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- SourceAvailable from: Fernanda Teixeira Borges[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interest in the role of extracellular vesicles in various diseases including cancer has been increasing. Extracellular vesicles include microvesicles, exosomes, apoptotic bodies, and argosomes, and are classified by size, content, synthesis, and function. Currently, the best characterized are exosomes and microvesicles. Exosomes are small vesicles (40-100 nm) involved in intercellular communication regardless of the distance between them. They are found in various biological fluids such as plasma, serum, and breast milk, and are formed from multivesicular bodies through the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Microvesicles are 100-1000 nm vesicles released from the cell by the outward budding of the plasma membrane. The therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles is very broad, with applications including a route of drug delivery and as biomarkers for diagnosis. Extracellular vesicles extracted from stem cells may be used for treatment of many diseases including kidney diseases. This review highlights mechanisms of synthesis and function, and the potential uses of well-characterized extracellular vesicles, mainly exosomes, with a special focus on renal functions and diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Changes in the spectrum of clinically important fungal infection have been observed in recent years. Acremonium species has been responsible for eumycotic mycetomas but has also been increasingly implicated in systemic fungal diseases. A case of Acremonium kiliense fungemia with proven involvement of the lungs in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell patient is reported. A high-resolution computed tomography scan of the lungs showed nodules in both lungs. Multiple cultures of blood demonstrated narrow septate hyphae, cylindrical conidia, and solitary tapering phialides and microconidia that remained grouped in slimy heads. The isolate was identified as A. kiliense based on its morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analysis. Susceptibility testing of the clinical isolate was performed to four antifungal agents. Amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole were found to be inactive in vitro against the isolate; however, it was found to be sensitive to voriconazole. This last drug was indicated, and a high-resolution computed tomography scan of the lungs was normal after 10 days. One year later, the patient was free of symptoms and her blood culture was negative for fungi. Thus, voriconazole was effective in treatment for life-threatening A. kiliense infections. In this work, we performed an overview of worldwide clinical infections caused by A. kiliense.
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ABSTRACT: The present study analyzed the immune modulation mechanisms of thymulin 5CH in a granuloma experimental model. Male adult Balb/c mice were inoculated with BCG into the footpad to induce granuloma, which was quantitatively evaluated. The phenotypic characterization of phagocyte, T- and B-lymphocyte populations in the peritoneum, and local lymph node was done by flow cytometry. During all experimental periods, thymulin 5CH and vehicle (control) were given ad libitum to mice, diluted into the drinking water (1.6 × 10(-17) M). After 7 days from inoculation, thymulin-treated mice presented reduction in the number of epithelioid cytokeratine-positive cells (P = 0.0001) in the lesion, in relation to young phagocytes. After 21 days, the differentiation of B1 peritoneal stem cells into phagocytes reached the peak, being higher in thymulin-treated mice (P = 0.0001). Simultaneously, the score of infected phagocytes in the lesion decreased (P = 0.001), and the number of B1-derived phagocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the local lymph node increased in relation to control (P = 0.0001). No difference was seen on the CD25+ Treg cells. The results show that thymulin 5CH treatment is able to improve the granuloma inflammatory process and the infection remission, by modulating local and systemic phagocyte differentiation.
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