Water status such as drought or excess water, have led to great socio-economic impacts on sour passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) crops. Relevant studies have highlighted the impact of growth regulators on the activation and modulation of plant escape mechanisms to water stress. This study aimed to analyze whether PBZ affect morphophysiology and biochemistry of sour passion-fruit seedlings inducing a better adaptation to water stress after transplanting. In general, the irrigation regime was the factor that promoted the most expressive effect for all the evaluated characteristics, while the PBZ concentration factor affected only the morphology. The interaction between these factors was observed for leaf water potential (ѱw) and mass accumulation, characterized by increases as a function of increasing water availability. The 40 and 80 mg L⁻¹ PBZ concentration induced the maintenance of higher ѱw throughout the variation of water regime evaluated in this study, when it was determined at 140 days after emergence. The shifting from the quadratic model to the linear model of morphological characteristics as a function of the irrigation regimes, corroborates regulator effect to becoming it more directly associated with water availability, without interactions with other factors not addressed. The relationship between mass accumulation and PBZ concentrations were evidenced for the water excess regimes (90 and 120% pot capacity), characterized by decreases. Under water excess, 40 mg L⁻¹ of PBZ results greater water uptake and storage capacity, increasing the plants' vigor. Although the anticipation of the escape mechanisms optimizes the plant's water status, the growth restriction imposed by the regulator reduced the biomass accumulation potential of the plants under water restriction.
Tannery sludge has great potential for use in agriculture, however it is a potentially toxic waste, and it is necessary to establish the ideal dose for each crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization with liquid tannery sludge on growth, chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange of Pennisetum purpureum in two production cycles. A 2 × 6 + 1 split plot scheme was used, where the first factor was composed of two productive cycles, the second factor different fertilizations doses: 0, 30, 70, 110, 150, 190 t ha⁻¹ of liquid tannery sludge and an additional treatment with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium control. Plant height, number of leaves and tillers, canopy and stem diameter, leaf area, dry matter, chlorophyll index (SPAD), chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange were evaluated. The highest production of total dry matter was observed in the second production cycle. The range between 72–100 t ha⁻¹ of liquid tannery sludge showed the greatest gains in growth and production of elephant grass. At doses above 150 t ha⁻¹ of liquid tannery sludge, the photochemical apparatus begins to show possible damage to the photosystem II (PSII) and reductions in gas exchange.
Objective To provide guidelines on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in patients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases (IMRD) to rheumatologists considering specific scenarios of the daily practice based on the shared-making decision (SMD) process. Methods A task force was constituted by 24 rheumatologists (panel members), with clinical and research expertise in immunizations and infectious diseases in immunocompromised patients, endorsed by the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (BSR), to develop guidelines for COVID-19 vaccination in patients with IMRD. A consensus was built through the Delphi method and involved four rounds of anonymous voting, where five options were used to determine the level of agreement (LOA), based on the Likert Scale: (1) strongly disagree; (2) disagree, (3) neither agree nor disagree (neutral); (4) agree; and (5) strongly agree. Nineteen questions were addressed and discussed via teleconference to formulate the answers. In order to identify the relevant data on COVID-19 vaccines, a search with standardized descriptors and synonyms was performed on September 10th, 2021, of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, and LILACS to identify studies of interest. We used the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale to assess the quality of nonrandomized studies. Results All the nineteen questions-answers (Q&A) were approved by the BSR Task Force with more than 80% of panelists voting options 4—agree—and 5—strongly agree—, and a consensus was reached. These Guidelines were focused in SMD on the most appropriate timing for IMRD patients to get vaccinated to reach the adequate covid-19 vaccination response. Conclusion These guidelines were developed by a BSR Task Force with a high LOA among panelists, based on the literature review of published studies and expert opinion for COVID-19 vaccination in IMRD patients. Noteworthy, in the pandemic period, up to the time of the review and the consensus process for this document, high-quality evidence was scarce. Thus, it is not a substitute for clinical judgment.
The Brazilian agro-industrial chain generates about 291 million/tons/year of wastes, which, if inadequately destinated, could originate social and environmental risks. There is a growing need for the use of alternative raw materials to replace that originated from fossil resources in the Brazilian industry. Renewable materials play an important role on the sustainability of ecosystems and materials’ circularity. The issue has acquired importance in light of recent bio-based agro-fiber development potential applications. Considering sustainability guidelines, this study aimed to analyze the main Brazilian agro-industrial waste crops (temporary and permanent) as important sources of natural fibers and other raw materials. A systematic review of the literature (SRL) about Brazilian researches, based on concepts of industrial ecology, and the creation of a bibliometric analysis network were carried out. The agricultural biomass related to the main crops presents characteristics making them suitable to be applied for textiles, as natural fibers and polymers, in biosorbents for industrial effluents, and cellulose obtention and reinforcement material in composites. Thus, scientific investment in researches on materials and technology development are necessary to provide applications that could meet current and future demands and expand the scope of new materials for sustainability.
Objective To review the technical aspects of body composition assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and other methods based on the most recent scientific evidence. Materials and methods This Official Position is a result of efforts by the Scientific Committee of the Brazilian Association of Bone Assessment and Metabolism ( Associação Brasileira de Avaliação Óssea e Osteometabolismo , ABRASSO) and health care professionals with expertise in body composition assessment who were invited to contribute to the preparation of this document. The authors searched current databases for relevant publications. In this first part of the Official Position, the authors discuss the different methods and parameters used for body composition assessment, general principles of DXA, and aspects of the acquisition and analysis of DXA scans. Conclusion Considering aspects of accuracy, precision, cost, duration, and ability to evaluate all three compartments, DXA is considered the gold-standard method for body composition assessment, particularly for the evaluation of fat mass. In order to ensure reliable, adequate, and reproducible DXA reports, great attention is required regarding quality control procedures, preparation, removal of external artifacts, imaging acquisition, and data analysis and interpretation.
Objective To present an updated and evidence-based guideline for the use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess body composition in clinical practice. Materials and methods This Official Position was developed by the Scientific Committee of the Brazilian Association of Bone Assessment and Metabolism ( Associação Brasileira de Avaliação Óssea e Osteometabolismo , ABRASSO) and experts in the field who were invited to contribute to the preparation of this document. The authors searched current databases for relevant publications in the area of body composition assessment. In this second part of the Official Position, the authors discuss the interpretation and reporting of body composition parameters assessed by DXA and the use of DXA for body composition evaluation in special situations, including evaluation of children, persons with HIV, and animals. Conclusion This document offers recommendations for the use of DXA in body composition evaluation, including indications, interpretation, and applications, to serve as a guiding tool in clinical practice and research for health care professionals in Brazil.
Background Winter swimming developed from a national tradition into a health-improving sport with international competitions. The difference in performance between women and men was thoroughly examined in various sporting disciplines; however, there is little data on winter swimming events. Therefore, this study aims to compare the sex differences in female and male winter swimmers for a distinct stroke over distances of 25 m and 200 m in ice water, freezing water and cold water in the multiple stages of the Winter Swimming World Cup, hosted by the International Winter Swimming Association (IWSA) since 2016. Methods All data included in this study were obtained from the official results of the Winter Swimming World Cup, published on the “International Winter Swimming Association” (IWSA) website. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare race time between sexes in different swimming strokes and categories of water. In contrast, the Kruskal–Wallis H test was used to compare differences between swimming strokes or water categories for the same sex. Results For 25 m and 200 m events of the “IWSA World Cup,” male athletes were faster than female athletes, regardless of stroke and water temperature category. However, the effect size of the difference between the sexes was greater in 25 m than in 200 m for all strokes and water temperatures. Swimming speed for the same-sex differed between the swimming stroke in relation to the water temperature category. Head-up breaststroke was found to be the slowest stroke (p < 0.05). Conclusion In water temperatures between − 2° and + 9 °C, men were faster than women in all stages of the “IWSA World Cup,” regardless of the swimming stroke, but the effect size of the difference between the sexes was greater in shorter than in longer events.
Sjogren's Syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands and other organs, associated with sicca syndrome but also with systemic involvement with varying degrees of severity. Despite their importance, these systemic manifestations are not routinely evaluated and there is no homogenous approach to their diagnosis or evaluation. To close this gap, a panel of experts from the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the identification of epidemiologic and clinical features of these manifestations and made recommendations based on the findings. Agreement between the experts was achieved using the Delphi method. The first part of this guideline summarizes the most important topics, and 11 recommendations are provided for the articular, pulmonary, and renal care of SS patients.
In this paper, we report the results of an in-depth review of scientific literature on the assessment of rainfall erosivity in Brazil and published in peer-reviewed journals over the last three decades. In total, 123 articles regarding this topic in Brazil were published. These studies were analyzed and filtered into categories regarding the bibliographic information, methodology scope, and main results. It was found that the EI 30 has been the most employed erosivity index in the country, while the use of pluviographic rainfall data and regression equations are the main methods for obtaining erosivity values. The magnitudes of annual rainfall erosivity reported for the Brazilian territory range from 59 to 26,891 MJ mm ha-1 h − 1 year − 1. The lowest values are found in the Northeast region and the highest in the North. Kriging is the most widespread technique for obtaining rainfall erosivity maps in Brazil. Furthermore, the Southeast region accounts for the largest number of erosivity studies, while the North has a major lack of erosivity information. The advancements over the last decade are characterized by the use of synthetic series of rainfall and remote sensing products to estimate erosivity, as well as the use of machine learning techniques for its interpolation. For the next years, an increase in the use of these methodologies is expected, as well as an intensification of the assessment of the future patterns of rainfall erosivity over the country. The present review updates the findings regarding the assessment of rainfall erosivity in Brazil and brings a wider overview of the erosivity studies in the country. The information here summarized contributes to the establishment of a conservationist planning of soil and water management on a national scale. Finally, the complete database with all information retrieved from the literature was made available.
The overwhelming production of waste represents a complex environmental challenge for mining companies worldwide. Efforts are currently being made to develop methods for storing or reusing such potentially hazardous waste. Among innovative environmentally-friendly solutions, constructing Technosols from mining waste may be a feasible solution for revalorizing this type of waste. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding the pedogenic processes that govern the functioning of these soils. The Fundão Dam collapse (2015) offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the early pedogenesis of a Technosol unintentionally formed from Fe-rich tailings deposited in the Doce River estuary. This study aimed to assess the pathways of Technosol pedogenesis, four years after the world’s largest mining disaster. Based on a multi-technique approach (including macro-and micromorphological analysis, mineralogical analysis, physicochemical parameters and geochemical analysis of Fe partitioning), bare tailings and different Technosol profiles were analyzed to unravel the action of early pedogenesis in a hydromorphic environment. Within four years, rapid colonization by plants favored fine particle accumulation and triggered a process of cumulization, as evidenced by a 6-fold increase in the clay content. The vegetation also promoted input of organic carbon (from 0.4 to 2.1 %), which altered the geochemical environment and Fe dynamics. These changes promoted melanization, incipient paludization and gleization. The Fe partitioning revealed that the bare tailings, primarily comprising crystalline Fe oxides, transitioned to soil matrices dominated by poorly crystalline Fe oxyhydroxides (41 ± 3 %). Examination of thin sections revealed rapid Fe translocation through Technosol profiles associated with the formation of Fe coatings and hypocoating pedofeatures. This study provides valuable insights into the action of both time and organisms as factors for Technosol formation and functioning.
Eco-innovation is the innovation of products that focuses on the use of renewable energy and meets specific environmental requirements, and is essential for energy conservation and environmental protection. There are recommendations and strategies available for general product development, but there are limited studies when focusing on renewable energy products. A proposal for eco-innovation in renewable energy is developed based on exergy analysis, TRIZ methodology, and knowledge management. The model is demonstrated with a specific case study. This study contributes to the analysis and development of products with renewable energy that help mitigate climate change, consistent with the change in the energy matrix. Furthermore, this study is a transdisciplinary effort that integrates concepts from different topics to achieve a comprehensive model.
Background After the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11, 2020, public health restrictions were introduced to slow COVID-19 transmission and prevent health systems overload globally. Work-from-home requirements, online schooling, and social isolation measures required adaptations that may have exposed parents and children to family violence, including intimate partner violence and child abuse and neglect, especially in the early days of the pandemic. Thus, we sought to: (1) examine the occurrence of family violence; (2) identify factors associated with family violence; and (3) identify relevant recommendations, from COVID-19 literature published up to 1 year after the pandemic declaration. Methods This review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021241622), employed rapid review methods, and extracted data from eligible papers in medical and health databases published between December 1, 2019 and March 11, 2021 in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Embase. Findings 28 articles including 29 studies were included in the rapid review. While many studies of families/households revealed rises in family violence incidence, official justice, police, and emergency department records noted declines during the pandemic. Parental stress, burnout, mental distress (i.e. depression), difficulty managing COVID-19 measures, social isolation, and financial and occupational losses were related to increases in family violence. Health services should adopt approaches to prevent family violence, treat victims in the context of public health restrictions, and increase training for digital service usage by health and educational professionals. Interpretation Globally, restrictions aimed to limit the spread of COVID-19 may have increased the risk factors and incidence of family violence in communities. Official records of family violence may be biased toward under-reporting in the context of pandemics and should be interpreted with caution. Funding RESOLVE Alberta, Canada and the Emerging Leaders in the Americas Program (ELAP), Global Affairs Canada.
Alkaloids are compounds with wide occurrence in plant species and have been used for thousands of years for medicinal purposes. Industries demand high amounts of these metabolites and their improved production has been achieved due to recent advances in biotechnological techniques. In order to verify the scenario of studies and innovation in alkaloids occurring in tropical species, we surveyed in the Scopus and Espacenet databases, all research papers and patents on this theme. Our survey highlighted that at least 109 families and 481 tropical species were examined for the presence of alkaloids in the last 24 years. In addition, we found that approximately 3,400 patents have been filed in the last 20 years. However, contributions from tropical countries are lower than those from countries outside the region. Finally, we highlight the effort within the most varied biotechnological approaches that have been used to produce and increase the concentration of alkaloids in tropical plants. Although many advances have been made in recent years, challenges such as elucidating pathways in different species, adapting new techniques, discovering new expression vectors with greater compatibility, and elicitation studies for the production of alkaloids in tropical plants still need to be resolved and discussed by the scientific community.
Urban forests are responsible for a lot of benefits, and can be used as a tool to ex-situ conservation of native species. Our study investigated a public urban forest aiming to provide subside to management projects in order to allow the accurate fulfillment of social, aesthetic and ecological functions displayed by trees. Our survey was conducted in 6 public squares and 5 gardens in the Jardins neighborhood. We classified the trees according to their phytogeographic origins and seed dispersal habit. The Shannon-Weaver (H') index, Simpson's dominance (D') and Pielou's equability (J) were determined. A total of 507 individuals were sampled, located in 12 botanical families and 29 species, and 13 of them were classified as native and 16 as exotic. The family with higher species richness and number of species was Fabaceae (36%). Regarding the seed dispersal syndrome, the most representative was zoochory (52%). The ecological index showed medium species diversity (H'=2.2284), high dominance (D'=0.7899) and medium number of individuals (J) 0.6552. Although the Jardins neighborhood was planned, the urban forest in this area still needs improvement; such as incentive measures that can promote biodiversity and the application of ex-situ conservation.
A Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) is the most advanced equipment used to bring a good level of situational awareness to Wide-Area Measurement System (WAMS) in power systems. However, the underlying cost for such PMU-based supervisory systems is the limiting factor that affects the extent of installed syncrophasor devices in a power network. This work aims to formulate the optimal PMU placement problem in a power transmission system which seeks to jointly minimize the risk of inobservability for State Estimation and also the overall total cost. Thus, it is proposed a multi-objective algorithm that uses numerical observability indicators to characterize measurement plan robustness and also graph theory tools to address the total cost optimization problem, which considers practical and more realistic aspects of the installation of PMUs, as well as addressing costs for the network communication infrastructure. Moreover, non-dominated Pareto solutions are built, which in a real scenario, would serve better for judicious decisions by the planners of a measurement system.
Background Refugee research ethics overlaps with and has drawn from ethics in humanitarian relief, anthropology and medical research. Ethics procedures and ethical practice need to be adapted to refugee settings to prevent unintentional harms and provide benefit to potential research participants who are highly vulnerable. Methods Non-systematic review of published literature on ethics and ethical practice related specifically to conducting research among refugees. Discussion Researchers conducting studies with refugees may find that compliance with procedural ethics is straightforward but, in practice, encounter myriad issues of relational (or “micro”) ethics. These include how to obtain fully informed and genuinely voluntary consent, ensure confidentiality and participant anonymity, avoid unintentional harms, and fulfil the “dual imperative” of conducting methodologically rigorous research that provides reciprocal benefit to participants. Underlying all these issues is the asymmetric power relationship between researchers and refugees. Professionalism and reflexivity in the researcher's practice, establishing a researcher-participant relationship and ensuring meaningful participation in the research process are essential. It is the joint responsibility of all stakeholders in the research process to scrutinize every aspect of a research project to be conducted with refugees, thereby preventing sub-optimal or inadvertently unethical practices, but the individual researcher is ultimately responsible for ensuring that refugees derive benefit from the research to which they have contributed. Perspective Good ethical practice and methodological quality are mutually reinforcing goals. Although much progress has been made in improving ethical guidance for research among refugees, further development to define and guide best practice is needed.
Use of irrigation techniques is essential to ensure agricultural production and food security. Agricultural borders irrigated by center pivots have been expanding on a large scale. However, to make investments feasible and promote sustainable production, preliminary studies based on technical-environmental criteria are essential to support decision-making in areas where technology is intended to be installed. Thus, this study aimed to determine potential areas for center pivots installation in Espírito Santo state, Brazil, ensuring greater returns from production process, socioeconomic growth, sustainable use of natural resources and lower financial risks for investors. Chosen method was multicriteria analysis, using a weighted linear combination and fuzzy logic. The methodological steps of the study were: (a) database compilation; (b) Euclidean distance application for matrix and vector variables; (c) fuzzy logic application to Euclidean distance of matrix variables; (d) WLC method application to fuzzified matrix variables; (e) reclassification of potential areas; and (f) results statistical analysis. It is concluded that there are 1,272,238.05 ha technically suitable for center pivots installation. Currently, only 1 % of this area is explored (12,799.42 ha), resulting in 1,259,458.63 ha of potential areas for center pivots installation. Most areas considered suitable (62.6%) were classified as medium potential (790,764.67 ha), while 232,102.00 ha (18.24 %) were classified as low potential and 249,371.38 ha (19.16 %) as high potential. The municipalities with the greatest potential were: São Mateus (118,812 ha), Linhares (106,099 ha), Montanha (90,830 ha), Aracruz (75,580 ha), Pinheiros (75,291 ha) and Conceição da Barra (71,597 ha). Similarity analysis pointed out the method accuracy, in which 97.31 % of real areas which already have installed center pivots are located in areas considered by the study as potential for center pivots installation. Considering several technical and environmental criteria, this study presents an innovative proposal for impartial identification of the most suitable areas for center pivots installation. Results contribute to application of public policies in irrigated agriculture planning and to a more sustainable agricultural production, in addition to bring greater security in investments made by private sector. Moreover, the method provides guidelines that allow its application in any other area of interest on the planet.
Analytical assurance of coffees’ geographical indication (GI) authenticity is essential for producers and consumers. In this way, chemometric methods, electrochemical techniques, and 3D printed sensors become attractive to assure the coffee’s quality. These sensors are low-cost, fast, and simple, with the possibility of miniaturization and portability. Therefore, 3D printed electrodes with chemometrics were used to classify three Brazilian coffees from regions with GI. Further, Au/Gpt-PLA electrodes with partial least squares regression were used to detect the blending of GI coffee with traditional coffee. Soft independent modelling of class analogies coupled with cyclic voltammetry had the best performance, with 91 - 95% accuracy, specificity of 94 - 100%, and 80 - 83% sensitivity. Furthermore, the calibration models detected and quantified traditional coffee in all three coffees from regions with GI. The detection limits ranged from 1.4 – 10% (w/w), and quantification 4.6 – 32%, depending on the specific coffee.
Segmented all-electron basis sets of double and triple zeta valence qualities plus polarization functions (DZP and TZP) for the elements Fr, Ra, and Ac to be used with the zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) were presented. These sets were constructed from the reoptimization of the contraction coefficients of the corresponding non-relativistic basis sets. In order to adequately describe electrons distant from the atomic nuclei, these sets were augmented with diffuse functions and were, respectively, designated as ADZP-ZORA and ATZP-ZORA. At the ZORA-B3LYP theory level, the relativistic sets were employed to calculate ionization energies of Fr, Ra, and Ac as well as bond lengths, dissociation energies, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and static mean dipole polarizabilities of some diatomics. Comparing with benchmark theoretical results and with experimental data available in the literature, it can be verified that our basis sets are able to produce reliable and accurate results. Evaluation of the performances of ZORA and second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonians was performed.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.