Lisbon, Lisboa, Portugal
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ABSTRACT: (note: no abstract available. the following is the first, introductory paragraph) The understanding of the neural basis of limb apraxia (deficits in performing previously learned skilled movements) has benefited greatly from cognitive research on gesture processing and recognition, but the influence of this research on the treatment of apraxia is limited (Cantagallo, Maini, Rumiati, 2012). In our view, it would be desirable that this field of research have an impact also on treatment of apraxia, and Helon and Kroliczak’s (2014) studies offer useful insights for the design of apraxia treatments.
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ABSTRACT: Dental disease is now recognised as a major but often unrecognised disorder of equids, including horses and donkeys. However, very few large clinical studies have documented the prevalence and type of dental disease present in different equid populations and no dental studies have been reported in Zamorano-Leonés or Mirandês donkeys, two endangered donkey breeds. Clinical and detailed oral examinations were performed in 400 Mirandês and 400 Zamorano-Leonés donkeys in Portugal and Spain. It was found that just 4.5 per cent had ever received any previous dental care. Cheek teeth (CT) disorders were present in 82.8 per cent of these donkeys, ranging from a prevalence of 29.6 per cent in the <2.5-year-old group to 100 per cent in the >25-year-old group. These CT disorders included enamel overgrowths (73.1 per cent prevalence but with just 6.3 per cent having associated soft tissue injuries), focal overgrowths (37.3 per cent), periodontal disease (23.5 per cent) and diastemata (19.9 per cent). Peripheral caries was present in 5.9 per cent of cases, but inexplicably, infundibular caries was very rare (1.3 per cent prevalence); this may have been due to their almost fully foraged diet. The high prevalence of enamel overgrowths in these donkeys, most which never received concentrates, also raises questions about the aetiology of this disorder. This very high prevalence of CT disorders, especially in older donkeys, was of great welfare concern in some cases and emphasises the need for routine dental care in these cases on welfare grounds and in order to help preserve these unique breeds.
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ABSTRACT: Tooth resorption (TR) is one of the most common dental diseases in cats. Determination of risk factors has not yet been fully assessed and, to the best knowledge of the authors, this disease has never been studied in Portuguese cats. The objective of this case-control study was to determine type and distribution of TR lesions, evaluate risk factors, and establish relationships between variables in this disease. The study included data from 71 cats admitted for general anesthesia for various reasons. The cats were randomly selected. The inclusion criteria were availability of clinical history and owner permission. Cats with known oral disease were not excluded from the study. All cats received ultrasonic scaling and polishing of the teeth, a thorough oral examination, and full-mouth radiographs. A strong statistical relation was found between age and TR. The age group of 10 to 15-years showed an increased risk of 6.56 times for TR occurrence compared with the group 0 to 4-years of age. Presence of gingivitis in all index levels was related to an increased risk for TR. No relation was found between age or gingivitis index and lesion type. Mandibular third premolar and molar teeth were most commonly affected by TR, especially for type 1 lesions. Canine teeth were statistically more likely to have type 2 lesions. The trend for the canine teeth to be more affected with type 2 lesions needs further verification.
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