The aim of this work was to evaluate whether there is any influence of temporary soil flooding on the agronomic performance and yield of wheat varieties. The experimental design was completely random blocks, in an 11x2 factorial scheme (eleven varieties and two soil water conditions), with four replications. Stress was imposed in the stage prior to plant anthesis. The assessments were made in two seasons (2016/2017) in relation to the number of spikelets in the main ear, number of seeds in the main ear, mass of seeds in the main ear, number of seeds in the tiller ear, mass of seeds in the tiller ear and yield in the useful area. The physical attributes number of seeds, seed mass and wheat seed yield, according to variety and agricultural year, are negatively affected by the temporary flooding (12 days) of the soil. There is influence of temporary soil flooding on the agronomic performance and yield of wheat varieties. The varieties TBio Toruk, TBio Sinuelo, TBio Sintonia, and CD151 are superior in soil flooding condition for the number of spikelets, number of seeds end for the seed mass attribute. In the soil at field capacity, the seeds produced have higher yield compared to those produced under flooding period, reaching about 309.2 Kg more for the variety TBio Sinuelo, 262 Kg for TBio Toruk and 114 Kg in CD1303.
In high-yield irrigated rice systems, options for legume cover crops with the capacity for biological nitrogen (N) fixation in the period between harvest have been sought. However, options are limited due to excess water and low oxygen level in the soil. The persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum) is an exception as it is a promising species due to its adaptation to waterlogged soils. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate accumulated nitrogen in the legume, soil mineral and microbial N levels and the response of a rice hybrid established in succession to persian clover during four growing seasons in subtropical conditions in southern Brazil. The field experiment was carried out during four crop seasons in a 2 × 4 factorial, with two conditions of soil cover, fallow and legume (persian clover) under four levels of N (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg N ha⁻¹). It was observed that the cultivation of Persian clover increased the availability of mineral and microbial N in the soil by 35% and 6.5%, respectively. There was a 14.1% reduction in the optimal nitrogen rate in the rice hybrid. The grain yield of rice grains using persian clover in winter is 7.8% higher in relation to fallow, with the greatest difference between clover and fallow at the lowest N rates (0 e 60 kg ha⁻¹). Thus, persian clover is a promising legume to be used in the period between harvest in hydromorphic soils cultivated with irrigated rice in subtropical conditions.
Background This cross-sectional study aimed to compare two clinical approaches based on visual criteria for secondary caries assessments and treatment decisions in permanent posterior teeth. Methods The two clinical visual criteria tested for the assessments of restored teeth were: FDI criteria—based on the caries presence, marginal adaptation and staining criteria, adapted from the FDI (International Dental Federation) criteria and CARS criteria—"Caries Associated with Restorations or Sealants" (CARS) criteria described by the International Caries Classification and Management System. Adults were randomized according to the criteria. One calibrated examiner assessed the restorations and assigned the treatment according to the criteria. The primary outcome was replacement indication. Results A total of 185 patients were included, totalling 718 restorations. The strongest correlation founded between the methods was for the presence of caries lesions (Rho = 0.829). A moderate correlation (Rho = 0.420) was founded between the treatment decisions proposed by the CARS and by the FDI criteria. The multilevel regression analysis showed that the FDI criteria indicated five times more replacements when compared to the CARS (< 0.001). Also, using the FDI criteria restorations were 2.7 times more related to caries around restorations (p < 0.001) compared to the other criterion. Conclusions The visual criteria used on the restoration's assessment directly influences the treatment decision to intervene or not on the restoration. The use of a minimally invasive based approach for assessing secondary caries may prevent overtreatment.
Objective To review the technical aspects of body composition assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and other methods based on the most recent scientific evidence. Materials and methods This Official Position is a result of efforts by the Scientific Committee of the Brazilian Association of Bone Assessment and Metabolism ( Associação Brasileira de Avaliação Óssea e Osteometabolismo , ABRASSO) and health care professionals with expertise in body composition assessment who were invited to contribute to the preparation of this document. The authors searched current databases for relevant publications. In this first part of the Official Position, the authors discuss the different methods and parameters used for body composition assessment, general principles of DXA, and aspects of the acquisition and analysis of DXA scans. Conclusion Considering aspects of accuracy, precision, cost, duration, and ability to evaluate all three compartments, DXA is considered the gold-standard method for body composition assessment, particularly for the evaluation of fat mass. In order to ensure reliable, adequate, and reproducible DXA reports, great attention is required regarding quality control procedures, preparation, removal of external artifacts, imaging acquisition, and data analysis and interpretation.
Background COVID-19 serosurveys allow for the monitoring of the level of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and support data-driven decisions. We estimated the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a large favela complex in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods A population-based panel study was conducted in Complexo de Manguinhos (16 favelas) with a probabilistic sampling of participants aged ≥1 year who were randomly selected from a census of individuals registered in primary health care clinics that serve the area. Participants answered a structured interview and provided blood samples for serology. Multilevel regression models (with random intercepts to account for participants’ favela of residence) were used to assess factors associated with having anti-S IgG antibodies. Secondary analyses estimated seroprevalence using an additional anti-N IgG assay. Findings 4,033 participants were included (from Sep/2020 to Feb/2021, 22 epidemic weeks), the median age was 39·8 years (IQR:21·8-57·7), 61% were female, 41% were mixed-race (Pardo) and 23% Black. Overall prevalence was 49·0% (95%CI:46·8%-51·2%) which varied across favelas (from 68·3% to 31·4%). Lower prevalence estimates were found when using the anti-N IgG assay. Odds of having anti-S IgG antibodies were highest for young adults, and those reporting larger household size, poor adherence to social distancing and use of public transportation. Interpretation We found a significantly higher prevalence of anti-S IgG antibodies than initially anticipated. Disparities in estimates obtained using different serological assays highlight the need for cautious interpretation of serosurveys estimates given the heterogeneity of exposure in communities, loss of immunological biomarkers, serological antigen target, and variant-specific test affinity. Funding Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, Royal Society, Serrapilheira Institute, and FAPESP.
One of the greatest threats to maintaining sustainable agro-ecosystems is mitigating the episodic soil loss from farm operations, further exacerbated by meteorological extremes. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is a model that combines the effects of rain, soil erodibility, topography, land cover, and conservation practices for estimating the annual average soil losses. This study aims to quantify soil water erosion to continental South America (S.A.) through RUSLE using available datasets and characterizing the average sediment delivery rate (SDR) to the major S.A. basins. Soil erodibility was estimated from the Global Gridded Soil Information soil database. LS-factor's topographical parameter was derived from Digital Elevation Models using the “Shuttle Radar Topography Mission” dataset. The R-factor was estimated from a previous study developed for S.A. and the C-factor from the Global Land Cover (Copernicus Global Land Services) database. We used a modeling study for SDR that simulated the annual average sediment transport in 27 basins in S.A. RUSLE set up presented a satisfactory performance compared to other applications on a continental scale with an estimated averaged soil loss for S.A. of 3.8 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹. Chile (>20.0 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹) and Colombia (8.1 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹) showed the highest soil loss. Regarding SDR, Suriname, French Guyana, and Guyana presented the lowest values (<1.0 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹). The highest soil losses were found in the Andes Cordillera of Colombia and the Center-South Region of Chile. In the former, the combination of “high” K-factor, “very high” C-factor, and “very high” LS-factor were the leading causes. In the latter, agriculture, livestock, deforestation, and aggressive R-factor explained the high soil loss. Basins with the highest SDR were located in the North Argentina – South Atlantic basin (27.73%), Mar Chiquitita (2.66%), Amazon River basin (2.32%), Magdalena (2.14%) (in Andes Cordillera), and Orinoco (1.83%).
Background Afrodescendants are systematically affected by discrimination in the Americas and few multi-country studies addressed ethnic inequalities in health and wellbeing in the region. We aimed to investigate gaps in coverage of key health outcomes and socioeconomic inequalities between Afrodescendants and non-Afrodescendants populations in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Methods Using national household surveys (2011–2019) from ten countries, we analyzed absolute inequalities between Afrodescendants and a comparison group that includes non-Afrodescendants and non-Indigenous individuals (henceforth non-Afrodescendants) across 17 indicators in the continuum of reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health. These include indicators of family planning, antenatal care, delivery assistance, child nutrition, immunization coverage, child protection, access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene, adolescent fertility, and early childhood mortality. Inequalities between country-specific subgroups of Afrodescendants were also explored. The slope index of inequality was used to assess wealth-based inequalities within each ethnic group. Findings Afrodescendants represented from 2·8% (Honduras) to 59·1% (Brazil) of the national samples. Of the 128 combinations of country and indicators with data, Afrodescendants fared worse in 78 (of which 33 were significant) and performed better in 50 (15 significant). More systematic disadvantages for Afrodescendants were found for demand for family planning satisfied, early marriage, and household handwashing and sanitation facilities. In contrast, Afrodescendants tended to present lower c-section rates and lower stunting prevalence. Honduras was the only country where Afrodescendants performed better than non-Afrodescendants in several indicators. Wealth gaps among Afrodescendants were wider than those observed for non-Afrodescendants for most indicators and across all countries. Interpretation Gaps in health outcomes between Afrodescendants and non-Afrodescendants were observed in most countries, with more frequent disadvantages for the former although, in many cases, the gaps were reversed. Wealth inequalities within Afrodescendants tended to be wider than for non-Afrodescendants. Funding Pan American Health Organization, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Wellcome Trust.
Bioactive molecules are those capable of interacting with living organisms, causing changes in them. Wood extractives contain important amounts of these molecules, and some of them have good antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, which favors their use as preservatives. Several different extraction methods are employed to obtain the extractives, some of which have been used for a long time. However, these conventional methods have significant disadvantages, being the most important ones high solvent, energy, and time consumption. To overcome these drawbacks, new extraction techniques are being developed whose aim is also the optimization of the process. Separation techniques such as chromatography and molecular distillation allow extractives purification and the acquisition of the desired molecules. This review aims to provide an overview of the extraction and purification methods used for wood bioactive molecules. To this end, issues such as raw material, solvent type, solid/liquid ratio (SLR), temperature, pressure, and extraction time are discussed. The application of extractives as preservatives for low durability woods is also analyzed. The study concludes that the quality and quantity of bioactive molecules, besides depending on the raw material, are determined by the employed methods and solvents to obtain these molecules. Therefore, the choice of method and solvent is of fundamental importance to achieve the desired results.
This paper addresses the concept of predetermined breaking points in topology optimization. The aim is to propose and investigate a novel formulation to design optimized topologies in which one can control where failure will occur first in case of overload; in addition, the optimized topology must withstand the design load after the damaged part is removed. In order to achieve this goal, a stress-constrained formulation based on two realizations of material distributions is proposed: one realization represents the nominal design, without damage, and the other represents the damaged design. In the nominal design, the predetermined damage region is defined, which is the region where failure is programmed to occur first in case of overload. The design constraints are defined in a way that ensures that a structural member is formed within the predetermined damage region and that the maximum von Mises equivalent stress of this member is slightly larger than the maximum von Mises stress in the rest of the structure. After failure has occurred, stress constraints are employed to ensure that the resulting design without the damaged part still resists the applied load. Two design problems with several variants are addressed: the L-shaped and the MBB beam problems. Numerical investigations demonstrate that: (1) the conventional design is extremely sensitive to localized damage of structural members and, moreover, its almost fully stressed configuration does not allow to predict where failure will occur first in case of overload; (2) the proposed formulation for predetermined breaking points is able to provide optimized structures where one knows in advance the region where failure is expected to occur first; in addition, the structure remains safe after the damaged part is removed.
O presente artigo apresenta a política pública de expansão do Ensino Superior no Cariri Cearense. Para tanto, o trabalho apresenta o histórico do Ensino Superior e da sua expansão e discute as especificidades dessa para o território semiárido. Utilizando uma abordagem qualitativa ancorada em dados quantitativos o estudo aborda as duas principais instituições de Ensino Superior surgidas com a expansão, uma pública e uma privada, e infere, a partir do comparativo entre ambas, as diferenças da expansão por meio de instituições públicas e a expansão das instituições privadas de ensino. Palavras-chave: Educação superior. Cariri Cearense. Políticas públicas. This article presents the public policy of expanding Higher Education in the Cariri Cearense, Brazil. To this end, the paper presents the history of Higher Education and its expansion and discusses the specifics of the latter into the semiarid territory. Using a qualitative approach anchored in quantitative data, the study addresses the two main Higher Education institutions that emerged with the expansion, one public and one private, and infers, from the comparison between them, the differences in expansion through public institutions and private educational ones. POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS PARA LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR: EL CASO DE CARIRI CEARENSE RESUMEN: Este artículo presenta la política pública de expansión de la Educación Superior en Cariri Cearense. Con este fin, el documento presenta la historia de la educación superior y su expansión y discute los detalles de esta en el territorio semiárido. Utilizando un enfoque cualitativo anclado en datos cuantitativos, el estudio aborda las dos principales instituciones de educación superior que
Cascade rice flood distribution (CASC), the predominate method used for rice irrigation in the lower Mississippi River basin (LMRB), is inherently water intensive owing to the need to overfill rice paddies to move irrigation water from one paddy to the next. The objectives of this research were to devise practices that make CASC more water efficient, assessing how early cascade rice irrigation shutoff (ECIS) impacts applied irrigation, run-off, and flood depth under LMRB rainfall conditions. This research used a conservation-of-mass model to show that using flood depth in the penultimate rice paddy to trigger irrigation shutoff in a 16-ha simulated rice field results in nominal irrigation water savings of 23% relative to CASC. This savings was reduced to 15% when supplemental irrigation was added to the last paddy at two critical stages of rice production. Field run-off estimates for ECIS were reduced by up to 78% relative to a CASC for both clay and silt loam soils, demonstrating how with ECIS the last paddy of a rice field acts as a ‘catch basin’ for excess up-field irrigation and uncaptured rainfall. Flood depth estimates for the last paddy resulting from ECIS resembled those of alternate wetting and drying flood management (AWD), suggesting that the agronomics developed for AWD could be used to help address production issues arising in the catch basin from ECIS. Success in coupling ECIS with irrigation automation technologies could reduce aquifer withdrawals across the rice producing areas of the LMRB.
In view of the current premises of the need to investigate air pollution in small- and medium-sized cities, combined with concerns regarding the weekly behavior of air pollutants, this study aimed to investigate the weekly pattern of air pollution (O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5) and the weekend effect in 4 Brazilian cities with different main economic activities. Our main findings include (1) positive weekend effect for all the assessed air pollutants in the four cities; therefore, in the southernmost region of Brazil, there was an increase in the concentration of air pollutants during weekends when compared to weekdays; (2) the highest levels of NO2 and SO2 were observed in the city characterized by the economic activity revolving around coal mining and generation of electricity through the burning of this mineraloid in a coal-fired power plant, while the highest levels of PM2.5 were in the city with economic activity linked to industries, due to its recognized industrial complex; and (3) the seasonal evaluation of the weekend effect showed different behaviors for the air pollutants in each location, which is related to the set of meteorological conditions , economic activities, and population mobility in each location. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the aspects of pollution between cities and highlight that the comprehensive understanding of the weekend effect and its intricacies allows the responsible personal and government authorities to gain deep insights into the true effectiveness of future control strategies and the development of possible action plans.
This study examined the association of physical activity and other cardiovascular risk factors with the risk of incident dementia. This was a prospective analysis of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort (2002-2018). Self-reported physical activity at baseline was measured using a validated questionnaire. Cardiovascular risk factor score was generated based on the simultaneous presence of the following risk factors: smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, diabetes, hypertension. Scores were further categorized as low (no risk factors), mild (one risk factor), and high (two or more risk factors) risk of dementia. At the end of the 16-years follow-up, the incidence rate (IR) of dementia was 29.9% higher in high-risk than in the low-risk participants. Participants engaging in low, moderate, and high levels of physical activity had an IR for dementia 58%, 75%, and 86% lower than those inactive. High-risk participants engaging in low (HR: 0.51; 95%CI: 0.29, 0.88), moderate (HR: 0.38; 95%CI: 0.21, 0.67), and high (HR: 0.46; 95%CI: 0.22, 0.98) physical activity levels had lower risk of incident dementia than inactive participants in the same group. Physical activity even in small doses was associated with reduced incidence of dementia in older adults with high cardiovascular risk factors.
Objective: To evaluate the performance of a UK based prediction model for estimating fat-free mass (and indirectly fat mass) in children and adolescents in non-UK settings. Design: Individual participant data meta-analysis. Setting: 19 countries. Participants: 5693 children and adolescents (49.7% boys) aged 4 to 15 years with complete data on the predictors included in the UK based model (weight, height, age, sex, and ethnicity) and on the independently assessed outcome measure (fat-free mass determined by deuterium dilution assessment). Main outcome measures: The outcome of the UK based prediction model was natural log transformed fat-free mass (lnFFM). Predictive performance statistics of R2, calibration slope, calibration-in-the-large, and root mean square error were assessed in each of the 19 countries and then pooled through random effects meta-analysis. Calibration plots were also derived for each country, including flexible calibration curves. Results: The model showed good predictive ability in non-UK populations of children and adolescents, providing R2 values of >75% in all countries and >90% in 11 of the 19 countries, and with good calibration (ie, agreement) of observed and predicted values. Root mean square error values (on fat-free mass scale) were <4 kg in 17 of the 19 settings. Pooled values (95% confidence intervals) of R2, calibration slope, and calibration-in-the-large were 88.7% (85.9% to 91.4%), 0.98 (0.97 to 1.00), and 0.01 (-0.02 to 0.04), respectively. Heterogeneity was evident in the R2 and calibration-in-the-large values across settings, but not in the calibration slope. Model performance did not vary markedly between boys and girls, age, ethnicity, and national income groups. To further improve the accuracy of the predictions, the model equation was recalibrated for the intercept in each setting so that country specific equations are available for future use. Conclusion: The UK based prediction model, which is based on readily available measures, provides predictions of childhood fat-free mass, and hence fat mass, in a range of non-UK settings that explain a large proportion of the variability in observed fat-free mass, and exhibit good calibration performance, especially after recalibration of the intercept for each population. The model demonstrates good generalisability in both low-middle income and high income populations of healthy children and adolescents aged 4-15 years.
A three‐year field experiment, with two wheat cultivars evaluated the effect of soil applied silicon (Si), with and without fungicide spraying, on Fusarium head blight (FHB) control. Si treatment alone reduced FHB severity and the percentage of damaged wheat kernels, regardless of the cultivar. The best disease control was obtained for the cultivar with moderate disease resistance (MR), supplied with Si, and treated with fungicide during flowering. Si treatment alone promoted an increase in deoxynivalenol (DON) concentration in the disease susceptible cultivar, however in the MR cultivar Si amendment associated with fungicide treatment, led to a reduction of DON concentration. Greenhouse experiments evaluated the effect of Si combined with different timings of fungicide application on wheat’s defenses against Fusarium graminearum. Plants supplied with Si had a longer pathogen incubation period, lower FHB severity, and lower DON concentration, when compared to plants without Si. In addition, Si supplied plants had higher soluble phenolic content and altered antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, POX, and PPO) which favored early accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, when compared to plants without Si. Greater control of FHB and lower DON concentration in plants treated with Si and fungicide before inoculation and up to one day after inoculation was associated with increased levels of defense‐associated metabolites. Si contributed to the reduction of FHB and DON concentration in wheat, especially for the moderately resistant cultivar and, when combined with fungicide spraying, both MR and disease susceptible cultivars had enhanced performances upon Si amendment.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) affects the mucosa and submucosa of the large intestine. One of the mechanisms involved in its etiology is oxidative stress (OS), directly involved in the inflammatory process characteristic of UC. The Campsiandra laurifolia , known as acapurana, was described as possessing antioxidant properties. We used 24 male Wistar rats, divided into control (CO), control + acapurana (CO + A), colitis (CL), and colitis + acapurana (CL + A) groups. This study performed histological analysis, measuring anal sphincter pressure (ASP) and lipoperoxidation (LPO). The activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated. The expression of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The statistical analysis used was the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test; values were expressed as mean ± standard error, and the significance level was p < 0.05. In the animals of the CL group, we observed the destruction of the crypts and the presence of mucosal ulcers, edema, and submucosal inflammatory infiltrate, as well as increased damage to the intestinal mucosa, reduced ASP, increased LPO and SOD activity, reduced GSH levels, and increased expression of NFκB and iNOS. The administration of C. laurifolia in the CL + A group was shown to cause regeneration of crypts, reduction of inflammatory infiltrate, reduction of damage to the intestinal mucosa, increase in ASP, and reduction in LPO with the restoration of SOD activity and GSH levels. The immunohistochemistry of NFκB and iNOS was significantly reduced. Therefore, the C. laurifolia aqueous extract appears to exert an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect in rats with AA-induced colitis.
Adipose tissue reduction and lean mass increase are frequent goals in exercise programs aimed at health and aesthetics. In this context, when postulating the need for an energy deficit for weight loss and a caloric surplus for muscle hypertrophy, was developed the idea that it would not be possible for both phenomena to exist simultaneously. Contrarily, the term “Body Recomposition” (BR) emerges in the literature, a phenomenon in which weight loss and muscle hypertrophy occur at the same time. BR has already been observed using different techniques for analyzing body composition, from doubly indirect methods to magnetic resonance imaging, and in different population groups, namely: adolescents, sedentary or physically active adults, the elderly and people with excess weight, as well as practitioners of sports, including bodybuilding. BR occurs with precise nutritional adjustment, with protein consumption above the recommended daily intake (0.8 g/kg), in ranges between 2.4 and 3.4 g/kg of body mass/day. Different types of exercises can lead to BR, from strength training, through high-intensity circuit training, high-intensity interval training, and even concurrent training – most often with a high weekly frequency.
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