allows to establish injuries and circumstantial patterns, that could represent evidence of a specific murder. More studies with a standardized data collection are needed to corroborate the theory of this paper.
Residue incorporation and organic fertilisation are recommended to increase soil organic matter (SOM) content, thus promoting the provision of multiple ecosystem services. However, the positive effect of crop residue on SOM is often considered rather low, thus requiring a deeper knowledge of their management. In addition, organic fertilisation is thought to be less efficient than mineral. In this context, it is important to understand the response of SOM pools to long-term crop residue incorporation and organic fertilisation and their effect on nutrient cycling and on feed production, in order to judge the sustainability of these practices. We carried out an in-depth multidisciplinary survey to investigate the effect of 28 years of residue incorporation combined with three different nitrogen (N) fertilisation strategies (manure, slurry and mineral) on density fractionated SOM pools differing for their turnover time, and on soil enzymatic activity in a monocropping maize system in NW Italy. Results showed that in the long-term crop production was not altered by organic fertilisation. Organic fertilisation in combination with residue incorporation led to the highest total organic C and total N content down to 90 cm, which was reflected in each SOM pool. In addition, regular applications of crop residue and manures markedly increased C- and N-degrading enzymes, thus enhancing the turnover rates of C and N. We conclude that combining crop residue with organic fertilisation enhanced the provision of regulating services and soil activity, and is a valid approach for maintaining sustainable production in agroecosystems.
Background Iron deficiency (ID), with or without anemia, is commonly observed among patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. We investigated if screening ID in the immediate preoperative period and treating ID patients regardless of anemia could reduce perioperative transfusion requirements. Methods This is an observational single-center propensity score-matched study including candidates to elective cardiac surgery prospectively and retrospectively enrolled. Prospectively enrolled patients were screened for ID at hospital admission: if ferritin was ≤100 μg/L or ≤ 300 μg/L with transferrin saturation index ≤20% they received intravenous ferric carboxymaltose, B12-vitamin, and folic acid. A retrospective series of patients not screened for ID and matched for gender, type of surgery, BMI, Goudie transfusion risk score, hemoglobin level, and red blood cell (RBC) indices, served as controls. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients requiring ≤1 packed RBC (pRBC) unit within day 7 or discharge The main secondary outcomes were intraoperative and postoperative pRBC transfusions, duration of hospitalization, and cost-effectiveness of ID screening and treatment. Results We included 479 prospective and 833 retrospective cases: 442 patients screened for ID and 442 matched controls with unknown iron status were analyzed. ID was observed in 196 patients (44.3%) and iron was administered 1 day (IQR 1–2) before surgery. Overall, 76.9% of patients in the prospective group and 69.7% of controls received ≤1 pRBC transfusion (p = 0.014). The risk for multiple transfusions was lower in patients screened for ID (OR 0.689, 95% CI 0.510–0.930). Despite similar Hb levels at day 7, patients in the prospective group received fewer postoperative pRBC transfusions (p < 0.001) and had a shorter hospital length of stay (p < 0.001). Globally, hospitalization costs were lower in patients screened and treated for ID. Conclusions Short-term pre-operative iron therapy is associated with a reduction in postoperative transfusions in anemic and non-anemic ID cardiac surgery patients and has a favorable impact on hospitalization costs. Clinical trial registration NCT04744181
The question of whether animal farming is morally acceptable has been one of the most hotly debated topics in recent decades, among both academics and the public. Animal-sourced foods (ASFs) represent a special case within the food ethics debate as recent positions of environmental movements, based on the growing literature on the impacts (real or presumed) of farmed animals, have merged with long-standing animal rights activists' concerns about whether it is morally correct to raise (and kill) animals for human purposes. In the search for common ethical values (at least in perspective), since ethical rules are the result of a convention, it is preferable to adhere to some general principles (or fixed points), recognizable to all: the value of the human being, his/her right to a healthy diet that must include ASFs, but without neglecting the so-called \“rights\” of the animal to a dignified life, and the need for the planet to survive. This chapter is concerned with answering the following questions: (1) Is meat consumption morally justified? (2) How do beliefs, especially religious beliefs, influence moral attitudes toward meat consumption? (3) Is it morally justified to sacrifice animal life for human needs? (4) Is welfare the right response to animal rights claims? (5) Is meat production environmentally sustainable?
This paper studies the relationship between migration and the productivity of high-skilled workers, as captured by inventors of international patent applications. Using machine learning techniques to uniquely identify inventors across patents, we are able to track the migration patterns of nearly one million individual inventors across countries. Migrant inventors account for more than nine percent of inventors in our sample. The econometric analysis seeks to explain the recurring finding in the literature that migrant inventors are more productive than non-migrant inventors. We find evidence that migrant inventors become about twenty-three percent more productive after having migrated. The disambiguated inventor data are openly available.
Objectives Excess adiposity is associated with several factors involved in carcinogenesis and breast cancer progression. Evidence supporting the role of body composition in breast cancer treatment is promising, but still scanty and mainly focused on adjuvant treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in body composition during neoadjuvant chemotherapy and its association with pathologic complete response and survival outcome in patients treated for operable/locally advanced breast cancer. Methods A retrospective review of patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed in the Oncology Section of the Department of Medicine, University of Verona between 2014 and 2019. Body composition was evaluated from clinically acquired computed tomography scans at diagnosis and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Descriptive statistic was adopted. The associations of body composition measures with pathologic complete response and disease-free survival were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier curves were compared with log-rank analysis. Results Data from 93 patients were collected. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the adipose compound changed significantly across all body mass index categories. Body composition parameters had no significant effect on pathologic complete response. Survival analysis showed that a high gain of visceral adipose tissue during neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with shorter disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 10.2; P = 0.026). In particular, disease-free survival was significantly worse in patients who gained ≥10% of visceral adipose tissue compared with patients who gained <10% of visceral adipose tissue (5-y disease-free survival 71.4 versus 96.3, P = 0.009, respectively). Conclusions Our results indicated that neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly affects body composition, which seems to have an effect on survival outcome of breast cancer, highlighting the relevance of the body composition assessment when estimating treatment outcomes.
Sixty-six dairy farms (as average, 167.0 ± 106.5 milking cows and milk yield of 31.4 ± 5.1) were visited to identify different nutritional approaches adopted in dairy cows diet formulation. Forage, TMR, faecal, and milk samples from lactating herds were collected and diet composition, in vitro methane production, in vivo nutrient digestibility, faecal fermentation profile and milk yield and milk quality were characterised. A hierarchical cluster analysis was applied and six nutritional approaches in diet formulation corresponding with six different clusters (CL) were identified. The CL discriminated the farm feeding choices in the following nutritional strategies, based on high use of: (i) high moisture corn (HMC) and legume silage, (ii) compound feed, (iii) corn and soy meals, (iv) HMC and soy meal, (v) corn meal and protein compound feeds, or (vi) HMC and protein compound feed strategies, respectively for CL1 to CL6. The milk yield tended (p = .061) to differ among CL. The greatest (>1.60) feed efficiency was calculated for CL1 and 5, whereas the lowest (
The human retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65-kDa protein (hRPE65) plays a crucial role within the retinoid visual cycle and several mutations affecting either its expression level or its enzymatic function are associated with inherited retinal diseases such as Retinitis Pigmentosa. The gene therapy product voretigene neparvovec (Luxturna) has been recently approved for treating hereditary retinal dystrophies; however, the treatment is currently accessible only to patients presenting confirmed biallelic mutations that severely impair hRPE65 function, and many reported hRPE65 missense mutations lack sufficient evidences for proving their pathogenicity. In this context, we developed a computational approach aimed at evaluating the potential pathogenic effect of hRPE65 missense variants located on the dimerisation domain of the protein. The protocol evaluates how mutations may affect folding and conformation stability of this protein region, potentially helping clinicians to evaluate the eligibility for gene therapy of patients diagnosed with this type of hRPE65 variant of uncertain significance. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
We analyze the multilayer architecture of the global input-output network using sectoral trade data (WIOD, 2016 release). With a focus on the mesoscale structure and related properties, our multilayer analysis takes into consideration the splitting into industry-based layers in order to catch more peculiar relationships between countries that cannot be detected from the analysis of the single-layer aggregated network. We can identify several large international communities in which some countries trade more intensively in some specific layers. However, interestingly, our results show that these clusters can restructure and evolve over time. In general, not only their internal composition changes, but the centrality rankings of the members inside are also reordered, industries from some countries diminishing their role and others from other countries growing importance. These changes in the large international clusters may reflect the outcomes and the dynamics of cooperation, partner selection and competition among industries and among countries in the global input-output network. (See 10.1016/j.jebo.2022.10.029)
- Francesco Autore
- Luca Stirparo
- Idanna Innocenti
- Luca Laurenti
COVID-19 disease has a strong impact on hematological patients; those receiving autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) represent a particularly vulnerable group, in which the effectiveness of vaccination is very variable. Chiarucci et al. showed that patients affected by non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and treated with rituximab experienced a lower rate of immunization against SARS-CoV-2 (54%), as well as significantly lower IgG antibody titers. In our multicenter retrospective observational study, we included 82 patients who underwent aHSCT, divided into two groups: 58 patients vaccinated after aHSCT (group A) and 24 vaccinated before getting transplantation (group B). In group A, 39 (67%) patients had positive serology, and the rate of positivity increased with time after aHSCT. In the subgroup of patients with NHL, the administration of rituximab predicted negative serology, particularly when administered in the 6 months before vaccination (13% response rate). Patients affected by plasma cells had a higher rate of positivity (83% overall), independently of the time to aHSCT. In group B, no patient who initially showed positive serology became negative after transplantation, so the aHSCT did not affect the response to the vaccination. Our study confirmed the role of rituximab as a negative predictor of response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, whereas the conditioning and transplantation procedure itself seemed to be less important.
- Raul Caruso
- Jon Echevarria-Coco
This article presents a theoretical model of conflict between two parties in a two-sector economy. In a ‘contested’ sector, they struggle to appropriate the maximum possible fraction of a contestable output. In an ‘uncontested’ sector, they hold secure property rights over the production of some goods. Parties split their resource endowment between ‘butter’ and ‘guns’ (in the contested sector) and ‘ice cream’ (in the uncontested sector). The model predicts that the optimal level of ‘guns’ depends positively on the price of ‘butter’ and negatively on the price of ‘ice cream’. Theoretical results are tested by means of a panel analysis of sub-Saharan African countries for the period 1980–2017. The results show that international prices of manufactures (interpreted as the uncontested ice cream sector) are negatively associated with arms imports and military expenditure, so confirming the theoretical prediction. In addition, world prices of some commodities are positively associated with arms imports and military expenditure.
Background: High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) has poor survival rates due to a combination of diagnosis at advanced stage and disease recurrence as a result of chemotherapy resistance. In BRCA1 (Breast Cancer gene 1) - or BRCA2-wild type (BRCAwt) HGSOC patients, resistance and progressive disease occur earlier and more often than in mutated BRCA. Identification of biomarkers helpful in predicting response to first-line chemotherapy is a challenge to improve BRCAwt HGSOC management. Methods: To identify a gene signature that can predict response to first-line chemotherapy, pre-treatment tumor biopsies from a restricted cohort of BRCAwt HGSOC patients were profiled by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. Patients were sub-grouped according to platinum-free interval (PFI), into sensitive (PFI > 12 months) and resistant (PFI < 6 months). The gene panel identified by RNA-seq analysis was then tested by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR (HT RT-qPCR) in a validation cohort, and statistical/bioinformatic methods were used to identify eligible markers and to explore the relevant pathway/gene network enrichments of the identified gene set. Finally, a panel of primary HGSOC cell lines was exploited to uncover cell-autonomous mechanisms of resistance. Results: RNA-seq identified a 42-gene panel discriminating sensitive and resistant BRCAwt HGSOC patients and pathway analysis pointed to the immune system as a possible driver of chemotherapy response. From the extended cohort analysis of the 42 DEGs (differentially expressed genes), a statistical approach combined with the random forest classifier model generated a ten-gene signature predictive of response to first-line chemotherapy. The ten-gene signature included: CKB (Creatine kinase B), CTNNBL1 (Catenin, beta like 1), GNG11 (G protein subunit gamma 11), IGFBP7 (Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7), PLCG2 (Phospholipase C, gamma 2), RNF24 (Ring finger protein 24), SLC15A3 (Solute carrier family 15 member 3), TSPAN31 (Tetraspanin 31), TTI1 (TELO2 interacting protein 1) and UQCC1 (Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex assembly factor). Cytotoxicity assays, combined with gene-expression analysis in primary HGSOC cell lines, allowed to define CTNNBL1, RNF24, and TTI1 as cell-autonomous contributors to tumor resistance. Conclusions: Using machine-learning techniques we have identified a gene signature that could predict response to first-line chemotherapy in BRCAwt HGSOC patients, providing a useful tool towards personalized treatment modalities.
Background Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are responsible for the metastatic dissemination of colorectal cancer (CRC) to the liver, lungs and lymph nodes. CTCs rarity and heterogeneity strongly limit the elucidation of their biological features, as well as preclinical drug sensitivity studies aimed at metastasis prevention. Methods We generated organoids from CTCs isolated from an orthotopic CRC xenograft model. CTCs-derived organoids (CTCDOs) were characterized through proteome profiling, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, tumor-forming capacity and drug screening assays. The expression of intra- and extracellular markers found in CTCDOs was validated on CTCs isolated from the peripheral blood of CRC patients. Results CTCDOs exhibited a hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) state and an increased expression of stemness-associated markers including the two homeobox transcription factors Goosecoid and Pancreatic Duodenal Homeobox Gene-1 (PDX1), which were also detected in CTCs from CRC patients. Functionally, CTCDOs showed a higher migratory/invasive ability and a different response to pathway-targeted drugs as compared to xenograft-derived organoids (XDOs). Specifically, CTCDOs were more sensitive than XDOs to drugs affecting the Survivin pathway, which decreased the levels of Survivin and X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP) inducing CTCDOs death. Conclusions These results indicate that CTCDOs recapitulate several features of colorectal CTCs and may be used to investigate the features of metastatic CRC cells, to identify new prognostic biomarkers and to devise new potential strategies for metastasis prevention.
Background: People living with HIV (PLWH) are generally known to suffer from a lower quality of life compared to the one of general population, but still very few is known about the self-perception of quality of life when comparing HIV to non-communicable diseases. We performed a comprehensive assessment of patient's reported outcomes measures (PROMs) among PLWH and patients affected by other chronic conditions (OC) such as diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, breast cancer in hormonal therapy, in order to investigate differences in PROMs outcomes between PLWH and other pathologies. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was performed by using questionnaires investigating health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item Health Survey), work productivity (WPI), and global health status (EQ-5D-3L). They were administered to patients affected by chronic diseases consecutively observed at a single University Hospital during a 10 months period, with comparable disease related aspects. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the association between disease group (HIV vs OC) and PROMs. Results: 230 patients were enrolled (89 PLWH, 143 OC). Mean age: 49 years (SD 10), mean time of disease 12 years (10), 96% were Caucasian, 35% assumed polypharmacy, 42% of male were PLWH versus 16% OC (p < 0.001), 19% PLWH versus 6% OC had clinical complications (p < 0.001). HIV infection was independently associated to a better health-related quality of life in several domains compared with the other conditions, except in mental health, whereas a worst health-related quality of life in most domains was reported by older patients and those experiencing polypharmacy. Conclusions: In this cohort of patients with chronic conditions followed within the same health setting, PLWH showed better self-reported health outcomes compared to other chronic conditions with comparable characteristics of chronicity. The potential detrimental role of older age and polypharmacy in most outcomes suggests the need of longitudinal assessment of PROMs in clinical practice.
Background Vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are used to reduce the risk of developing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite the significant benefits in terms of reduced risk of hospitalization and death, different adverse events may present after vaccination: among them, headache is one of the most common, but nowadays there is no summary presentation of its incidence and no description of its main features. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE covering the period between January 1 st 2020 and August 6 th , 2021, looking for record in English and with an abstract and using three main search terms (with specific variations): COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2; Vaccination; headache/adverse events. We selected manuscript including information on subjects developing headache after injection, and such information had to be derived from a structured form (i.e. no free reporting). Pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Analyses were carried out by vaccine vs. placebo, by first vs. second dose, and by mRNA-based vs. “traditional” vaccines; finally, we addressed the impact of age and gender on post-vaccine headache onset. Results Out of 9338 records, 84 papers were included in the review, accounting for 1.57 million participants, 94% of whom received BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1. Headache was generally the third most common AE: it was detected in 22% (95% CI 18–27%) of subjects after the first dose of vaccine and in 29% (95% CI 23–35%) after the second, with an extreme heterogeneity. Those receiving placebo reported headache in 10–12% of cases. No differences were detected across different vaccines or by mRNA-based vs. “traditional” ones. None of the studies reported information on headache features. A lower prevalence of headache after the first injection of BNT162b2 among older participants was shown. Conclusions Our results show that vaccines are associated to a two-fold risk of developing headache within 7 days from injection, and the lack of difference between vaccine types enable to hypothesize that headache is secondary to systemic immunological reaction than to a vaccine-type specific reaction. Some descriptions report onset within the first 24 h and that in around one-third of the cases, headache has migraine-like features with pulsating quality, phono and photophobia; in 40–60% of the cases aggravation with activity is observed. The majority of patients used some medication to treat headache, the one perceived as the most effective being acetylsalicylic acid.
Background Malan syndrome (MALNS) is a recently described ultrarare syndrome lacking guidelines for diagnosis, management and monitoring of evolutive complications. Less than 90 patients are reported in the literature and limited clinical information are available to assure a proper health surveillance. Results A multidisciplinary team with high expertise in MALNS has been launched at the “Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù”, Rome, Italy. Sixteen Italian MALNS individuals with molecular confirmed clinical diagnosis of MALNS were enrolled in the program. For all patients, 1-year surveillance in a dedicated outpatient Clinic was attained. The expert panel group enrolled 16 patients and performed a deep phenotyping analysis directed to clinically profiling the disorder and performing critical revision of previously reported individuals. Some evolutive complications were also assessed. Previously unappreciated features (e.g., high risk of bone fractures in childhood, neurological/neurovegetative symptoms, noise sensitivity and Chiari malformation type 1) requiring active surveillance were identified. A second case of neoplasm was recorded. No major cardiovascular anomalies were noticed. An accurate clinical description of 9 new MALNS cases was provided. Conclusions Deep phenotyping has provided a more accurate characterization of the main clinical features of MALNS and allows broadening the spectrum of disease. A minimal dataset of clinical evaluations and follow-up timeline has been proposed for proper management of patients affected by this ultrarare disorder.
Background Transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR amyloidosis) is a rare, life-threatening disease caused by the accumulation of variant or wild-type (ATTRwt amyloidosis) transthyretin amyloid fibrils in the heart, peripheral nerves, and other tissues and organs. Methods Established in 2007, the Transthyretin Amyloidosis Outcomes Survey (THAOS) is the largest ongoing, global, longitudinal observational study of patients with ATTR amyloidosis, including both inherited and wild-type disease, and asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic TTR mutations. This descriptive analysis examines baseline characteristics of symptomatic patients and asymptomatic gene carriers enrolled in THAOS since its inception in 2007 (data cutoff: August 1, 2021). Results This analysis included 3779 symptomatic patients and 1830 asymptomatic gene carriers. Symptomatic patients were predominantly male (71.4%) and had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of symptom onset of 56.3 (17.8) years. Val30Met was the most common genotype in symptomatic patients in South America (80.9%), Europe (55.4%), and Asia (50.5%), and more patients had early- versus late-onset disease in these regions. The majority of symptomatic patients in North America (58.8%) had ATTRwt amyloidosis. The overall distribution of phenotypes in symptomatic patients was predominantly cardiac (40.7%), predominantly neurologic (40.1%), mixed (16.6%), and no phenotype (2.5%). In asymptomatic gene carriers, mean (SD) age at enrollment was 42.4 (15.7) years, 42.4% were male, and 73.2% carried the Val30Met mutation. Conclusions This 14-year global overview of THAOS in over 5000 patients represents the largest analysis of ATTR amyloidosis to date and highlights the genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity of the disease. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier : NCT00628745.
This paper presents an agent-based model (ABM) of endogenous arrival of technological paradigms and new sectors entailing different patterns of labour creation and destruction, as well as of consumption dynamics. The model, building on the labour-augmented K+S ABM, addresses the long-term patterns of labour demand emerging from heterogeneous forms of technical change. It provides a multi-level, integrated perspective on so called scenarios of the future of work, currently often restricted or to firm-level or to short-time sectoral analyses, and studies the conditions under which labour creation and destruction tend to balance. It is a relatively fair and stable distribution of income granted by a Fordist-type of regulation of the labour market that guarantees that the model never reaches stages of persistent technological unemployment. On the contrary, a systematic mismatch between production and consumption spheres emerges out of a Competitive (post-Fordist) wage-labour nexus, wherein the labour shedding effect of process innovation tends to prevail over the labour creating effect of product innovation.
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