Universidade Federal de São Carlos
  • São Carlos, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil
Recent publications
Zebrafish is considered an unprecedented animal model in drug discovery. A review of the literature presents highlights and elucidates the biological effects of chemical components found in Cannabis sativa. Particular attention is paid to endocannabinoid system (eCB) and its main receptors (CB1 and CB2). The zebrafish model is a promising one for the study of cannabinoids because of the many similarities to the human system. Despite the recent advances on the eCB system, there is still the need to elucidate some of the interactions and, thus, the zebrafish model can be used for that purpose as it respects the 3Rs concept and reduced time and costs. In view of the relevance of cannabinoids in the treatment and prevention of diseases, as well as the importance of the zebrafish animal model in elucidating the biological effects of new drugs, the aim of this study was to bring to light information on the use of the zebrafish animal model in testing C. sativa- based medicines .
Background Activating the immune system for therapeutic benefit has long been a goal in immunology, especially in cancer treatment, but the low immunogenicity of antitumor vaccines remains a limiting factor in the fight against malignant neoplasms. The increase in the immunogenicity of weak antigens using biodegradable polymers, such as chitosan, has been observed in the field of cancer immunotherapy. However, the effects of the vaccine using a combination of tumor cells and a thermoreversible delivery system based on chitosan in bladder cancer models, mainly using the intravesical route to stimulate the antitumor immune response, are unknown. We propose to evaluate the efficacy of a polymeric gel matrix (TPG) formed by poloxamer 407 and chitosan, associated with MB49 cells, as an intravesical antitumor vaccine using a C57BL/6 murine model of bladder urothelial carcinoma. The effectiveness of immunization was analyzed with the formation of three experimental groups: Control, TPG and TPG + MB49. In the vaccination phase, the TPG + MB49 group underwent a traumatic injury to the bladder wall with immediate intravesical instillation of the vaccine compound containing MB49 cells embedded in TPG. The TPG group was subjected to the same procedures using the compound containing the gel diluted in medium, and the control group using only the medium. After 21 days, the animals were challenged with tumor induction. Results In vitro tests showed loss of viability and inability to proliferate after exposure to TPG. In vivo tests showed that animals previously immunized with TPG + MB49 had higher cumulative survival, as well as significantly lower bladder weight and size in contrast to the other two groups that did not show a statistically different tumor evolution. In addition, the splenocytes of these animals also showed a higher rate of antitumor cytotoxicity in relation to the TPG and control groups. Conclusions We can conclude that MB49 cells embedded in a polymeric thermoreversible gel matrix with chitosan used in the form of an intravesical vaccine are able to stimulate the immune response and affect the development of the bladder tumor in an orthotopic and syngeneic C57BL/6 murine model.
The levels of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), Zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), and lead (Pb) were determined in Nigerian and Brazilian milk samples. Their concentrations in powdered milk were in the order K > Ca > Na > Mg > Zn > Fe > Cu > Mo > Mn > Pb, and for liquid milk, K > Ca > Mg > Zn > Fe > Mo > Cu. The margin of exposure and provisional tolerable weekly intake values of Pb in powdered milk indicated no significant health risks to consumers. The rank order of microelements in powdered milk consumers based on target hazard quotient (THQ) was Zn > Mo > Cu > Pb > Fe > Mn, and for liquid milk, Zn > Mo > Cu > Fe. The THQs of microelements in milk for the Nigerians and Brazilians were lower than 1. Carcinogenic risk (CR) of Pb in children and adults was close to 1 E-6 but lower than 1 E-5, indicating inconsiderable non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks. The presence of Pb in powdered milk is of great concern, therefore, food quality and safety plans must be carried out during production.
In this article we study a semilinear mathematical model with delay term for thermal conduction problems defined on a one-dimensional moving boundary domain. The goals of this work are to prove existence, regularity, and finite fractal dimension of the pullback attractors on tempered universes that depends on a non-increasing function η:R→(0,+∞).
The concern about pesticide exposure to neotropical bees has been increasing in the last few years, and knowledge gaps have been identified. Although stingless bees, (e.g.: Melipona scutellaris), are more diverse than honeybees and they stand out in the pollination of several valuable economical crops, toxicity assessments with stingless bees are still scarce. Nowadays new approaches in ecotoxicological studies, such as omic analysis, were pointed out as a strategy to reveal mechanisms of how bees deal with these stressors. To date, no molecular techniques have been applied for the evaluation of target and/or non-target organs in stingless bees, such as the Malpighian tubules (Mt). Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the Mt of M. scutellaris after one and eight days of exposure to LC50/100 (0.000543 ng a.i./μL) of thiamethoxam (TMX). Through functional annotation analysis of four transcriptome libraries, the time course line approach revealed 237 DEGs (nine clusters) associated with carbon/energy metabolism and cellular processes (lysosomes, autophagy, and glycan degradation). The expression profiles of Mt were altered by TMX in processes, such as detoxification, excretion, tissue regeneration, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Transcriptome analysis showed that cell metabolism in Mt was mainly affected after 8 days of exposure. Nine genes were selected from different clusters and validated by RT-qPCR. According to our findings, TMX promotes several types of damage in Mt cells at the molecular level. Therefore, interference of different cellular processes directly affects the health of M. scutellaris by compromising the function of Mt.
In this work we present a new approach to molecules on Goldberg’s local Hardy spaces hp(Rn), 0<p≤1, assuming an appropriate cancellation condition. As applications, we prove a version of Hardy’s inequality and improved continuity results for inhomogeneous Calderón–Zygmund operators on these spaces.
The effects of physicochemical pre-treatment were evaluated on hydrogen (H2) production and organic acids from hydrolyzed potato peel. Central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to evaluate the effects of different substrate concentrations on a wet basis (38.8–81.2 g.L⁻¹) and hydrolyser ratios (6M NaOH and 30% HCl: 1.6–4.4% v.v⁻¹; and H2SO4: 2.2–7.8% v.v⁻¹). The experiments were conducted in batch reactors at 37 °C, using a heat-treated microbial consortium. The maximum H2 production potential (P), lag phase (λ), and maximum H2 production rate (Rm) were evaluated for untreated and pre-treated potato peel waste. H2 production was positively influenced under hydrolyzed substrate concentrations ≥75 g.L⁻¹ in the three CCDs performed. Only the increase in the H2SO4 proportions (≥5% v.v⁻¹) had a negative influence on H2 production. Increasing the 30% HCl and 6M NaOH proportions did not significantly influence the cumulative H2 production. The highest hydrogen production was obtained after alkaline pre-treatment by dark fermentation (P: 762.09 mL H2.L⁻¹; λ: 14.56 h; Rm: 38.39 mL H2.L⁻¹.h⁻¹). Based on the CCD and RSM, the highest H2 production (1060.10 mL H2.L⁻¹) was observed with 81.2 g.L⁻¹ hydrolyzed potato peel with 3.0% v.v⁻¹ of 6M NaOH. The highest yield liquid metabolites were acetic (513.70 mg. g⁻¹ COD) and butyric acids (491.90 mg. g⁻¹ COD).
The search for natural products as an alternative to synthetic products has increased. This trend is mainly due to the health concerns of people searching for a better quality of life. In this context, obtaining bioactive compounds from vegetable matrices is a promising strategy for industrial applications like pharmaceuticals and food. Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville (popularly known as Barbatimão in Brazil) is a tree used in folk medicine due to its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiseptic, and wound healing properties. Its barks and leaves present a wide range of bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic acids, flavonoids, and tannins. The extraction of such compounds can be performed using various methods. However, specific knowledge to select the technique to obtain and concentrate the compounds is essential to obtain an extract of high purity. In addition, there is a current necessity to describe the whole production chain as sustainable. Therefore, this review aims to bring updated information on current research with Barbatimão extracts. The biological activities of the extracts are related to the extract composition. Additionally, the extraction techniques used for different parts of Barbatimão, as well as their chemical composition, are also discussed. Finally, future perspectives are provided to demonstrate the current gaps in scientific research with Barbatimão and encourage future investigations to open possibilities for the use of this species.
Encapsulation and controlled release of potassium by phosphorylated cellulose (P-cell) was systematically demonstrated by drying of aqueous P-cell suspensions with potassium chloride (KCl) in varied stoichiometric K⁺/Cell-O-HPO3⁻ ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 4:1, and dried into powder-like fibrous fluffs, paper-like films, and three-dimensional porous structures by spray-, oven-, and freeze-drying. Cellulose isolated from sugarcane bagasse as agricultural waste was optimally phosphorylated at 1:0.5:2 anhydroglucose (AHG)/(NH4)2HPO4/CO(NH2)2 as 14.6 µm wide, ca. 366 µm long, highly crystalline (72%) microfibers with 2.4 mmol g⁻¹ charge. Oven drying led to more crystalline (73%) and thermally stable (252.1 °C) films than spray-dried powders (67%, 250.5 °C) and freeze-dried porous bulk (71%, 249.8 °C). The release of highly water-soluble KCl from these three P-cell substrates was highest from the fibrous (90.4–97.3%), three-dimensional porous structure solids (73.5–81.7%), then films (60.4–74.5%), thus could be tuned by varying the anionic/cationic loadings along with drying methods.
Microgrids are generally low-inertia systems with a high penetration of renewable energy sources. The design of advanced control structures is required to keep these grids’ electrical variables within an acceptable range. In this context, the present article proposes an intelligent secondary controller for islanded microgrids using the Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG). The DDPG controller changes the output power of the storage elements to secure the voltage and frequency stability. This work tested the designed controller for a microgrid that comprises a synchronous generator, two battery energy storage systems and one photovoltaic generator. The controller performance was compared to droop controllers, considering a short-circuit event, feeder and load disconnections. Results showed a consistent reduction of the microgrid’s voltage and frequency deviations with the DDPG algorithm.
The Amazon fibers, Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) and Malva/Caesarweed (Urena lobata L.), obtained from Phoenix Amazon Project were scrutinized and the biomass components were quantified according to the TAPPI standards. The cellulose amount from jute and caesarweed was, respectively, around 49% and 41%. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis has evaluated the removal of lignin of the fiber through the micro holes located at holocellulose’s samples and the hemicellulose partial removal through the samples’ fibrillation at alphacellulose’s micrographs. The Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results corroborated the delignification and hemicellulose removal through the alphacellulose obtention process. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns reiterate type I cellulose for the raw/holo samples, and type II cellulose for the bleached ones, with an increase of the crystallinity index from ~60% to ~85% for the samples. Thermogravimetry (TG) showed that the thermal stability of the samples increased until the bleaching process, and decreased after the cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) extraction because of the ester sulphate groups insertion. The CNCs were successfully extracted, as can be seen on the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images, and the aspect ratio and specific surface area calculated showed that these CNCs present some potential application in polymers matrices.
Computational simulations via Density Functional Theory were carried out to study the effect of Ag-doping on SrTiO3 and its properties. For accurate results, the coefficients of the Ag basis set were optimized, and the Hartree-Fock exchange parameter of the PBE0 functional was modified. It was found that the doping reduces the Egap by 0.15 eV, modifying the indirect band gap to direct and transforming it from an n-type to a p-type semiconductor. The Crystal Orbital Hamilton Population (COHP) analysis revealed that the Ag-O bond was stronger for the anti-ligand states. The vibrational results showed that doping with Ag promoted a short-range structural disorder in the STO with the appearance of active Raman modes (Ag, B1g, B2g, and B3g). Therefore, Ag is an appropriate metal for the doping of SrTiO3 since it improves its optical absorption properties, thus opening up new possibilities for technology.
Using Acidithiobacillus sp. during bioleaching assays is a well-known biological approach to solubilizing metals within sewage sludge. However, sludge dewatering has also been reported as a secondary treatment benefit. Based on a literature review, the present work provides perspectives regarding the enhancement of bioleaching outcomes on a laboratory scale by establishing optimal operational parameters. Data from different studies suggest that greater bioleaching efficiency may be achieved using a 10% (v/v) mixed inoculum of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in a ratio of 4:1, supplemented with ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) and elemental sulfur (S0), and an initial system pH near 6.0. However, operational parameters must be established according to the type of sludge being treated due to differences in their compositions. Bioleaching duration is also an aspect that must be considered since treatments conducted for longer than 48 h increased the concentration of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS), a characteristic associated with reducing dewaterability performance.
Understanding genetic variation, genotype × environment interactions and associations between nutritional component traits is crucial for the development of improved sugarcane cultivars. Additionally, this information can be useful to identify a wide range of variation in these traits by taking into account different varietal profiles, production environments and years. Here, we report for the first time the evaluation of G × E interactions analyzed for characteristics associated with the “nutritional composition” of sugarcane, as well as the “technological composition”. This study involved the analysis of 20 nutritional composition characteristics evaluated in 20 commercial sugarcane varieties in six production environments analyzed across two agricultural years. The present study generated an unpublished database of 14,300 experimental data points on sugarcane nutritional composition that can be used in studies on the substantial equivalence for future genetically modified cultivars. The genetic heritability and genotypic correlation of sugarcane compositional characteristics were also estimated. For the traits reducing sugar of juice, lipids, ash and protein, the heritability value was zero because their genetic variances were also estimated as zero. Thus, all the phenotypic variation associated with these traits is due to non-heritable factors. For all traits, the difference between the minimum and maximum value of the adjusted means exceeded at least 50%. The observed results indicated that there was a strong influence of GxE interactions on the phenotypic variations of the characteristics associated with the nutritional and technological composition of sugarcane.
Partially grouted (PG) masonry structures are widely used in many regions worldwide, especially those regions with low and mid-intensity wind and/or seismic actions. Depending on the design code, the grouted/reinforced cells should be uniformly distributed along a shear wall rather than concentrated. Thus, this study focused on PG shear walls with grout and reinforcement placed at the ends aiming to evaluate their in-plane behavior and seismic performance. Also, the walls examined were three-story and perforated. Finite element models validated against previous experimental tests were used to perform the study. Besides two traditional bilinear idealizations for the actual wall response, a trilinear approach is presented with deduced equations for the seismic performance factors (SPFs). Results demonstrated that the reinforced masonry beam over the openings effectively coupled the wall piers yielding a frame-type action. Also, it appears that the walls performed as a continuous frame, with the grouted parts acting like columns and the ungrouted parts acting like confined masonry. The loss of ductility evidenced in the backbone curves and the decrease of the SPFs confirmed that a high vertical pre-compression led the walls to a brittle response while also increasing the lateral load capacity. Concentrating the grouting and reinforcement at the wall pier ends showed a similar detailing design efficiency compared to distributing them along the wall piers. The stiffness degradation was more intense when the walls were subjected to a lower pre-compression level. Furthermore, the stiffness degradation curves were best fitted with power and logarithmic functions for walls with the lower and higher axial load, respectively.
Plant grafting is a propagation technique that uses two plant individuals to optimize crop production. Although physiological traits defining the growth of grafted plants have been investigated, physiological changes caused by excessive metal nutrients or non-essential metals during the early stages of grafting have been poorly characterized. Understanding such changes would contribute to the selection of rootstocks and scions more tolerant to environmental contamination with heavy metals. Our study evaluated the responses of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grafted onto pumpkin rootstocks (Duchesne x Cucurbita moschata Duch.); and exposed to root applications of fertigation solutions with varying concentrations of zinc (10 µM [low] or 2.44 mM [excessive]), chromium (30 µM Cr [low] or 100 µM Cr [excessive]) or both metals (30 µM Cr and 10 µM Zn). Grafted plants exposed to Cr and excess Zn increased enzyme ascorbate peroxidase activity. Plants exposed to Cr exhibited lower magnesium and manganese concentrations in leaves than both the control and Zn treatments, which were associated to low carbon assimilation. On the other hand, low Zn availability improved plant growth after grafting and superoxide dismutase in stems. We verified that the heavy metals Cr and Zn did not impair cucumber plant re-establishment immediately after grafting onto pumpkin rootstock. Our study demonstrated that grafted cucumber plants can grow in environments contaminated with Cr, but will not express their complete physiological potential.
Femtosecond laser micromachining stands out as an efficient and flexible tool for fabricating optical waveguides, which are key elements in photonics for their ability to confine and direct light propagation. Different materials, from optical glasses to polymers, as well as geometries, have been studied for the fabrication of three-dimensionally inscribed waveguides. This work demonstrates, for the first time, the fabrication of Type II (double-line) waveguides by fs-laser micromachining in a transparent silica xerogel bulk synthesized by the sol-gel process. Specifically, double-line waveguides were fabricated by the multiscan approach at approximately 200 μm below the surface, with a distance between tracks of 20 μm. It was observed fundamental, first and second-order modes of the waveguides at 632.8 nm, which were corroborated by finite elements simulation. Finally, guiding losses of about 2.9 dB/cm were observed for the fundamental mode at 632.8 nm, which is similar to results obtained for Type II waveguides for other materials. Therefore, the intrinsic features of silica xerogel (e.g. low thermal conductivity, non-toxicity, lightness, and high optical transparency) combined to its light guiding ability indicate the potential of micromachined bulk silica xerogels for photonics devices applications.
The systemic insecticide thiamethoxam (TMX) has been frequently used with the need to intensify agricultural activities and food production. Given the pollution concern, biosorption emerges as an efficient and low-cost treatment. Thus, this work proposes to use the environmentally friendly activated carbon magnetic nanocomposite (YAC-NP) produced with yeast residues from the sugar-alcohol industry for the sorption of TMX in water. YAC-NP and its precursors (NP and YAC) were characterized by X-ray (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies to investigate their morphology and interaction with TMX. The Boehm titration informed the predominance of acidic character to YAC by the presence of carboxylic, lactone, and phenolic groups. The YAC-NP pH at the point of zero charge (pH PZC) was 6.05, and the best conditions for TMX sorption by YAC-NP occurred at the 2-7 pH range and 30 min of contact time. Sorption tests were performed using batch procedures at increasing concentrations of TMX (5-100 mg/L) and 1 g/L adsorbent dose. The experimental adsorption capacities (Q exp) for YAC, NP, and YAC-NP were 31.52 ± 1.69, 2.42 ± 0.54, and 12.50 ± 0.33 mg/g, respectively. TMX contents were determined by Ultraviolet-visible Spectroscopy (UV/Vis). The pseudo-2nd-order kinetic equation best fit the experimental data (r 2 = 0.9996). Among the eight isotherm models applied to the experimental data, Hill, D-R, Temkin, Toth, and R-P were the models that best described the sorption process. YAC-NP reusability in TMX removal was assessed, and a decrease from 71.87 to 0.69% was observed after 10 adsorption cycles.
Background Exploratory behaviors are essential and may improve different skill development. Different risk factors may negatively impact neuromotor development, such as biological risk and environmental risk. Objective Assess and discriminate exploratory behaviors of infants at environmental or biological risk and infants at non-risk. Methods Sixty-four six-month-old infants were divided into three independent groups: Group 1 (G1), 28 healthy full-term infants; Group 2 (G2), 21 full-term infants of low socioeconomic status (SES); Group 3 (G3), 15 very preterm infants. Nine exploratory behaviors were assessed: fingering, mouthing, waving, tapping, banging, transferring, rotating, alternating, and squeezing. Results For the malleable object, fingering (p = 0.005) and transferring (p = 0.046) behaviors were different between G2 and G3 whereas waving behavior (p = 0.041) differed between G1 and G3 and transferring (p = 0.003) between G1 and G2. For the rigid object, waving was different between G1 and G3 (p = 0.018) whereas transferring behavior differed between G2 and G3 (p = 0.019). Total number of behaviors was significantly different between G1 and G2 for malleable (p = 0.019) and rigid objects (p = 0.009). Intragroup analysis revealed differences between malleable and rigid objects for transferring (p = 0.013), squeezing (p < 0.0001), fingering (p < 0.0001), and banging (p = 0.013) behaviors in infants from G1. Fingering and squeezing (p < 0.0001) were different between malleable and rigid objects in G2 (p = 0.009 and p < 0.0001) and G3 (p = 0.004 and p < 0.0001). Conclusion Risk factors and object properties influence exploratory behaviors, mainly in low SES infants. Fingering and banging behaviors are favored by rigid objects, while squeezing is favored by malleable objects.
A novel insight into the nutritional changes of Tilapia fillets due to heat treatments was provided by evaluating the influence of baking and air-frying on the total mass fraction and bioaccessibility of micronutrients Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, P, S and Zn. A static in vitro model was used to simulate the human gastrointestinal digestion and then quantify the analytes using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry with a synchronous vertical dual view system (SVDV ICP OES). Unlike recent studies focusing on the mineral content of cooked foods, we interpreted the results more accurately by considering the weight yield factors. Compared with the raw sample, the baking and air-frying procedures significantly increased the total mass fraction of Fe. Air-frying promoted a slight decrease in Zn content. Bioaccessibility results ranged from 12–31% to 86–88% for Zn and K, respectively. Both heat treatments appear to increase the bioaccessibility of Mg, Fe, and Zn, whereas the other evaluated micronutrients were not remarkably affected by cooking. In addition, the SVDV mode was an efficient instrumental strategy for determination of total, bioaccessible, and non-bioaccessible fractions of essential minerals in Tilapia, improving the sample throughput.
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6,374 members
Hugo Sarmento
  • Departamento de Hidrobiologia (DHb)
Carla Nascimento
  • Laboratório de Biologia do Envelhecimento (LABEN)
Ana Lucia Kalinin
  • Department of Physiological Sciences
Tatiana Oliveira Sato
  • Departamento de Fisioterapia (DFisio)
Roman Alvarez
  • Departamento de Química (DQ)
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